Philosophical Thought - rubric Natural philosophy
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Natural philosophy"
Natural philosophy
Tsypina L.V., Chenskikh E.P. - At the dawn of environmentalism: nature and human in the philosophy of R. W. Emerson pp. 14-27


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophy of nature of Ralph Waldo Emerson as one of the reputable sources of modern environmentalism. The object of this research is the philosophy and body of texts of the American transcendentalism. The authors examine the aspects of Emerson's natural philosophy, due to which his outlook upon nature became in demand by such reputable areas of modern thought as deep ecology, ecocriticism, and environmental ethics. Special attention is turned to the analysis of Emerson's essay “The Nature” that follows an ecocritical narrative, as well as historical origins and philosophical contexts of Emerson's anthropocentrism and values of environmental ethics. Analysis of paramount for the founder of American transcendentalism analogy of nature and man allows concluding that the used by Emerson weak version of anthropocentrism does not exclude holistic approach towards man as part of the natural world, and contains an ecological impulse that allows interpreting nature as a complex environment requiring different descriptive languages. The proposed by Emerson interpretation of nature as a “symbol of spirit”, realized through convenience, beauty, language and discipline, contains the anticipation of values of environmental ethics and allows seeing an apologist for ecosophy in the “Concord wiseman”.The authors’ special contribution consists in actualization of natural philosophy of R. W. Emerson as one of the reputable sources of environmentalism and consideration of his interpretation of human – nature relationship as a constructive components of the currently relevant environmental values. The scientific novelty consists in examination of Emerson’s ideas in the context of the ideas of ecocriticism and deep ecology, as well as in thematicization of the analogy of nature and man through the prism of environmental ethics.
Zubkov S.A. - Ecophilic mindset and man of the future pp. 17-23


Abstract: The object of this research is ecophilic and ecophobic projects of designing man of the future. The subject of this research is the transformation of man and social engineering in relation to ecophilic relations. The goal of this article lies in examination of interaction between the strategy designing a man and society in the context of philosophical worldview. Global sustainability is considered as a civilizational reference point in the relationship between man and environment. The relevance of this research consists in creating an image of the future mankind due to its impossibility of elimination of the natural. The field of application of the research results is social philosophy, urban studies and theory of sustainable development. The creative use of ecophilic traditions for developing a constructive sociocultural and noospheric dialogue between them serves as a resource for pursuing the new civilizational paths of development. The article postulates the need for approaching the ecophilic ideal human and civilizational development. The interaction and interfusion of scientific, philosophical, religious and environmental views allows expanding and enriching the experience of interaction between man and nature, and thus encourages the formation of spiritual culture of personality and ecology of the spirit. When a man takes on responsibility for the nature, he acquires the environmental culture. Religious culture refines science with ethical values, contributing to its harmonization and improvement of the ecophilic type of a man.
Boldin P.N. - Semiotic analogy in ontology of the accurate scientific knowledge pp. 41-64


Abstract: Over the recent decades, the philosophical foundations of sciences demonstrate keen interest in the problem of correlation between the theoretical knowledge and reality. First and foremost, such problem is common to the philosophy of accurate scientific knowledge. For its resolution, it is necessary to establish the ontological model of exact sciences, which within the framework of universal notions would allow revealing the metaphysical nature of the objects at hand. The historical and metaphysical analysis shows that the natural foundation for constructing such model lies in the semiotic analogy that found its reflection in metaphor of the Book of Nature. The establishment of such ontological model of the accurate scientific knowledge becomes the subject of present work. As a result of interdisiplinarity of this research, the applied methodology is based on the methods of comparison and analogy with the use of empirical analysis of the exact sciences. The author substantiated the need for involving the semiotic analogy in resolving the set task, as built a semiotic ontological model of accurate scientific knowledge, which leans on the analogy between the position of each of the sciences within the structure of scientific knowledge and correlation between the semiotic aspects of language as a semiotic system. This model allows not only finding solution to the problem of correlation between the theoretical knowledge and reality, but also opens an opportunity for solving an entire list of problems in relations between the exact sciences.
Boldin P.N. - Atomism and semiotic analogy in the ontology of natural history pp. 59-74


Abstract: The problem of correlation between the discrete and continuous is reflected in the atomistic approach towards the model concepts in the natural history. Atomism, besides the special scientific measurement, has deep philosophical roots, which over the recent time attract meticulous attention. The article talks about the relationship of atomism with the semiotic analogy, claiming the similarity of the role of atoms in existence with the role of alphabetic letters in the language. Modern natural history does not reduce atomism only to the physical atomism, but rather considers it in broader context – as a universal model applicable in other areas of science, particularly biology. Notably in biology, with achieving the molecular level of research, semiotic views acquired the necessary and natural character. Thus, relevant becomes the question of interrelation between atomism and semiotic analogy in the context of all subject fields of natural history, associated with the possibility for developing the universal ontological models, which would allow indicating any physical organization within the shared sense. The ways for resolving this question constitute the main subject of this study. Based on the set goal and the fundamental Interdisiplinarity of the research, the methods of comparison and analogy are applied, which allows not only identifying the invariants by comparing the existing actual data, but also carrying out the reconstruction in the cases with insufficiency of such data. The main results of the study imply the semiotic construction of ontological models of the chemical and biological organizations alongside the reconstruction of semiotic ontology of the post-biological models of organizations based on the actual material of modern natural history. The obtained results claim that the atomism and semiotic analogy manifest as the foundation for the development of ontological models in modern natural history.
Goncharova S.Y. - Searle's Biological Naturalism as an Alternative to Materialism and Dualism for Solving the Hard Problem pp. 141-174


Abstract: The article deals with the criticism of Searle’s views on materialism and dualism and considers an alternative position of «biological naturalism» which adheres to his philosophy and justifies his solution of the «mind-and-body» problem. Contrary to the thesis of Searle that the mind is caused by the brain and at the same time a feature of the brain, we consider the arguments which undermine the logic of the philosopher from both a scientific point of view and a general philosophical sense.
Borisov S.V. - Rondo or Science and Nature pp. 147-247


Abstract: The article 'Rondo or Science and Nature' is the third publication of the series 'Symphony of Science or Science Through the Eyes of Philosophers'. The present article is a sympophonic absorbption in the external and internal polemics regarding the main interpretations of classical science and its scope of problems. Many contradictions and conflicts faced by the modern society derive from blind belief in scientific progress. The social institution of science itself has turned into a series of rituals long ago. This creates numerious illusions about science and its scope of problems and forms an uncritical attitude to the process and outcome of scientific research. The article is written in the form of a dialogue which allows to transform the 'internal' scientific polemics into 'external'. This method also allows to define many contradictions and dramatic moments in scientific development and to see the 'other side' of it behind the beautiful and pretentious facade. 
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