Theoretical and Applied Economics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Theoretical and Applied Economics" > Contents of Issue № 01/2019
Contents of Issue № 01/2019
Mathematical modeling and instrumental methods in economics
Zaytsev M.G., Varyukhin S.E. - Comparison of various methods of assessing the systematic risk factor pp. 1-19


Abstract: The subject of this research is the calculation of systematic beta risk coefficients for the United States corporations, which in accordance with the A. Damodaran’s industry classification comprise the following branches: Utilities (General), Retail (Grocery and Food), Shoe, Auto&Truck, and Food Wholesalers, with the use of various techniques applied by the famous providers: Yahoo.com, NASDAQ.com, Valueline.com, Bloomberg Terminal, and Damodaran Online. The goal of this work consists in verification and comparison of calculations of the systematic beta risk coefficients for the indicated United States corporations and the substantiation of the revisions to them. The authors calculated the beta coefficients, using the revenue data of these corporation and indexed S&P500, SP500TR, and NYSE Composite; as well as time dependency of beta based on various methods of the famous providers for 43 of the oldest and most sustainable corporations in the United States. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the calculations conducted by the authors in accordance with various techniques for the corporations rated on the market NYSE and NASDAQ, practically align with the data of the listed providers, but drastically differ for the diverse assessment techniques applies thereof. For the branches Utilities (General) and Retail (Grocery and Food), the authors’ results for industry beta, calculated as weighted average for the industry with the weights equal to capitalization of corporations, practically coincided with the data of Damodaran Online. However, for the tree other verified industries, the author detected significant, inexplicable discrepancies, clearly related to the presence of small companies in the list of industry, which stocks are irregularly traded in over-the-counter markets.
Economic theory and history of economic thought
Moreeva S. - Imbalance in the structure of Russian export: history (since the early XX century) and ways of solving it pp. 20-40


Abstract: The subject of this article (conducted on the basis of the results of research work on the topic "Economic and legal aspects of Russia’s foreign trade activities since the early XX century: past, present, and prospects") is the foreign trade of Russia for the period from the early XX century to the present day. The article analyzes the dynamics of export in value and weight terms (based on the primary statistical data). The author describes the moments of imbalance in commodity structure of the Russian (Soviet) foreign trade during the reporting period. The main conclusion consists in the substantiation of thesis on the imbalance in the structure of the Russian foreign trade based upon the analysis of statistical data. It is demonstrated that at various historical periods, the country always featured a product (or a certain group of products) that accounted for a “lion’s share” in the total export value. Unfortunately, since the beginning of the XX century up to the present, this refers only to the raw materials. The author provides a brief analysis on the existing programs aimed at structural changes in commodity composition of the Russian export.
Dmitrieva N.V., Gabinskaya O.S. - Internal independent assessment of the quality of higher education: necessity, types and instruments pp. 41-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the independent assessment of education quality. The issue is that the Law on Education determines such assessment as external, which creates certain difficulties of its implementation namely in the sphere of higher education. At the same time, the government recommends the educational organizations to form the mechanisms of internal independent assessment of education quality. The conducted in 2017 nationwide monitoring of the methods of internal assessment demonstrated that only 19% of universities have internal local documents for regulating such assessment. The authors classify the types of internal independent assessment of education quality according to its object, character, forms of results representation, and level experts’ participation. The article describes the specific assessment tools, as well as provides the general regulation of internal assessment. The conclusion is made on its key features, factors of efficiency, and relation to external assessment.
Taskaeva M.P. - Problems of the development of rural territories in Zabaykalsky Krai pp. 49-56


Abstract: This article reviews various approaches towards the definition of “rural territory”, as well as describes problems of the development of rural territories in Zabaykalsky Krai. Analyzing the multiple definitions of the term “rural territory”, the author concludes that its includes such aspects as the territorial boundaries, availability of cheap workforce, supplier of agricultural raw materials, responsibility of local authorities for the quality of life in the region. The author believes that the variety of approaches alongside the absence of legislative recognition of the definition of “rural territory” is a stumbling block in the activity of governing bodies and advancement of economic, social, environmental, and other activity spheres of rural territories. Leaning on the statistical and sociological results, the author analyzes the dynamics of social wellbeing indicators of the rural population of Zabaykalsky Krai: wages and incomes, social structure, state of social infrastructure. Generalizing the national and foreign experience, the author notes that the priority vector of state policy is the set of measures on incentivizing food production, ensuring food security in the border region, creation of the diversified and multi-structured rural economy. Controversial is the question of the criteria, indicators, and threats to security allowing to assess potential of the region within the framework of the monitoring of food security with consideration of regional peculiarities.  
Regional economy
Belousova A.V. - To the question of allocation of state subsidies as a factor of convergence of the constituents of the Russian Federation on budgetary capacity pp. 57-63


Abstract: The subject of this research is the correlation between criteria of allocation of state subsidies to regional budgets and the dynamics of interregional inequality by budgetary capacity, measured on the basis of indicator proposed by the author. The object of this research is 83 constituents of the Russian Federation. The timeframe of the research includes the period from 2012 to 2014. Special attention is given to one of the key tasks of the state budgetary policy with regards to equalizing the constituents of the Russian Federation in budgetary capacity. As the means for solution of this task, the author considers the federal budget allocations to regional budgets for the corresponding purposes. The peculiarities of the technique of spatial allocation of state subsidies include: application of indicator proposed by the author that allows measuring budgetary capacity of the constituents of the Russian Federation; modification of the criteria of spatial allocation of state subsidies contained in methodology of allocation of funds for equalizing the constituents of the Russian Federation in budgetary capacity approved by the government of the Russian Federation. The scientific novelty consists in the development and testing of an alternative to official methodological approach towards allocation of federal subsidies for equalizing the Russian regions in budgetary capacity, which imposes fewer requirements on the size of the initial data sets, as well as features the more “transparent” and less complex algorithm of calculation procedures.
Bakhshian E. - Clusters in modern economy: concept, characteristic features and generated effects pp. 64-74


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of clusters as a new unique factor of increasing competitiveness in modern economy. The  author examines various approaches towards examination of the concept of clusters, determines their characteristic features and generated effects. The description is given to common and specific features of clusters. Particular attention is paid to the presence of synergetic effects in cluster due to its special structure. Based on the Triple Helix Model, the author reveals the mechanism for generating innovations as a result of interaction of the key economic agents within the framework of the cluster. The author presents an original definition of clusters. The conclusion is made that the characteristic features of clusters and the emerging within them synergetic effects increase competitiveness between the separate members of cluster and the cluster as a whole, as well as competitiveness of the region, in which the cluster is located, thereby leading to increased competitiveness of national economy.
Gerasimov V.O., Sharafutdinov R.I., Akhmetshin E.M. - The impact of universal basic income upon human capital and the processes of inclusive growth and development pp. 75-92


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the concept of universal basic income and its impact upon improvement of the indicators of human capital, inclusive growth and development, as well as its application in the Russian regions of the Russian Federation. The subject of this research is the implementation of basic income in Russia. The authors review the theoretical foundations of the universal basic income, as well as the history of establishment of scientific thought. The most significant experiments of implementation of universal basic income and their effectiveness are considered. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the following: 1) the acquired results allow determining the need for implementation of universal basic income within the framework of strategic development of the Russian Federation; 2) such approach has not been previously applied in the strategies of regional development of the Russian Federation, because the improvement of living standards in the conditions of automation and industrial revolution, is possible with consideration of greater amount of factors where government plays the leading role. An attempt is made to identify the link between human capital, inclusive development and introduction of experimental basic income. The authors review and generalize the most considerable experiments on implementation of universal basic income and its impact upon the establishment of human capital and inclusive processes; as well as substantiate the need for conducting experiments on implementation of universal basic income for solving socioeconomic issues.
Mathematical modeling and instrumental methods in economics
Borodachev S.M. - Evaluation of the parameters of economic systems through Kalman filter pp. 93-97


Abstract: This article discusses the application of Kalman filter for estimating parameters of economic systems using two methods: maximum likelihood and minimization of root mean square prediction error. The author examines the integrated system of foreign exchange market and stock markets in Russia. Different behavioral strategies of foreign exchange market participants are reflected. Particularly, the author builds and analyzes a simple model of dollar to ruble rate, which considers the changes in oil prices and money transactions between the foreign exchange and stock markets with up to three days lag. The parameter estimation is carried out in accordance with daily data of the dollar to ruble rate, oil prices and the MICEX index from November 1, 2015 to December 20, 2015.  Along with the evident instantaneous actions of the foreign exchange market participants, the author detected the shift of the dollar to ruble rate in the same direction as the MICEX index with two days delay, as well as the same direction as the oil price with the three days lag. The article provides economic interpretation of the obtained system parameters.
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