- 3 2020 - , . ISSN: 2409-8744 - NotaBene
Man and Culture
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 03/2020
Contents of Issue 03/2020
Fine arts
Wang J. - Works of the artist Yue Minjun in the dialogue of traditions of Western European and Chinese painting pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.32579

Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the visualized ego-image of the artist with grinning face as the key character of Yue Minjun’s paintings – one of the prominent representatives of cynical realism trend in Chinese contemporary painting. The image is interpreted through the prism of Chinese socialism, Eastern and Western art traditions.  The author describes in detail the works from different series, determines typical features of individual manners, and compares works for revealing the common to cynical realism set of artistic means. The article elucidates the concept of interaction of the techniques of Western and Chinese paining using the particular examples, including Yue Minjun’s thoughts on the psychology of art overall, their analysis, and conclusions formulated for more profound understanding of his artworks. Yue Minjun opts for the diverse expressive means and game approaches depending on the goal: symbols of mass culture, recognizable classical themes of Western European painting, computer technologies, cartographic representations, as well as subjective mental images – for creating certain visual symbols carrying on a dialogue with the audience. The concept of his works consists in the ironic attitude to life underlying the cynical realism. It is evident that the modern Chinese paining entered the era of bie-modern.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Knyazev P. - Charles Davenant (1656-1714) English pamphleteer and politicians pp. 17-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.32772

Abstract: The subject of this research is the biography of the English thinker, pamphleteer and politician Charles Davenant (1656-1714). The author examines Davenant’s life and activity, as well as factors that affected his career and determined the peculiarities of his writings. Different stages of his biography, particularly participation in the political struggle of England of the late XVII – early XVIII centuries are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the role of Davenant as the author of pamphlets and political treatises. The evolution of his views throughout a lifetime is being traced. In the course of this research, the author applies historical-biographical method, reconstructs his life circumstances, specifics and results of activity of the thinker in the context of his era. The novelty is defined by the relevance of studying C. Davenant’s heritage within the framework of English culture of the turn of XVII – XVIII centuries. The biography of Charles Davenant is still not covered within the Russian literature; as well as foreign authors did not give due attention to his career. The conclusion is made that Davenant’s career significantly influences the content and theme of his works. The acquired knowledge and experience from working in the departments of commerce and finances led him to development of the technique of “political arithmetic”. It is also noteworthy that Davenant’s political alignment shifted in accordance with his career pursuits, which should be taken into account in further analysis of his views.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Robustova E.V. - Ethical characteristics of everyday life of the Besermyan in the Experience of Ethnographic Research by N. P. Steinfeld pp. 25-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.29665

Abstract: The object of this research is the publicistic documental “The Besermyan” –  the experience of unrenowned author of the turn of XIX – XX centuries Nikolai Pavlovich Steinfeld. The subject of this research is the moral and household lifestyle of the Besermyan – the indigenous people localized in the territory near Cheptsa River Basin. The author underlines that distinctness and traditional values of culture the Besermyan people have been retained until the present, this is why in the late XX century, their historical name has been restored in the register of independent peoples of Russia. The methods of historiographical analysis allow conducting critical analysis of the popular science composition of N. P. Steinfeld on the Besermyan as a written ethnographic source of the late XIX century. Assessment is conducted on the level of historical authenticity of reflection of lifestyle and habitudes of the Besermyan in prerevolutionary period. Considering current ethnographic data and practical tasks on preservation of cultural heritage of the past, the author determines the scientific-historical meaning of Steinfeld’s article as one of that provides fullest description of culture of the Besermyan in prerevolutionary scientific works.
Memory studies
Gevorkyan G.N. - Peculiarities of collective memory of modern Armenian diaspora in Moscow pp. 33-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.33177

Abstract: The activity of Armenian diaspora around the world demonstrates strive for spiritual consolidation of its members and preservation of spiritual unity of the Armenian society. The subject of this research is the collective memory on the shared historical events, which is one of the key markers of the ethnic and cultural identity of Armenians alongside the language affiliation, religious beliefs, reminiscences about the native country, customs and traditions. The object of this research is the modern Armenians, namely youth, who were born or moved to Moscow. The main goal of the article consists in tracing the transformation of collective consciousness of the modern Armenian diaspora in the capital. The research was conducted within the framework of implementation of the project “The Peculiarities of Formation and Development of Armenian Diaspora of Moscow in the late XX – early XXI centuries”, supported by the grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research No. 18-59-0500718. The empirical foundation for this work is the survey of representatives of the Armenian diaspora of Moscow carried out in 2018. Based on this survey, analysis was conducted on the trends that reflect attitude of the youth diaspora towards most significant historical events, as well as prominent figures from the history of Armenian people. The conclusion is made on specificity of collective memory and its role for self-identification of the Armenians who live outside their homeland.
Scenic arts
Khokhlova D. - To the problems of difference in interpretations of the plot of D. D. Shostakovichs ballet The Limpid Stream pp. 43-51

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.33137

Abstract: The object of this research is the plot of D. D. Shostakovich’s ballet “The Limpid Stream”. The subject is the interpretation of this plot in the versions of F. G Lopukhov (1935) and A. O. Ratmansky (2003), as well as peer review on these spectacles. The goal of this work consists in determination of the crucial for the concepts of ballet masters differences of libretto (as a literary foundation of the plot) in the three versions of the ballet, and comparison of perception of the plot in the year of its first staging and at the present. The considered problematic required application of historical approach – attraction of the materials and articles for the period of 1935-1936. The historiographical analysis allowed translating and examining one of the most recent peer reviews on the spectacle – the English-language reviews on the “Limpid Stream” of Ratmansky, presented on the London tour of Bolshoi Theatre in August 2019. The article also utilizes practical experience of author’s work with Ratmansky and participation in the aforementioned tours (performing the role of Zina).The main tool for solution of the set problem became the comparative analysis of the varieties of libretto (authors – Lopukhov and Piotrovsky) of the three versions of ballet “The Limpid Stream”. It is concluded that the first versions of ballet were popular among the public, but aroused negative or ambiguous feedback, which led to the removal of spectacle from the repertoire. The last version is regularly performed in the repertoire of Bolshoi Theatre, including on the tour, being well regarded by the public and sophisticated British critics.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Sokolov O. - The Crusades in the Arab Discourse on Palestine (1917-1948): cultural aspect pp. 52-59

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.33315

Abstract: In the late XX – early XXI century, the Arab discourse on the issue of Palestine remains saturated with references to the Crusades (1099-1291), and likening the current tribulation of the history of Palestine to the medieval events. Modern historiography traces the growth in popularity of such reminiscences beginning from 1948, while modern literature practically has no mentions of the used of the “anti-Crusades rhetoric” by the Arab cultural figures prior to this data. The object of this research is the mobilization of historical memory in Arab culture of the first half of the XX century; the subject is reference to the topic of the Crusades in the Arab literary texts of 1917-1948 dedicated to the Palestinian issue. Analysis of literary works of the Arab cultural figures of the early XX century demonstrated that way before Arab-Israeli War of 1948-1949, such events as Balfour Declaration (1917) and Arab revolt (1936-1938) were being actively compared by the Arab poets and dramaturgists to the era of the Crusades. In the period from 1917 to 1948, the author highlights the following types of references of the Arab cultural figured to the era of the Crusades in relation to the Palestine issue: blaming of Europe for conducting a new Crusade, manifestations of which were declared the activity of the mandate administrations and arrival of the Jewish settlers; reminding of failure of the Crusades, which should have served as the warning for the modern Europeans; revival of heroic memory of the Palestinians in confrontation of the European crusaders in the Middle Ages, which should have inspire the contemporaries to fight for their land.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Dianova Y.V., Dianov S.A. - Funfair past and present for geocultural branding of Ural cities pp. 60-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.32836

Abstract: The subject of this research is the funfair past and present for geocultural branding of Ural cities. The object is the geocultural potential of small historical Ural cities – Irbit and Krasnoufimsk. In the course of study it was established that in modern urban space there are noticeable creative initiatives that demonstrate an alternative vision of image of the city and its local communities (production, consumer, artistic). It is underlined that geocultural resources of the city is a fusion of particular natural-landscape and sociocultural resources that permanently “provoke” arrangement of a situation for a creative action – determination of latent capabilities of these resources and their subsequent utilization for the purpose of testing new promising suggestions, are useful for artistic self-expression, as well as mending an effective strategy for geocultural branding of the city. Solution of the indicated problems leans on the concept of geocultural branding of the city and territories in the forma that it was described in scientific writings of D. N. Zamyatin, as well as on the theory of creative city of C. Landry, namely the thesis on creative action. The scientific novelty consists in demonstration of potential application of the concept of geocultural branding to a funfair action. Shifting away from the traditional understanding of designation of funfair, its recognition as the generator of “creative energy” of the city, the center of cultural and artistic activity of the people, allows finding consensual solutions between the local authorities, business communities and creative groups.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Karagodin A.V., Petrova M.M., Glubokov A.I. - Seafront villas Mechta and Kseniya in Simeiz on the Southern Bank of Crimea: fate of the buildings and their creators on the background of the age of extremes (1900 1990s) pp. 73-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.33467

Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of two recognized landmarks of the Southern Bank of Crimea – villas Seafront villas “Mechta” and “Kseniya” in the rural locality Simeiz near Yalta. The were erected in the early XX century, and since then are the center of attention for admirers of the relics, residents and guests of this resort town, and its urban development dominant. For the first time in historiography, based on the newly introduced archival sources form museum collections, as well as the sources of historical memory, is reconstructed the sequence of transfer of ownership of land parcels, on which both buildings are erected. The author also discovers the names of the people who commissioned construction of both villas, as well as their architects. The work describes the fate of buildings, their owners and descendants after arrival of the Soviet government and nationalization of private property on the Southern Bank of Crimea. The scientific novelty consists not only in the conducted documental reconstruction of the fate of two historical and cultural landmarks of the late XIX – early XX century, which description hat lots of gaps in the historical, art and local lore literature, but also in placing this reconstruction into the context of examination of Russia’s sociocultural modernization in the beginning of the XX century, formation of new social strata with characteristic to them new culture of leisure and aesthetization of life. The revealed by the author sources and information contribute to preservation of Russian cultural heritage, as well as can be applied by the historians in the area of social history, history of culture, history of leisure, and history of mentality.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Riazanova E. - Change of food culture and traditions of Muslim Germans after religious conversion pp. 94-103

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.32181

Abstract: Currently, more and more people all over the world change their religious identity. This research is dedicated to Germans who converted to Islam. The subject of this article is the adherence to the religious traditions, such as consumption of halal products, fasting during a holy month of Ramadan. The goal is to analyze the transformation of food culture and traditions of convert Germans. Special attention is given to observation of transition towards new food culture (refusal from pork and alcohol), as well as difficulties faced by the converts in the process. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is first within national historiography to review the question of newly-converted Germans based on the field material collected by the author in the territory of Germany. The following conclusions were made: in religious alternation, a convert may disobey religious practices, such as food products prohibited in Islam (alcohol, pork), as well as avoid fasting; in religious conversion, it is a must to adhere to all rules prescribed in Quran (fasting, only halal products). Transformation of food culture is often accompanied by personal feelings, can be gradual or instantaneous.
Philosophy of culture
Strigin M. - Taboo on spiritual incest: justification of the anthropic principle pp. 104-116

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.33141

Abstract: This article makes an attempt to demonstrate that the evolution of culture is isomorphic to the evolution of life, and thus, such isomorphism can be considered a basic metaphor for studying the evolution of culture. Such research allows explicating the key cultural processes, which are imperceptible to other methods, and suggest algorithms for adjusting these processes. Leaning on fact that life due to the impact of isolating mechanisms of nature constantly forms different taxa, in which the evolution rapidly fades, it is proven that isolation of cultural memes leads to their degeneration. The emergence of certain taboos, such as the taboo on incest, cause fusion of taxa, which accelerates the evolution and results in structural revolutions. Such evolutionary pattern can be described with Freud’s metaphor from the eponymous book “Totem and Taboo». Totemism explicates teleologicity of evolution as the need for uniting all taxa into one. The work displays that culture has already formed the plurality of “semantic taxa”, which require unification, or at least, interaction with each other; such interaction should stimulate the taboo on “spiritual incest, which means limitation of evolution within a single semantic taxon.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Sukhodolskaya E.S. - Role of culture in preservation of ethnic identity of Armenians in the V century pp. 117-126

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.33576

Abstract: The subject of this article is the cultural activity of Armenians in the V century aimed at preservation of national unity in the conditions of loss of statehood and exacerbated situation of population of the Eastern and Western Armenia. The object of this article is the Armenian leaders of the V century who impacted cultural development of the region of that time. Detailed analysis is conducted on such aspects of topic, as creation of national witting system, proliferation of education and emergence of national literature, development of architectural thought. Special attention is paid to the role of the Church in cultural development, as well as the appeared momocanons, which became the legal framework for the secular and ecclesiastical life. The scientific novelty of this research is defined by a new trend in historical science related to the study of ethnic identity. In medieval studies, this topic is of special importance, since peoples and states of that time often experienced the loss of sovereignty and statehood, which complicates the processes of ethnic self-identification of population. The work analyses the sources that describe cultural development of Eastern and Western Armenia, which allows speaking of the degree of preservation of national identity of the people, their unity against the threat of assimilation and loss of uniqueness. The made conclusions underline the significance of cultural development for the formation, preservation and development of ethnic identity of the people under a threat of assimilation or mandatory integration.
Architecture and design
Grigoreva M.B. - Leading project methods of interpretation of traditional culture in formation of an artistic image of the environment (on the example of modern public interiors of Crimea) pp. 127-136

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.3.33193

Abstract: The subject of this research is the imagery and stylistic solution of modern public interiors located on the territory of Crimea (hotels and restaurants) arranged in ethnic style. In the past decade application of the elements of traditional culture as fundamental in creation of the image of public space gained popularity, which defines the relevance of this topic. First and foremost, it is associated with the revival of interest to folk culture: authentic cuisine, folklore, surrounding environment, which in turn, is a certain response of humanity to the ongoing globalization processes. The goal of this work consists in determination of the leading project methods in creation of ethnic atmosphere of a public space on the example of objects located on the territory of Crimea. The study is based on the analysis hotels and restaurants as most expressive objects from the artistic perspective. The scientific novelty consists in a comprehensive analysis of public objects with explicit stylization of Central Asian art. Determination of artistic techniques ensures a systematic approach to the assessment of artistic value of modern public spaces. The creation of image is viewed from the perspective compositional methods, which in turn, become the basis for further design and décor of the environment. As a result, the author reveals the two leading methods in formation of the image: retrospective and authorial stylization. It is established that both method have positive and negative side with regards to perception by a recipient. Practical significance of the study consists in formation of possible evaluation categories in the analysis of creative approaches of authors towards implementation of ethnic theme in designing environments.
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