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Schabykov V.I., Kudryavtseva R.A., Kartashova E.P. - The Mari Language in Modern Urban Family (Sociolinguistic Research) pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of the research is the attitude of married couples living in the cities of the Mari El Republic towards the Mari language, the place of the Mari language in the communication and values system of an urban family. The problem set by the authors is viewed taking into account the ethnofactor opposition between a mononational Mari family when both spouces identify themselves as Mari and multicultural family when one of the spouces of Mari and the other is Russian. The rationale of the research is caused by the need to study the modern sociolinguistic situation in polyethnic Russian Federation constituents and to define the role of national (regional) dialects. The research is based on the sociolinguistic data obtained in 2012 by the sociological department of Vasiliev Mari Research Institute of Language, Literature and History as a result of the survey dedicated to the topic 'The Language Situation in the Mari El Republic'. The research methods include statistical analysis, systematisation, analysis and generalisation. The author has also used the sociological tools such as random non-repetition quote sample, standard inteview, etc. The scientific novelty of the research is caused, first of all, by the empirical material that is introduced to the academic community for the first tijme, and, secondly, by the problems raised by the authors (communicative and values role of the Mari language in the minds of a modern urban family) that is viewed from the point of view of regional ethnosocial and sociolinguistic studies. The authors focus on the following questions that allow to define the attitude of spouces in the aforesaid two types of married urban couples towards the Mari language: recognition/denial of Mari as a native language, competence in Mari, concerns about the future of the Mari language, attitude to the status of the Mari language and its functions in the society, and prospects for developing Mari as a state language. The authors of the article prove the fact that mononational and multinational families have very different attitudes to the Mari language. Multicultural families tend to deny the ethnic importance of Mari which creates opportunities for their further language assimilation.
Tsygankov A. - Conceptual Genesis of the Word 'Ritter' in Middle High German of the XIIth - XIIIth Centuries pp. 59-70


Abstract: The article is devoted to consideration of semantic genesis of the word ritter in the sredneverkhnenemetsky XII-XIII language of centuries. Semantic genesis of the word is analyzed by means of the appeal to German-speaking sources of the considered time period, and also to the latest developments of a modern German-speaking media studies. On the basis of the done analysis it is claimed that originally, in a German-speaking medieval universum, the word ritter had no general semantic connotations with widely known image of the noble soldier on a horse which completely are established only by the end of the XIII century. The leading method of research is the etymological analysis in its application to the XII-XIII Middle High German language of centuries. It is proved that the happened transformations of sense were caused by dialectic interrelation of two historical factors: first, growth of the feudal relations which promoted formation knights striations with self-understanding inherent in it and a self-name; secondly, "symbolical import" which was carried out by the German emperors from France as standard of the strong and independent royalty.
Milovanova A.I. - pp. 63-69


Borunov A.B. - Quantitative Research of the Author English-Language Corpus by Raghu N. Mitra pp. 76-87


Abstract: The subject of this research is the frequency of the lexical unit usage in the English-Language corpus of Raghu N. Mitra that was obtained through automated processing of the corpus with the program "WordSmith Tools". The object of the research is the English-language corpus of Raghu N. Mitra consisting of 414311 words. By the means of computer processing the author made a frequency list consisting of 50 units as well as compared the frequency of the semantic field usage of "Crime" according to the corpus of contemporary American English and author corpus of R. N. Mitra. The research methods used by the author included comparative, statistical and mathematical methods. The conversion of the text into the author corpus and its further processing were carried out using computer software. As a result of the study, the author English-language corpus was converted into the frequency list to compare this one with a frequency list of the corpus of contemporary American English and to carry out a critical analysis of the data. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the author attempts to conduct a quantitative analysis of the language corpus of American English of the early 21st century and comparative analysis of the results.
Kuzembayeva G.A. - Nominative Density of the Concept of NOBILITY / in the English and Russian Languages pp. 88-100


Abstract: Subject. The multi-component structure of concept NOBILITY / in the English and Russian languages characterized by the presence of various groups of cognitive signs of the concept is the evidence of its importance in the culture of these nations. The study aims to define the nominative density of the concept NOBILITY / in the English and Russian languages by the comparative analysis in diachrony makes it possible to determine the importance of the concept in the culture of the English and Russian ethnic groups and to identify the differences in the above mentioned linguistic cultures.Methods. The data for the study was obtained from the texts of contemporary English and Russian fiction writers with reference to the etymological and explanatory English and Russian dictionaries data. Text selection was carried out by continuous sampling. A wide range of methods and techniques for studying and modeling the concept was used: the method of etymological analysis, the method of analysis of dictionary definitions, method of semantic-component analysis, technique of continuous sampling, technique of contextual analysis method of linguistic description and observation method diachronic studies, comparative method, the method of statistical calculations. Topicality. Comparative analysis of the concept NOBILITY / in diachrony revealed differences in its nominative density, which gives us the opportunity to talk about the specifics of the English and Russian national picture of the world and priority of certain concepts for the native speakers of these languages.Conclusions. The highest nominative density in the English linguistic culture has a cognitive feature of the concept that expresses high origin, belonging to a upper social class which is present in all synchronous periods of texts, whereas, in all investigated periods of Russian linguistic culture high frequency has a cognitive sign of the concept that expresses the high moral qualities and this indicates cultural differences in data of ethnic groups. The cognitive feature of the concept "high origin, class" in the Russian sphere of concept was erased with time, losing its cultural significance for the Russian language consciousness. In both nominative spheres of the concept the lowest density characterizes the cognitive features of external manifestations of nobility.
Kudryavtseva R.A., Schabykov V.I. - Foreign Speech Communication of Mari Youth (Sociolinguistic Aspect) pp. 120-131


Abstract: The subject of the research is the foreign speech communication of Mari youth. The purpose of the article is to define the place of the Russian and English languages in the verbal communication of contemporary young people aged 15 - 29 years old, residing in the Republic of Mari El and identifying themselves as Mari. The rationale of the research problem is caused by the need to analyze today's sociolinguistic situation in polyethnic constituents of the Russian Federation and the role of state and foreign languages in these constituents. The topic is also important as part of studies devoted to the ethnocultural integration in a society. The empirical basis for the research is the sociolinguistic data obtained in 2012 by the Sociology Department of Mari Research Institute of Language, Literature and History named after V. Vasiliev in the process of the population survey devoted to the topic 'Linguistic Situation in the Republic of Mari El'. The research methods used by the authors include: statistical method, systematisation, analysis and generalisation. The authors have also used sociological tools such as random non-repeated quota sample, formal structured interview, etc. Sociolinguistic data used by the authros in their research are introduced in the academic literature for the first time and analyzed depending on respondents' places of residence (village/city) and educational background (secondary education/higher education or incomplete higher education). The research is focused on two questions that clarify the nature of the foreign speech communication of Mari youth. The first question is related to using non-ethnic (foreign) language in a situation of everyday communication (with their parents, hubands or wives, preschool or school age children). The second question is related to self-assessment of their verbal skills in relation to different kinds of speech activity (readiness for qualitative foreign communication). The authors of the article prove that Mari young people have a high level of linguocompetence in Russian and low level of linguocompetence in English. The Russian language is actively used by them in everyday life and often performs functions that could be performed by their ethnic language. 
Rustamov A.M. - Geographic Terms and Names of Places in the Zangezur Area pp. 137-150


Abstract: The author of the article analyzes geographic terms and how these terms derived from names of places in the Zangezur Area of the Trans-Caucasian Region. There is an ethnic diversity in Zangezur and throughout Azerbajan in general which, of course, is reflected in names of places there. Toponymic terms of Turk origin are divided into two groups: 1) terms of ancient-Turk origin and 2) terms of Azerbajanian origin. These geographic names and terms are the most important evidence of the history of these territories. Ancient Turk roots in names of places in the Zangezur area prove that Turk ethnic groups used to live there even before Christ. Geographic names like that reflect history and geography of the country and therefore they prove that Turk tribes actually lived there. 
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