Litera - 8 2020
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 08/2020
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Contents of Issue 08/2020
Question at hand
Bugorskaia V. - To the question of central conflict in M. Y. Lermontovs novel Vadim pp. 1-8


Abstract: This article examines the unfinished Mikhail Lermontov’s novel “Vadim”. This oeuvre is one of the signature works of the writer: on the one hand, it recapitulates the earlier period of Lermontov’s works, while on the other – represents a stepping stone, characterized by mastering new genres and reflecting general trends of Russian literature of the beginning of the 1830’s. The goal consists in the analysis of central conflict unfolded between the protagonists Vadim and Olga, which reflects choice of a person between good and evil. The historical-literary and hermeneutic methods are applied in the course of this research. The novelty lies in the author’s suggestion to examine romantic conflicts in the context of Christian worldview. The implications of M. Y. Lermontov’s novel are decoded via attraction of the texts of Holy Scripture, which leads to the conclusion that the beginning of work on the novel “Vadim” coincides with Lermontov’s heightened interest to the problem of good and evil in Christian understanding. Mastering the new prosaic genre, the writer continues to amplify the common to his works theme of interaction of the Divine, angelical, demonic and human beginnings.
Bakhmatov D.A. - On life cycle of a phrase (a case study of German language) pp. 9-20


Abstract: The goal of this research consists in identification and complex description of the stages of existence of a phrase. The subject of this research is changes in the use that afflict phrases in diachrony. The author determines the types of such changes, which characterize the stages of existence of a phrase since its emergence, as well as possible ways of development of a phrase (in terms of unchangeability of its composition and level of idiomaticity).Based on the material of verbal-nominal phrases in German language, both free and phraseologisms, and attraction of corpus-based data, the changes in use are perceived as elements of a single process. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt to describe the models of diachronic changes as cyclic processes; reveal common trends in development of phrases and in applicability of the definition of “life cycle” to the indicted processes. The concept of “life cycle”, used in various sciences for designating the natural, repeating processes, found its reflection in linguistics. However, cyclic processes in phraseology yet remain unstudied, despite the existing description of such phenomena as usualization, phraseologization, and dephraseologization. In conclusion, the author presents a dynamic model of life cycle of a phrase; the changes in use are viewed as its part; as well as offers the terms “deusualization” and “reusualization”. The obtained life cycle model can find application in further research in the area of diachronic phraseology and phrase formation.
Firstov L. - Reconsideration of classification of phrasal verbs in the English language pp. 21-28


Abstract: The goal of this work consists in formulation of definition and classification of phrasal verbs in the English language. The subject of this research is the semantics of English phrasal verbs. Lexicographical analysis became the main method for this research. The author also carried out semantic and comparative analysis of English and Russian prefixed verbs; examines the peculiarities of distribution of pitch accents between “simple” verb and postposition as one of the determinant attributes that allows classifying phrasal verbs into an independent lexical group. It is demonstrated that some word combinations, which are traditionally considered phrasal verbs, should not be attributed to this category of lexical units. The author determines the attributes that allow unifying interpretation of the term “phrasal verb”. The scientific novelty consists in the new perspective upon classification of phrasal verbs, distinguishing three types of these lexical units based on the logic of their formation. The author underlines that all phrasal verbs are amenable to the proposed classification, excluding the cases when the status of second element within them does not deem it as postposition. The acquired results significantly simplify the understanding of such verbs and can be applied in teaching or further theoretical developments of the subject of phrasal verbs.
Literary criticism
Dulina A.V. - In the center of a circle: poetics of space in Dantes Divine Comedy and H. Melvilles novel Moby-Dick, or The Whale pp. 29-41


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of peculiarities of space arrangement in the “Divine Comedy” by Alighieri and the novel Moby-Dick, or The Whale” by Herman Melville. On the examples of structural mythologemes “journey inside yourself” and “path towards the center of a circle”, present in both works, the author notes the impact of Dante upon Melville and determines the differences in their poetics of space. Structural, semantic and comparative-historical analysis of the texts in question allows speaking of the transformation of symbolism of the images of circle and its center, circular, vertical and horizontal movement, as well as reconsideration of meaning of the category of chaos and order, opposition “internal-external” from Dante’s works to worldview of the authors of the era of Romanticism. The novelty of this work consists in simultaneous analysis of the impact of Dante’s poetry upon Melville and comparison of peculiarities of the poetics of space of both authors for determining fundamental changes in representations of the structure of world space and space of the inner world of a person. In artistic realm of H. Melville, symbolic point of the center of a circle – “center of the world” –is no longer static, it becomes unreliable, depicting heads of madman characters and the images of the objects, which semantics does not resemble the concept of emptiness. The motif of the loss of structuredness along with the motif of mutual reciprocity of spatial dimensions and characteristics distinguish Melville’s poetics of space, delineated in the dialogue with distinct features of space arrangement in Dante’s works.
Question at hand
Kropacheva K.A. - Livre qui traictera de toutes sortes de poëmes: list of genres of the French Poetic Art by Pierre Laudun d'Aigaliers pp. 42-48


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the specificity of functionality of normative poetics in France at the turn of the XVI – XVII centuries on the example of “French Poetic Art” by of Pierre Laudun d'Aigaliers. Despite the fact that the author of the treatise raises a wide range of questions, the subject of this research becomes the narrow aspect of gradual systematization of genres in France of the XVI century. The goal is to examine the list of genres of the “French Poetic Art”, determine what makes it unique, as well as find out the role played by this treatise in the process of formation of the system of genres. The novelty of this work lies in an attempt of comprehensive evaluation of the question of gradual establishment and formation of the genre system in French poetry. Laudun’s poetic art did not receive due attention within the Russian literary tradition, thus this research is aimed at broadening the perspective on the theoretical texts of French Renaissance. The author reveals a number of characteristics, which underline a special role of the treatise in formation of the French system of genres: 1) Pierre Laudun d'Aigaliers describes the modern status of genres, which contributes to reconsideration of the meaning of one or another form within the gradually forming system; 2) he includes into the list of genres the solid forms, such as virile, coque à l'âne, blason, rehected by La Pléiade poets; 3) “French Poetic Art” stands out among other treatises due to the desire to capture the actual situation of modern poetry by describing the new genres that have not been previously mentions in the theoretical treatises. Therefore, the “French Poetic Art” by Pierre Laudun d'Aigaliers presents the original list of genres, one of the driving purposes of which was summarization of the evolution of national literature and theory of poetry towards the end of the XVI century.
Literary criticism
Papadopulo M. - pp. 49-57


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