Man and Culture - rubric Philosophy of culture
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Philosophy of culture
Faritov V.T. - Hermeneutics and Transgression in Modern Cinematograph pp. 1-22


Abstract: In article specific characteristics of an esthetics of modern cinema art on the example of the philosophical analysis of the movie of David Lynch "Malkholland Drayv" are considered (2001). Two opposite ways of reading of the movie are investigated: hermeneutics and transgression. The first way assumes the interpretation reducing heterogeneous subject lines to both the uniform semantic and subject center. The second way assumes refusal of possible interpretations and the statement of openness, plurality and a transgressivnost of work. Philosophical and esthetic justification of the second approach was carried out by such authors as M. Bakhtin and Zh. Delyoz. Along with traditional methodology in article the methodological arsenal of nonclassical philosophical thought is used: semiotics, post-structuralism and deconstruction.Advantage of transgression before germenevtichesky approach for research of an esthetics of a modern cinema locates in article. The hermeneutics sends to opposition "the meaning - meant", to representation and, finally, to metaphysics and a transtsendention. Lynch's movies are based on an esthetics of other character: on the transgression eliminating an order of representation and opening plurality of heterogeneous lines, irreducible to unity. These lines are constantly crossed with each other, pass one into another, forming a difficult contrapuntal pattern. Lynch's art places us in transgressive space of true singularities and events.
Tsendrovskiy O. - Cultural and Worldview Grounds for the Global Network Society of the XXIst Century pp. 1-57


Abstract: The subject of the present research is the socio-economic and, mostly, worldview prerequisites for a totally new society that was formed at the turn of the XXIst century - the society that is post-industrial in terms of its material resources and post-modernistic from the point of view of its cultural code. The author of the article examines the new civilization paradigm, compares it to the industrial and agricultural models, discovers and describes the main systems thereof (technosphere, sociosphere and infosphere) and underlying institutions and ideologemes. Special emphasis is made on studying a totally new, horizontal network social communication in the age of globalization, explosion of pop culture and convergence of mass media. The methodology and at the same time the novelty of the present researchis caused by the fact that based on the analysis of the rich scientific legacy, the author makes an attempt to provide a general picture of social processes and their genetic relation to preceding civilization models instead of just describing particular aspects and spheres of such processes. From a substantive point of view, the author bases his research on the classical division of the historical process into the three parts: premodernity - modernity - postmodernity; and agricultural - industrial - post-industrial civilizations. The main scientific contribution made by the author is the summary and analysis of the results of almost half of the century of researches on a new civilization paradigm. As a result of his research, the author concludes that the post-industrial information society is based on the pluralistic doctrine of post-modernistic philosophy in the form of a decentralized network structure. In such a structure the flow of information is not controllable by authoritative agencies because it is fed by a great number of various sources and the dominating user content can be spread through viruses. Economy, all markets and systems are welded into a universal supersystem and driven by the sum of hardly predictable actions of actors from all over the world. 
Siyukhova A.M. - The problematics of the concept of 'night' in the discourse of scientific analysis pp. 13-60


Abstract: This article describes the issues underlying the concept of 'night' in modern cultural, philosophical and art research. It examines the scientific development of the concept of 'night' as a psychological phenomenon, as a natural-cultural factor in the socialization of individuals, and as a broad field in the formation of cultural archetypes of the collective unconscious. The article also identifies patterns of alternating historical periods (beginning with prehistory and ending with the Modern Period), which in turn is dominated by 'day' and 'night' types of social consciousness. This alternation is projected to replace the artistic styles of the 18th to 20th centuries, and at its point of greatest acceleration it provides the basis for the formation of postmodern forms of culture and artistic and aesthetic practices.
Kalinina G.N., Rybalkina P.V. - Project thinking and project manager (philosophical-culturological explication) pp. 13-20


Abstract: The object of this research is the cultural-historical phenomenon of project thinking; the subject is the project manager in their attribute characteristics. The authors examines the phenomenon of project thinking through the prism of the attribute characteristics of “project manager”, identifying their role within the modern cultural project, in the course of which develops the comprehension of cultural project as the boundary of the holistic project culture. This, in turn, increases the appeals to expert assessments on cultural projects yet at their developmental stage. Particular place is given to the study of “Homo projectus” as a new intellectual phenomenon in terms of the “projective” cultural reality that exceeds the limits of the traditional cultural paradigm; simultaneously is implemented the problematization of destructive costs of cultural projecting, considering the specificity of cultural project, which vectors towards the problem of boundaries of the project in culture. The basic methodological instrument is the principle of dialectical equality that allows providing a complete explication of project thinking as a cultural-historical phenomenon. The author also applies the hermeneutic and cultural-semiotic method, thesaurus and context approaches for reconstruction of the concepts “homo projectus”, “cultural project”, “project thinking activity”, “project culture”, etc. The main conclusions consist in the following: 1) the author considers the substantial characteristics of “homo projectus”, including fundamental anthropological and social-transformational manifestations of its activity, which led to determination of the attribute specificity of the existence of “project thought” as a new cultural reality, and description of metamorphoses of project thinking activity in modern cultural practices; 2) the cultural projects is comprehended as a form of temporal consciousness, which allowed determining its framework specificity and distinction of cultural projecting from the “traditional” that sets the schemes of interaction, rather than the attributes of life.
Vasilev A.A. - 'National Soil' in F. M. Dostoevsky's, A. A. Grigoriev's and N. N. Strakhov's Philosophy pp. 16-42


Abstract: The article is devoted to the image of 'national soil' in F. M. Dostoevsky's, A. A. Grigoriev'sand N. N. Strakhov's philosophy. The author of the article shows traditionalism of pochvennichestvo. According to the author, they managed to reveal sacral grounds of the Russian culture - Mother Land. Followers of pochvennichestvo believed that Russian intelligentsia who had received European education must be united with the national 'soil' - the truth. 
Matveenko V. - Specificity of the philosophical thought within the Shinto tradition pp. 23-40


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Japanese Shinto intellectual tradition before introduction into it of the European philosophical terminology and accompanying disciplines in order to determine its philosophical foundations. The author suggests understanding Shinto not as a doctrine, but rather the principle of human relations with the sacred established in the Japanese culture, as well as the complex of Japanese national religious and cultural practices. Precisely through the presence of this core it becomes possible to explain not the character of the penetrating into the culture derivations, but the processes that affected them during integration into the comprehensive Japanese culture, which plays a much bigger role in understanding of the philosophical component of Shinto. Basing on the question of presence in Shinto of a cultural phenomenon of the written intellectual tradition, the author examines a number of theoretical expressions of the Shinto thought. The main conclusion consists in the fact that by understanding Shinto as a principle of formation of doctrines, which results in the ethical principles of an everyday life, we can remember that the Western philosophy in its very appearance in the Ancient Greece, also emerged as an art of living; thus, this confirms the existence within Shinto of the philosophical tradition.                 
Demin I.V. - The problem of unity of history in the philosophical-culturological concepts of K. Jaspers and S. L. Frank pp. 27-40


Abstract: This article examines and compares the philosophical-culturological concepts of Frank and Jaspers. Main attention is turned to the problem of unity of the world history and culture. The author determines the place of historiosophical problematic in the context of metaphysics of unitotality of Frank and existential philosophy of Jaspers. Rejecting the teleological way of structuring the meaning of world history, Frank does not doubt the very possibility of philosophical contemplation of the eternal and universal in culture (socio-historical existence) and the need for determination of the timeless aspects of social life. Jaspers, in turn, believes that the historical scope of the final human existence is always limited, and unity of mankind can be apprehended as just the postulate of philosophical faith. The unity of world history in the concepts of Frank and Jaspers cannot be cognized through the assignment to all nations and cultures of a single and universal fore them purpose. Both concepts consider history as a path to suprahistorical. History (culture) as a specific reality is possible due to the correlation of a human with suprahistorical. A man can create the history and exist within history, because experience the “dissatisfaction with history” and desire to go beyond its boundaries.
Chindin I.V. - Transending Mind: Philosophy, Science Fiction or Holistic Myth Perception? pp. 35-63


Abstract: The article is devoted to the question about transrationality in Russian religious philosophy at the end of XIX - early XX century. The desire to overcome 'abstract concepts' is typical not only for V. Soloviev's philosophy but also for other famous philosophers of the religious renaissance.  
Berseneva T. - Synergy. Synergetics. Dialectics pp. 35-46


Abstract: The author of the article makes a hypothesis that the usage of the term 'synergy' can unable a common vision of the human and culture in general as well as cover the gap between the three main approaches to anthropology: natural scientific, philosophical and theological. Based on the aforesaid problem, the author of the article analyzes the definition of synergy. According to the author, the term 'synergy' has a wide scope which includes, first of all, Orthodox theology because synergy is the concept of the mystical ascetic Orthodox tradition of Hesychasm. Secondly, it includes the term 'synergetics' because both of these words have the same root meaning 'common'and 'energy'. Thirdly, it inludes dialectics because synergy is basically a form of the dialectic contradiction. The author of the article offers a definition of synergy as the joint action or interaction of different potentials and energies that share the common orientation at the ideal and achieve the synergetic effect.  
Aleksandrov N.N. - Three stages of engineering style of design of the XX century pp. 42-55


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of periodization of design history of the XX century, precisely the period between 1920 and 1960.  It is marked as a special “engineering style” with its own distinctive features that are revealed in the text. Within the framework of engineering style, the author highlights three manners that consistently replace each other – archaic, classical, and decadence. On this lowere level of cycles, the regularity is determined that is associated with the 11-year sun cycles explored in A. L. Chizevsky’s heliotaraxy. By the virtue of this mean, design correlates with the history of culture, politics, and evolution of mentality. Thus, a new periodization in the XX century history of design is being established, and the reviewed period serves as its first stage. The author’s main contribution into this work lies in formulation of new periodization in the history of design of the XX century, in other words, a universal technical inter-style with a starting point in 1920 and completion in 1953. It is demonstrated that within the engineering style, have existed and consistently replaced each other the three distinct manners. In addition to this, the author underlines that the most recent manner was postponed for 5 years due to the war, which took all the resources and paralyzed the market competitiveness.
Iakovleva E. - Absurd in the glamorous social pp. 49-62


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the absurd as a spatial constant of glamorous social from the perspective of philosophical reflection. In modernity, absurd turned into a universe by capturing all of the spheres of social and subjecting human life to its logic. Having claimed itself ontologically, the absurd affected the gnoseological and axiological constants of the being of personality, which significantly transformed both, the subjective and objective. In the social we can observe dual strategies, where the priority belongs to the Nothing. Moreover, the ideology of glamor itself turns out to be absurd because of postulating the endlessness of beauty, youth, and wealth within the limits of human life. The author determines that the absurd has many modi of manifestations in modernity, being born in the gaps of being between the Something and the Nothing. The existence of the absurd has initially been set; however in a positive aspect, illustrating the Nothing, it contributes into development (by contradiction), while in negative aspect – leads to chaos, nonsense, and crisis. Glamorous format of the absurd encourages essences and actions, covering them with an alluring fleur, which results in the failures in the functionality of the consciousness and a routine situation of the eternal. The analysis of the absurd demonstrated its multifacetedness and expanding scale, which allows speaking about a universe of the absurd in the space of the glamorous. The subjective and objective of the absurd are dialectically connected with each other, as well as they justify each other. The paradoxicality of this situation consists in the fact that the Nothing in a form of the absurd acquires a status of the real, beginning to live its own life.
Strizhov A.Y. - The role of special in society pp. 50-58


Abstract: Human societies are not similar, although in its development subject to the general laws. However, a separate social organism lives in the unique concrete historical environment - as a result, he produce specific forms of adaptation to the environment. This feature we can see in the specific characters of the people in the forms of industrial relations in a particular technique. Systematic amendments contributes peculiar aspect of society’ life in specific circumstances to the development. It is the subject of our research.The special aspects of human life in society consist of the historical memory, values, development strategies, etc. We should see how all these elements of culture and politics develop a specific aspect of life of all social classes. The basis for research on the role of political and cultural superstructure taken the concept of cultural "hegemony" of Antonio Gramsci.The specifics of the social development is expressed in the motivating forces that allow people together, regardless of their social status, to consolidate certain tasks. “Special” in the collective life lives always. However, while it is not meaningful, it is simply a synthesis of “Common” and “Single”. “Special” is becoming an effective force when there is a creative interpretation of it. This is emergency of ideology, the balance between value systems of different classes. In times of crisis stories “special” becomes a force for significant changes in the social structure.
Severina E.M. - Digital text in the context of modern culture pp. 65-72


Abstract: The author examines the problem of cultural-philosophical analysis study of the text in the space of modern digital culture, focusing attention on analysis of the concepts of text within the framework of interaction between culture and language. Leaning on the textocentric cultural-philosophical approaches – M. M. Bakhtin’s concept of dialogism, poststructuralist practice of text deconstruction in the concepts of J. Derrida and R. Bart, L. Manovich’s phenomenological concept of the new media, the author attempts to determine the principles of understanding of the digital text phenomenon, as well as studying the new cultural practices in the space of digital culture. Methodological foundation became the cognitive approach to culture and language, and methodological Interdisciplinarity Digital Humanities. The content of this work comprise the results of comparative analysis of the concepts of text in various cultural-philosophical systems in the contexts of understanding the interaction between reasoning, culture and language, as well as analysis of functionality of the text in digital era. The conducted research demonstrates that the dual logics of functionality of the digital text must become the subject of culturological study. At the same time, the author assumes that the concept of hypertextuality plays a special role in understanding of the digital text, and the deconstructive reading-writing practice advances to the level of “material intervention” of a reader into the digital text, turning it to an endless Author-Reader communication, mediated by the logics of computer interface, which language plays a role of the new cultural metalanguage, arranging the conveyed information in a peculiar way and affecting functionality of the text as a cultural object and its perception by the user.
Krasikov V.I. - Ordinary and extraordinary pp. 66-79


Abstract: The object of this research is the processes of meaning-making, which emerge in the existentially important life situations. The subject of this research is the emotions, contemplation, and self-esteem of a person, which are marked as “ordinary” and “extraordinary”. The author attempts to determine the place of ordinary and extraordinary in human life, as well as define their importance for existential wellbeing and meaning-making. He claims that all most serious and extraordinary transforms into ordinary and absurd, in are constantly renewed by one and the same existential subject. In the conclusion the author determines the following: the meanings of ordinary and extraordinary in human life, as well as their importance for existential wellbeing;The author reveals and describes the causes and dynamic of routinization of the meanings in the daily existence of a human;the phenomenon of “extraordinary” in its objective and subjective dimensions. 
Samokhina N. - Agni Yoga Ideas and Philosophical Symbolism of N. Roerich' Paintings. pp. 102-133
Abstract: This article is devoted to the art of outstanding Russian artist Nicholas Roerich (1874 -1947). The author analyzes the main philosophical ideas of N. Roerich’s paintings. One of the main purposes of article – a comparative analysis of the stories of Roerich’s pictures and some ideas of Agni Yoga teachings, which was established by Roerichs’ family in collaboration with the Indian philosopher Mahatma Moriah in 1924-1938. Author of the article concludes that the pictorial art of N. Roerich is close to some ideas of Agni Yoga teachings.
Strigin M. - Taboo on spiritual incest: justification of the anthropic principle pp. 104-116


Abstract: This article makes an attempt to demonstrate that the evolution of culture is isomorphic to the evolution of life, and thus, such isomorphism can be considered a basic metaphor for studying the evolution of culture. Such research allows explicating the key cultural processes, which are imperceptible to other methods, and suggest algorithms for adjusting these processes. Leaning on fact that life due to the impact of isolating mechanisms of nature constantly forms different taxa, in which the evolution rapidly fades, it is proven that isolation of cultural memes leads to their degeneration. The emergence of certain taboos, such as the taboo on incest, cause fusion of taxa, which accelerates the evolution and results in structural revolutions. Such evolutionary pattern can be described with Freud’s metaphor from the eponymous book “Totem and Taboo». Totemism explicates teleologicity of evolution as the need for uniting all taxa into one. The work displays that culture has already formed the plurality of “semantic taxa”, which require unification, or at least, interaction with each other; such interaction should stimulate the taboo on “spiritual incest, which means limitation of evolution within a single semantic taxon.
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