Philosophical Thought - rubric Space and time
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Space and time"
Space and time
Spektor D.M. - Otherness and Time (Contours of Trascendental Aesthetics) pp. 1-46


Abstract: Ideas of time are rather contradictory.Time isn't limited to time (eternally), doesn't depend on the person, his reason, perception, representations – opposite, them causes. And on the contrary.Time is caused by the person, his perception (thinking). The natural place of such position is presented by a form of perception, a sintezama of separate feelings (Kant). Also it is not the last dichotomy connected with time nature. Time allows subjects, including the person, to open the contents (the so-called principle of historicism); the history is the most valuable instrument of obstetric aid of truth. In time frame the seed will be transformed to the sprout, a trunk, escapes blossoming on spring and so forth. But shipped in a formation stream not truly (Platon). The person of subjects is also other than other living beings that can leave the temporary course, renounce boiling of passions and join invariable and eternal truth. As its bosom primary small piece of ice of eternity, an invariable divine eidos acts. Comparison enough obvious abstractions of a temporal row (time condition of discharge, social, physical and so forth abstractions) with its genesis (history) give a reason to judge orders which it is possible to call primary, and their subsequent changes, and created the occurring idea of time nature. The carried-out reconstruction shows that time in sources an essence first of all inobyty, before - standing.At the same time this abstraction of time doesn't act as time yet, showing pure game - with - death, a transcendental figure of transformation - revival-regeneration (initiation).Coming (eternity) finds temporary fullness in updating, in the relation with other (life), in a test event real (real test), moving apart borders in here and now stiffness presence of force (spirit of game improvisation).
Selivanov A.I. - Relational Conception of Time in the Theory of Developing Objects pp. 1-24


Abstract: Object of research is set of the following time-forming properties and at the same time parametrical characteristics of time: process borders (its beginning and termination); duration; the process direction (including changes); course speed (speed, a rhythm) (including changes); time choice (time freedom of choice), including a choice of borders, duration choice, a direction choice, a speed choice (), and also their dialectics. High-quality and quantitative expression of these parameters of processes in absolute and correlative (relative) units, connectivity of the subsequent and previous states, rhythm of their approach and change is considered as a being of time. Also are investigated internal and external time. In article the methodology of the relational concept of time, the principles of systemacity and dialectics is used. However unlike the general relational concept its option based on the theory of developing objects is offered. In the theory of developing objects time is treated as integrated manifestation of procedurality of life of concrete developing objects. Time doesn't exist as a certain nadmirovy reality identical to; it is a certain result (effect, "product", aspect, a consequence) the processes happening in concrete developing objects, "matches" proceduralities (development) of concrete objects, secondary are concrete object, derivative, there is an effect of movement. Parametrical characteristics of time, his dialectician, internal and external time speak this basis.
Afanaseva V.V., Pilipenko E.A. - Polyonticity of time pp. 1-14


Abstract: The authors constitute the idea of polyonticity of time. Natural sciences along with humanitarian knowledge introduced many and versatile ideas about various forms of time: physical (natural universal, objective) and multiple “human-measured” times (psychological, existential, social, historical, political, cultural, etc.); the latters could be divided into individual (subjective) and collective (intersubjective). With regards to post-nonclassical ontology, all of the existing and imaginable multiplicity of times can be unified by the virtue of the ideas on polyonticity – the unity of ontologically distinguished forms of existence of the same object of the world. Accepting the complexity of time and attempting to contemplate about the possibility of forming its ontology, let us use the principles of post-nonclassical rationality and the ideas of post-nonclassical ontology. In such key, the time acts as a phenomenon of polyonticity, presented by the ontologically diversified forms of being, as well as defines the existence of multiple realities. Among the “human-measured” times, the authors point out the individual (subjective) and collective (intersubjective). Collective times are represented by the synergy effect, the result of overlapping, cooperation, resonances of various individual times. The speed of the flow of “human-measured” times is defined by the “energy” of psychological and social cooperation, as well as their effect upon the natural and technogenic processes.
Ilin S.E. - Social Topology after Actor-Network Theory: Problems and Prospects pp. 1-18


Abstract: The article discusses trends in the development of J. Laws social topology. The main trend covered is a development of the mentioned topology against the background of an actor-network theory. The article emphasizes that J. Laws topological framework was created within the actor-network theory and has been elaborated as the response to methodological problems of this theory. Intending to overcome such problems, J. Law has progressively revised the research capabilities of the actor-network theory, and therefore his methodology has expanded beyond studying networks. Given the outlined fact, the article raises an issue of whether J. Laws topology could be still used while assembling the topological ideas launched within the network approach. The article addresses the issue arguing that the affirmative answer to the question is acceptable if the activity underlying the elaboration of J. Laws notions is described from the point of view of the actor-network theory. The article provides a list of theoretical assumptions that should contribute to reintegration of the ideas of J. Laws topology and those of the actor-network theory. Findings from the field of the potential network design aiming to construct plausible development scenarios of the networks of various types rank high on the list. The article stresses that in this case at least two classes of the aforementioned findings are of great interest, namely those that are relevant to the analysis of the networks in social reality, and those of relevance to the examination of the descriptions of social reality created with the means of the network approach.
Spektor D.M. - Time and transcendental subject. Kant and Hegel pp. 18-33


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the refinement of the concept of transcendental subject interpreted by Kant and Hegel, as well as the connection of this concept with the category of time. As demonstrated in the article, the initial prototype of its institutionalization is manifested by the "process" in duality of its interpretation, on one hand,  substantiated by technological invective, and on the other – by judicial allusions, which predetermined the implicit a priori of transcendental temporality, particularly, the principle of distancing from the incident, exclusion of reference from the composition explicitly-authentic, role of the procedure (codification) in its reconstruction, etc. The method of research is based on the analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "time", "procedure" and "judicial proceedings" (substantiated in its unity, including the etymological closeness of the concepts of "history", "truth" and "the plaintiff"). The scientific novelty consist in revealing the relationship between "time" and "history" as the form and content of existence in terms of the German classical philosophy. It is shown that the efficiency of such dilution imposed high cost on philosophy: the concept of the transcendental subject and the categorical conceptual apparatus of dialectical logic have been acquired at the cost of loss by notion of time of the link with human being, assigning to the “transcendentality” of natural allusions that have yet to be overcome.
Prozumentik K. - Hasdai Crescas versus Moses Maimonides: discussion about time in the medieval Jewish philosophy pp. 18-23


Abstract: The subject of this research the discussion about time and eternity between the two most prominent Jewish philosopher and theologians of the Middle Ages – Hasdai Crescas versus Moses Maimonides. Special attention is given to the concept of time proposed by Hasdai Crescas in his primary work “Or Adonai” (The Light of the Lord). It is demonstrated that the position of Crescas is largely similar to Neo-Platonic tradition of the interpretation of time (Plotinus, Iamblichus, Damascius), while the views of Maimonides on temporality contain the spirit of Aristotelian physics. The key research method is the hermeneutic approach to analyzing the texts in Ancient Jewish, Ancient Greek and Latin languages, as well as the comparative-historical method. The author comes to a conclusion that the clash of views between Moses Maimonides and Hasdai Crescas regarding the nature of time and eternity is a result of the fundamental disagreements of both thinkers in the question of the divine attributes and relationship between God and mortal plain.
Spektor D.M. - The sense of time. Preliminary notes pp. 20-33


Abstract: This article reviews the ideas of transcendentalism mainly in the context of temporality. As each now exists (truly), conforming with the idea (prototype), in a simply existent it remains in “gray zone” of yet not being (undetermined veracity); its identification, representing “endowment with being” unfolds in space and time; in such relation, appropriate become a question on the nature of the factors of anamnesis, which outside the comparison with “prototype” (correspondingly, regulation and procedures of determining the veracity of the idea of such comparison)  cannot be established. This leads to actualization of the alternative paths of the ontology of anamnesis: whether it can be realizes in the “empirical” forms of space and time, or in the imposed conditions of anamnesis itself, which (as its transcendental figures) include space and time (determination of veracity of space and time). The reconstruction of analytical approaches towards temporality, conducted in accordance with the signified pattern, notes the hypostatized forms of time (perception, realization) to the detriment of its (form) content; the latter (content of universality of form of time) in this regard reveals in the main areas of identification (phenomenology) and (historical) sources (immanent basis of transcendental factors) of perception.
Tolstukhin A. - R-I-G constructs for the logics of time pp. 23-32


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of stopping proof in modal logics, particularly the logics of time. Form consideration, the author selected the logics of tine with the linear transitive and dense time flow. One of the approaches in solution of the task at hand lies in application of the mosaic method, which essence consists in the presence of the finite set of fragments that can be added on towards the infinite model for proving the formula. The mosaic method allows structuring various computations, for example the R-I-G computations, which combines the mosaic method, loop-check procedure, and intuitive clarity of tabular computation. The research applies formalization in terms of describing the time flow, as well as deductive method of structuring the computation. The scientific novelty consists in introduction of an original approach towards solution of the problem of stopping proof within the logics of time. Leaning on the idea of mosaic method, the author suggests the computation of R-I-G constructs, which in virtue of its rules builds the end conclusion. Having complemented the systematic procedure with the saturation rules, an attempt can be made to acquire a saturated set of mosaics that manifests as a proof for the feasibility of formula.
Gizha A.V. - The social time: constructive definition, exhaustive conceptualization, or categorical fiction? pp. 44-53


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of methodological correctness of introduction of the notion of social time. The categories of time and space are determine in classical physics as the main theoretical elements of science. Considering the rich experience in formulation of the conceptual images of time in natural sciences, the author pursues comparison of the stages of development of the scientific methodology, as well as methodology of the socio-humanitarian research. Currently there has established a fairly stable variable practice of conceptualization of the main categorical meanings of social development, which allows conducting its substantiated and contextual classification simultaneously with the critical understanding of its content and the conceptual-logical correctness of the implemented abstract terminological tools. The requirement of the philosophical concretization of a though in this case is carried out by the obligatory reference to the axiomatic prerequisites of certain interpretations. At the same time, the highlighted axiomaticity itself is subject to the rational-critical examination in the context of determination of their heuristical potential. The main conclusion consists in the statements that the necessary condition for constructiveness of the introduced notion of social time is the realization of the principle of logical expansion, according to which the initial content must be the logical continuation of the corresponding conceptualizations in the theories of natural sciences.
Berezina T.N. - Probabilistic Concept of Time pp. 50-80


Abstract: The article describes the probabilistic model of time. The author of the article views the probabilistic nature of occurences of the past, present an future. It has been affirmed that only the present events are verifiable and has a 1 probability while past and future events are probabilistic, i.e. the present may have several variants of the past and future occurences with different levels of probability. In addition to the term 'probability', the author also offers a definition of the term 'energy'. The author makes an assumption that probability may have a direct connection with energy and the increase of the 'energy' of an event can raise the level of its probability, too. The author describes the difference between the terms 'occurence' and 'event' and say that the term 'occurence' applies to a full group of events. There are only material objects existing in the present and a full group of events evolve around one occurence. Probability of a full group of events of the future occurence is more than 1 and that of the past occurence is less than 1. This is what determinates the direction of the arrow of time. 
Maydanov A.S. - The inverse image of the universe in the Indian Vedas pp. 60-89


Abstract: For the authors of the Vedas, the composite character of the universe was obvious. For them, the universe was an organized whole whose parts were in some way related, connected to each other, and well-ordered. Theirs was a five-layered world, which included heaven, earth, and air space. In addition, they assumed the existence of an expanse on the other side of the sky as well as a nether world. To the Aryans, heaven and earth, as the main parts of the universe, were sources of physical and moral strength and a reliable support to their lives. Their understanding of the universe was based on an ontological idea of a universal genesis. The sky, in turn, was set. It was seen as a medium for various activities. Aryan Rishi sages came to the conclusion that extended travel into the depths of the universe would help one find objects and phenomena of a qualitatively different kind. In air space, gods carried on their activities, and through this a connection was established with people. As the Aryans saw it, there was a continuously rotating wheel of days and nights around the earth, which gave rise to the different parts of the day. The Aryans did not see any problems in relation to how the heavens and the earth were held up as they had a range of solutions to this issue. In the Vedas, many of the images of space objects and phenomena are inverse in nature, i.e. they are contrasted with respect to their referents. The universe, in their view, was spherical, heliocentric, with borders. This image of the world was based on a geomorphological paradigm using the principle of dynamism. The Rishi also attracted ontological ideas of development and a genetic relationship of elements of the universe. The general nature of this worldview shows the lack of balance in ancient thinking and indicates a different level of development of some of its aspects. This type of intelligence was characteristic of other periods of mankind's spiritual history also.
Rozin V.M. - Metamorphoses and the Structure of the Concept of Space pp. 68-95


Abstract: The author of the article analyzes the process of development of the concept of space. He traces back the background of this concept in Aristotle's teachings and shows that the concept of space in philosophy and natural science of the Early Modern Period included the three different meanings, i.e. realization of possibility of a non-contradictory concieving of movement, perception of movement in spatial schemes and mathematical (spatial) constructions and the ability to perceive space as one of the conditions for cognitive or practical actions. Success of natural science has resulted in trasfering the concepts of space and time into other disciplines such as biology, psychology, history and social sciences starting since XVIII - XIX centuries. In some cases such a transfer does not change the meaning of the concept (like in natural science) but in other cases the concept gets a completely different meaning and interpretation. In the latter case space is understood as a procedural, structural and even-driven phenomenon and interpreted as immanent to other phenomena studied by these disciplines and therefore acquiring features that are not typical for the concept of space in natural science. 
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