Man and Culture - rubric Symbol, word, speech, language
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Symbol, word, speech, language"
Symbol, word, speech, language
Kotliar E.R. - Jewish branch of cultural text of the Crimean ethnic ornament pp. 1-12


Abstract: The subject of this research is the continuum of ethnic symbols of the ornament of the Crimean Jews. The object is the traditional decorative and applied art of the peoples of Crimea following Judaism: Ashkenazi Jews, Karaite and Krymchaks. The symbolism of ethnic art is viewed based on the analysis of traditional decor. The article employs the methods of comparative analysis, analysis of previous research, method of synthesis in conclusions pertinent to connotations of symbols. The author explores the morphology and semantics of visual symbols in decorative and applied art of the aforementioned people, as well as connotations of symbols. Special attention is given to aspects that characterize polyethnic cultural landscape of Crimea in the context of phylogenesis. The main conclusions are as follows:   1. Crimea is a polyethnic region with various cultural processes – from reception to inculturation and integration of ethnoses, which ultimately formed the Crimean cultural landscape. Its peculiarities are represented by ethnic ornament, such as decorated household items and ritual attributes   2. Symbolism of the elements of traditional art of Ashkenazi Crimean Jews, Karaite and Krymchaks has common connotations due to the Torah that underlies the religious confession of all three ethnoses, as well as similar morphology. The art of Karaite and Krymchaks are more identical to each other than to Jewish. The author’s special contribution lies in systematization of the morphology of visual symbols in the art of the three ethnoses. The scientific novelty consists in carrying out a comparative analysis of the art of three Crimean ethnoses, revealing foundations of the genesis and continuum of its elements, their similarities and differences.
Skoropad T.A. - The Night of the AdEaters: Pelevin and Baudrillard pp. 1-9


Abstract: The relevance of this work is substantiated by the fact that advertising as a special language of communication of modern society becomes the subject of research in different human sciences. Culturology, as complex field of humanities knowledge that encompasses sociocultural experience of the people reflected in traditions and norms, customs and laws, representations, assessments and actions, also studies various cultural phenomena. The author pursues the goal to interpret the phenomenon of popularity of advertising as a specific marker of consumer society. For achieving the set goal, analysis is conducted on the phenomenon of durability and popularity of the French show The Night of the AdEaters”. Research methodology is comprised of descriptive and systematic analysis of empirical facts in examining the role of advertising in postmodern society. Comparative method is used for drawing parallels between the works of J. Baudrillard and V. Pelevin from the perceptive of their criticism of consumer society. The author analyzes and characterizes modern consumer society, transformation of human values, and the important role allotted to advertising plays in this society. The conclusion is made that advertising becomes a part of everyday culture, impacts people’s life, contributes to formation of values system, mentality, worldview. In human mind, advertising transforms information into the image, and dictates the demands and interests, demonstrates ideals, helps formulating the goals.
Zavyalova N.A. - Cultural continuity of China through the prism of artifacts and language pp. 13-24


Abstract: The focal point of the article is the phenomenon of continuity within the framework of Chinese culture. The subject of the study is the influence of the culture of Ancient China (5000 BC - 220 AD) on the culture of Chinese modernity. The object of the research are jade artifacts, fortune-telling bones, as well as folklore language expressions which are popular with modern Chinese. The basic methodology of work is a systematic and analytical approaches to culture, where the analysis of specific objects contributes to the understanding of the whole; the next method is the description of objects with the elements of interpretation and comparison. Exploring objects that reflect the evolution of Chinese civilization from ancient times, the author concludes that the consciousness of the modern Chinese contains a huge layer of powerful meanings, rooted in Neolithic antiquity. The most important results of the work are cultural interpretations of the functional orientation of Neolithic artifacts and their reflections in the folklore layer of the Chinese language, the data of which the author analyzed with the help of the on-line corpus of the modern Chinese language. In the course of the research, the author appeals both to the classical works of G.W.F. Hegel, N.Y. Danilevskii, E. Husserl, and to the relatively recently published works of J. Alexander, V.D. Leleko, T.I. Lavrenova, R.J. Klein, B.E. Ensor, Bai Yui. The results of the research are applicable to any branch of cultural production, as they contribute to the penetration into the depths of Chinese sense, the understanding of which is of the greatest importance for the contemporary cultural space.
Murzinova I.A. - Prosodic qualities of communicative emotivity in speech of the characters of English film discourse pp. 28-35


Abstract: The subject of this research is the intonation of highly emotive texts in the English film discourse. The object of this research is the communicative meanings of intonational models of rhema as one of the key components of the communicative structure of a sentence. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as the prosodic means of expressing emotivity, giving special attention to the semantics of nuclear tones in rhematic sections of emotive speech of the characters participating in the English film discourse. The dependence of intonational variability on the type of discourse along with the level of its emotivity is determined. The following conclusion were made in the course of this study: 1) textual fragments of emotive speech of the English film discourse are not associated with the certain types of tones in rhematic sections, which is substantiated by the need for translating the diverse emotional states of the communicants and is contextually specific for each of the illocutionary act; 2) Intonational variability of the uttered speech depends on the type of discourse and level of emotivity. The author’s special contribution lies in combination of the instrumental and perceptive methods of research with the method of contextual analysis, which allowed viewing the prosodic qualities of the uttered speech from the perspective of intonology, as well as social linguistics. The scientific novelty consists in studying the prosodic qualities of the emotive texts of English film discourse in the context of communicative sectioning of a sentence.
Volkova E.G. - On the Question of Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Communication pp. 42-71


Abstract: The article is dedicated to one of the most topical issues in modern multicultural world. The epoch of late 20th- early 21st centuries is marked by growing processes of globalization, intercultural interaction, increasing the general level of social mobility of personality. Here we also have ideas of multiculturalism, tolerance, democracy, liberalism, human rights, denying absolute truth etc. that are tightly connected to the point. This radical historical and consequently philosophical turn needs to be thought over theoretically, methodologically and practically. This is why the problems of intercultural communication are topical, theoretically important and promising. Intercultural communication is a complex object and can be viewed in many aspects: socially, culturally, linguistically, psychologically, methodologically. The linguistic aspect, to which the article is dedicated, may be characterized as the integral line of the other aspects of these issues. Tight interconnection between intercultural and multilingual communication motivate addressing to issues of connection between language and culture of society using it as an instrument of communication. The author actualizes the issues of intercultural multilingual communication in broad field of interdisciplinary interaction, which helps not only to follow ideal and historical sources of intercultural multilingual communication, but to think over and estimate its present state, its role and importance for man and society and to draw up new prospects of its future evolution and new directions of social researches connected with it.
Griber Y.A., Mylonas D. - Colour Mapping: Empirical Analysis of Colour Names in the Russian Language pp. 64-94


Abstract: The subject of the research is the usage of denotative samples in empirical researchesh of colour terms. The authors of the article view the history and prospects of the empirical research of colour names using colour tables and fixed colour samples in the Russian language. The authors aldo privide the results of their own research. Special attention is paid to the description of the analysis procedure.  The authors analyze the quantity and structure of obtained colour names, distribution of the main colour names in the Russian language, structure of psychologically defined colour names, the most common models of the names of shades, the degree of standardization of fixed colour names. The research method is the experiment allowign to compare colour names used in the Russian language with the Munsell and RGB colour systems. The main results of the research prove that there is a number of non-derivative minor words of the Russian language have been commonly used in the Russian language and therefore should be taken into account when creating all kinds of classifications. 
Shchuplenkov N.O. - Cognitive-Discursive Approach to Describing Terms of the Russian Emigre Community pp. 67-96


Abstract: In languages for the special purposes an important role is played by communication of information with knowledge and their use in speech activity which is considered in cognitive linguistics as a special type of information processing. It is the difficult cognitive process including transfer and receiving coded by language media, depending on conditions of its implementation and on between what partners it proceeds. Therefore studying of the language information processing necessary for transfer of knowledge and a problem of communication become the central aspects of the modern kognitivno-diskursivny direction in a terminovedeniye.Cognitive discursive approach recognizes as two main functions of language cognitive and communicative and pursues the aim "to study these functions in continuous interaction and coordination with each other".The cognitive component of this paradigm allows to analyze knowledge/information types, the verbalizuyemykh in the scientific text and costing behind them mental units and structures while the diskursivny component allows to reveal ways of submission of information to the addressee taking into account a pragmatical orientation of the text, intensions of the author and a special context of the communicative act.Terms optimize process of preservation and information transfer during scientific communication as the sense of the term is formed by characteristics of concepts which are always submitted in a system word meaning. In it one of differences of terms from words of common-literary (natural) language which conceptual characteristics, according to kognitolog, are shown only at the functional level, that is in the statement consists. Therefore it is important to note that existence at the term of a definition allows to use it as rather stable element of scientific knowledge. Definition of the term is fixed, though is subject to correction in connection with development of scientific knowledge, that is characteristics of the concepts forming value of the term are reflected in it rather precisely and correspond to a certain stage of development of science.
Pustovoitov Y.L. - The Main Criteria of Efficient Training of Higher School Students for Professional Cross-Cultural Communication pp. 72-96


Abstract: The object of the research is the process of training university students for professional cross-cultural communication. The subject of the research is the main efficiency criteria during such training. The author of the article examines the pedagogical process from the point of view of language education, social and cultural studies as well as the recent reforms of the higher schools in Russia. Cross-cultural communication is being described by the author as a multi-faceted and multi-aspect phenomenon. Special attention is paid to the validation of the efficiency criteria of training students for cross-cultural communication taking into account the contemporary social and economic environment. The research method used by the author is the comprehensive sociocultural and linguodidactic analysis as well as definition of the efficiency criteria based on that analysis. The main conclusion is that not only didactic but also institutional and social factors influence the efficiency of training students for cross-cultural communication. Only the combination of all these factors can ensure the efficiency of this process. The novelty of the article is caused by the fact that the process of training students for cross-cultural communication is being viewed in terms of a wide range of associated problems and issues including contemporary labor market conditions. 
Bystrova T. - Precedent names as milestones of the cultural heritage (on the example of the analysis of A. P. Chekhovs works) pp. 77-100


Abstract: The subject of this research is such phenomenon as precedence, and particularly precedent names. The author thoroughly examines such aspect of the topic as the use of precedent names in the text of fiction, namely in the oeuvres of the classic of the Russian literature A. P. Chekhov. A special attention is given to the classification of precedent names that we come across in the following works of Chekhov – “Correspondent”, “Forgiveness”, “On the Train”, “Dramaturg”. A certain place in this classification belongs to Biblicisms. The author determines the following types of precedent names: 1) titles of newspapers and magazines published in the second half of the XIX century; 2) Last names of the famous contemporaries of A. P. Chekhov; 3) Biblicisms; 4) Names of Moscow well-known restaurants, shops, etc. of the late XIX century. We can also observe individual cases of using precedent names – titles of musical oeuvres, geographical names, religious holidays, as well as precedent texts – quotes from famous oeuvres and folklore.
Flerov O.V. - Cross-Cultural Communication: On the Question about the History of the Phenomenon pp. 77-91


Abstract: Nowadays we mention cross-cultural communication mostly when we speak of teaching foreign languages or a relatively recent, independent and popular science that has been created under the conditions of the multipolar academic world. However, communication between different civilizations had already existed in ancient times long before science even appeared. Noteworthy that many contemporary processes related to cross-cultural communication have historical grounds and roots in distant epochs. In his article Flerov pays special attention to historical aspects of cross-cultural communication, its contemporary issues and trends. As a research method Flerov has used the historical analysis of the phenomenon of cross-cultural communication and comparison of the most significant aspects of cross-cultural communication in the past and today. The main conclusions made by the author can be reduced to the statement that unlike in previous epochs, today there is a certain need to arrange for effective cross-cultural contacts at all levels which would be impossible without theoretical substantiation of cross-cultural communication and development of the concept of cross-cultural communication to be then applied to the practice of multicultural interaction. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher provides a brief description of historical aspects of cross-cultural communication that are presented with reference to contemporary issues which allows to make a conclusion about historical roots of cross-cultural communication as a phenomenon and a branch of knowledge. 
. - On the nature of the behavior of phraseological collocations and idiomatic expressions in Spanish pp. 83-93



Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems of identification of idiomatic expressions in the field of phraseology. Based on the concept of phraseology, she studies linguistic units characterized by fixed and reproducible combinations of words in speech. Idiomatic stable expressions in the phraseological sphere are phraseological units of the language system with the following distinctive features: internal fixation, semantic unit and external fixation. Most of the idioms that are presented in the work consist of commonly used words of the Spanish language, although some of them include diacritical words or a certain structural anomaly. It is also important to take into account the special influence of these phraseological units on the overall structure of the conversation, primarily on argumentation, as well as on their pragmatic binding function. In this paper, special attention is paid to the pragmatic component. When a speaker uses one of these phraseological units, he makes an assessment, and the consequence of this assessment is an expressive shade of phraseological units. Within a group of idioms, it is usually recognized that verbal idioms constitute a subgroup whose components differ in that they are formed by a verb and a number of fixed additions, as well as in that their behavior in speech is similar to that of simple verbs. Taking into account the formal and semantic characteristics of verbal idioms with a collocation base, it can be noted that noun + verb or article + noun + verb collocations are a productive source of verbal idioms, since in the process of metaphorization they become verbal idioms that acquire idiomatic meaning. The given comparative classification of verb stable expressions allows us to conclude that verb idioms are actually complex collocations endowed with idiomaticity, used to emphasize colloquial speech.
Vinnikov A.V. - Secret Languages. Attitude to the Government pp. 90-158


Abstract: Secret languages are traditional signs of ethnic deviant groups. They create the unity and protect a special (marginal or criminal) life style. National Jipsy and Jewish languages etimologically provide words for the non-standard dialect. The necessary condition for a secret language to be created is the conflict between the existing social or ethnic group and the government. In this day and age national languages of etchnic criminal unions and migration as well as the Russian slang 'Fenya' are acquiring the feautures of secret languages. The criminal secret language 'Fenya' is often used by the elite or usual people when they want to express their negative attitude towards the effective law or government. 
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