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Construction of Metaphors and Myths and Their Interpretation
Maydanov Anatoly Stepanovich

Doctor of Philosophy

leading research assistant of the Division of Evolutionary epistemology at Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 

109240, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Goncharnaya, 12, str. 1

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The article is devoted to one of the most important types of semantic creativity of human intelligence – the metaphor which is specific means of display of reality and formation of another, psychologically, ethically and esthetically significant contents. For the analysis the mythology in which for the first time in the history of human thinking reception of a metaforization started being applied is chosen material. The structure of a metaphor, feature of the components making it, an originality of the gnoseological and logical relations between them, a paradoxicality of these relations are analyzed. The special attention is paid to metaphoricalness of mythical images and plots. Features of dynamics and logic of two main stages in genesis of metaphors – a stage of their designing and a stage of interpretation are described. The defining approaches at research of metaphors are cognitive and information, evolutionary and epistemological and nomologichesky, focusing on search of certain regularities and specific logic of process of a metaforization. Such methods as the analysis, distinction, opposition, synthesis, interpretation, identification of the realistic and mystical contents in metaphorical images, their demetaforization appeared the most productive in this research. The specified arsenal of methodological means allowed to receive a number of new results. The whole complex of the methods and receptions of a metaforization used by mythological thinking is revealed. The difficult system of the relations between diverse elements of semantics of metaphors, and also between them, on the one hand, and realities of the vital world of archaic people, with another is characterized. The interpretation of some, the myths of the Indian Veda which still well aren't interpreted which allowed to receive the important information concerning social and spiritual life of the ancient people is offered.

Keywords: metaphor, reality, reflection, representative, referent, meaning, myth, method, function, interpretation



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