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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue є 02/2019
Contents of Issue є 02/2019
Culture and authority
Panova O. - Integration of regional painters into royal administration during the rule of the first emperors of Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.29128

Abstract: This article analyzes the integration process of the painters from the states Later Shu (934-965) and Southern Tang (937-976) at the court of the Song Empire (960-1127). The subject of this research is the biographies of the painters, who after the formation of Song Empire, migrated from the regions Sichuan Jiangnan to the capital of Kaifeng Empire. The method of sociocultural approach is used in the course of this research. The goal is to examine the migration of the painters from the conquered states in the context of unification of the country. The author gives a brief characteristics to the peculiarities of development of the painting tradition in the states Later Shu and Southern Tan; reviews the migration process of the painters from the aforementioned regions to the capital of the new empire, and their integration at the court of the Song emperors. The conducted analysis demonstrates that during the unification of China, multiple painters together with the rulers of the conquered states, moved to Kaifeng and were invited to service as the court of Song Dynasty. An important role in the integration of painters from the conquered territories at the rule of new regime, was played by the Department of Painting, opened at the court of the Second Emperor Taizong (ruling period 976-997). The painters from the Later Shu were under a special patronage of the court, as they made a significant contribution to the creation of the royal style of painting of the Northern Song era.
Culture and cultures
Dmitriev I. - The contribution of Russian émigrés to the development of fashion industry in France during 1920Тs Ц 1940Тs: to the question about mutual perception of cultures pp. 11-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.29113

Abstract: The focus of attention in this research is the contribution of the representatives of Russian émigré to the development fashion industry in France during 1920’s – 1940’s. Despite the increasing public interest towards the history of white émigré of the “first post-revolutionary wave” overall, as well as the activity of its representatives with regards to fashion industry in particular, this problematic remains insufficiently studied within historiography. Using the synthesis of macro- and micro-approaches towards studying history, the author analyzes the impact of the key political, economic, and social processes of this period upon fashion industry, as well as modeling. Moreover, the author applies the comparative and systemic methods of historical analysis, which on the example of careers of the leading immigrant models, allowed determining the role of Russian émigrés in the French modeling industry throughout 1920’s, 1930’s and 1940’s. The conducted research reveals interconnection between the changes in modeling business and the activity of Russian émigrés. It is concluded that the Russian models were highly demanded among the top French Fashion Houses, and certainly exerted significant influence on the establishment of aesthetic ideals of the fashion world of 1920’s – 1940’s.
Audiovisual culture and art
Bezenkova M.V. - Development principles of screen reality in Soviet documentary cinematography of the 1930Тs pp. 24-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.29633

Abstract: The object of this research is the fundamental principles of capturing and analysis of new reality of the 1930’s in creative works of the most prominent national documentarians of that time. The article traces the similarities and differences in the relevant film journalism and newsreel of 1930’s from the perspective of compositional structure and visualization of a character; defines the concept of “documentary film image”; makes suggestions of the audience interpretation of reality through the prism of author’s mark. Based on the material of the films of D. Vertov and E. Shub, the author traces the evolution of original styles of the two brightest documentary artists, and determines the main trends of the development of documentaries that would be relevant until the “Thaw” period. The author conducts a gradual analysis of the plasticity and imagery nature of documentary material, new editinf and dynamic expressive means and methods of their implementation in such films as “The Symphony of Donbass”, “Three Songs About Lenin”, “Komsomol: Patron of Electrification”. The relevance of problematic is substantiated by transformation of the traditional approach towards the art analysis of the audio-visual content. The article examines the concept of “chronotope”. The new capabilities of sound art allow indicating the new expressive means based not on the language of classical arts, but the language of Soviet avant-garde of the 1920’s, adjusted to the need of creativity of the 1930’s. The novelt of culturological interpretation of the prospects of growth and establishment of the Soviet documentary art of that time is tested by the author on the film analysis of the most notable auteur films of that era (D. Vertov and E. Shub), which demonstrate the new forms of visual performance adding a publicist element.
Culture and cultures
Khingeeva L. - The genesis of animalistic elements in the costumes of Buryat shamans pp. 35-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.25684

Abstract: The object of this research is the Buryat shamanism – a complex system of religious views, norms, rituals and traditions of Buryat people. The scientific records demonstrate that the features of animalism, zoolatry and totemism are characteristic to the traditional religion of Buryats. The subject of this research is the animalistic elements in the costumes of Buryat shamans. The volume of accumulated knowledge is extensive and diverse, mainly contains the descriptions, classification by the grounds of origin, symbolism, use in rituals; but at the same time, the origin of the subject of research as a whole has been poorly studied. Using the analysis of genesis of animalistic elements in shaman costumes, the article makes an attempt to determine the background of animalism and zoolatry in the religious views of Buryats, leaning on retrospective of evolution of the Buryat ethnos, origin of the traditional beliefs of Buryats, and the processes on cross-cultural diffusion with other ethnic groups that influenced the formation of Buryat shamanism.
Din S. - Certain peculiarities of Russian foreign literature in Harbin pp. 47-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.29571

Abstract: The subject of this research is the phenomenon of “Harbin literature”, which implies the literary arts of Russian immigrants in Harbin (the capital of Heilongjiang province, PRC) in the early XX century. The goal of this work is the need to prove that the “Harbin” literary works have the characteristic features of Russian literature, and at the same time signify the impact of Chinese culture, which makes them so artistically unique. They represent a regional literary phenomenon, which is somewhat at the intersection of the Russian and Chinese cultural traditions. The method of analytical perception of the sources clarifying the essence of the phenomenon of “Harbin literature” and literary arts of the Russian immigrants in Harbin of the early XX century became the foundation of this research. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that leaning on the existing within modern Russian and Chinese literature assessments of creativity of Harbin writers, the author proves that it is not only an intrinsic part of the history of Russian literature, but also a special page in the history of Chinese literature of the early XX century. Attention is turned to the immigrant publishing activity as a crucial indicator of pinnacle point of literary activities. The literary works in Russia periodicals of Harbin can be divided into two groups: dedicated to Russia, and dedicated to China. The first groups is much more extensive than the second, although both are represented by an entire range of various topics.  
Culture and Cult
Lantceva A.M. - Transformation of the cult of Saint Wenceslas in the XX century: from religious veneration to political tradition pp. 56-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.29552

Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical-cultural analysis of the development of Saint Wenceslas tradition in the Czech state due to the key historical-political events of the XX century. Since the olden days, Wenceslas  was considered a patron saint of the Czech state, impersonating the language and culture of the nature. Special attention in the article is given to the transformation of cult of Saint Wenceslas during such periods of Czech contemporary history as the establishment of the sovereign Czechoslovak state, German protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, and the postwar socialist time. The most significant moments of his life serve as the means for formation of state ideology, as well as often used as the political slogans. An important role belongs to Saint Wenceslas’ symbolics and its conversion into historical and cultural context of the era. The scientific novelty consists in the distinctness of problematic of correlation between the profane and sacral demonstrated on the example of Saint Wenceslas in the Czech historical-cultural tradition of the XX century, which is examined in the Russian science for the first time. The conducted analysis proves that even in the era of secular reforms and impious atheism, Saint Wenceslas latently remained the focal figure in Czech history and cultural tradition. During the 1990’s, Saint Wenceslas tradition approaches the sacral perception of the cult of national saint, which found its reflection in establishment of the Czech Statehood Day on celebration of the national saint, mass pilgrimage, nationwide veneration of shrines, and various religious and cultural events.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Evseev V.N., Makasheva S.Z. - Traditional costume of the Starozhily of Ob-Irtysh North (late XIX Ц early XX century) pp. 63-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.28172

Abstract: The subject of this research is the traditional costume of the descendants of the Russian Settlers of Eastern Siberia – Starozhily, namely Ob-Irtysh North, which elements have been formed for over three hundred years by the XIX century. The author examines such factors of development of the festive and casual, female and male clothing as the natural and climatic peculiarities, elements of other ethnic groups emerging in a certain environment and substantiated by the communication with other indigenous peoples of Ob North, as well as the influence of fashion at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries. Based on the historical-typological method, the author applies systemic approach towards the description of traditional elements and specificities of costume of the Starozhily of Ob-Irtysh North, verifying with the reference to the studies of experts of everyday life and culture of the population of Ob North of this time. Folk clothing of the Starozhily of the Northwestern part of Trans-Urals inherited mostly the traditions of Northern Russian type of clothing, retaining the national elements of casual and festive garments. Casual and work clothing was greatly influence by the costume of indigenous peoples of the region, mostly it regards to winter clothing of indigenous communities, which generated a mixed (polyethnic) type of winter clothing of the Starozhily. The ceremonial costume did not undergo any transformations. Festive garments retained national traditions; however, at the turn of the centuries it was losing the distinct national attributes. The cause lied in the new realities of life and culture: polyethnic composition of regional population, fashion dictate (in clothing), variety of imported clothes at the northern market, as well as the ability to choose manufactured clothes.
Serebryakova E.G. - The value of social action in axiology and self-consciousness of the Soviet nonconformists of the 1960Тs Ц 1970Тs pp. 73-79

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.29182

Abstract: The object of this research is the self-consciousness of the Soviet liberal intelligentsia of the 1960’s – 1970’s. The subject of this research is the axiology of community, implemented within the social behavioral practices. The goal lies in characterizing the basic value within nonconformist axiology. The author believes that such value was the socially responsible action. For achieving the set goal, the author determines the semantics of the concept of “socially responsible action” in self-consciousness of the Soviet nonconformists; reveals the motivation for social actions; as well as assesses the role of social actions in axiology of the community. The research materials contains the reminiscences and diaries of intelligentsia of the “Thaw” era. The conclusion is made that the “action” is a meaning-making concept in axiology and self-consciousness of nonconformists; its semantics implied the generous and selfless action, driven by responsibility of fate of the country, and the desire to demonstrate their civic engagement. The category of “action” allowed the nonconformists to identify themselves and the members of the community. The propensity to a responsible action was considered as fundamental person’s social characteristics that defines their behavioral model, goals and aspirations of the individual and collective activity.
Culture of the mundane
Shevtsova A.A., Grinko I.A. - Museums and the Soviet satire pp. 80-96

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.28444

Abstract: The interest of researchers towards the museum visitor has heightened over the recent years. However, the understanding of the current situation requires a retrospective culturological analysis of the role of museum in everyday life of a Soviet citizen. To answer this question, the authors referred to the nontraditional for museologists source – the Soviet caricature.  The subject of this research is the image of museum in satire and mass consciousness. Special attention is given to such concepts as the image of museum community, museum as a metaphor, and culturetreger function of museum. Based on the content analysis of the visual and descriptive materials of Soviet era, as well as the visual-comparative study of iconographic plots, the article is first to trace the image of Soviet museum and museum visitor in mass consciousness. In majority of cases, an emotional degree of the image of national museum and museum visitor in Soviet caricature is not a harsh satire, but a relatively soft and ideologically moderate humor, aimed at propaganda of the success of Soviet cultural building, although museums are not a frequent visitor on the pages of the Soviet satirical magazine “Krokodil”. A slight burst of museum and near-museum caricature can be traced only in the 1970’s. Quite likely it is related to the development of domestic tourism and new requirements to museums as a part of tourism sphere.
Art and Art History
Sokolova M.V. - Main typological elements and their meaning in the Victorian country estate pp. 97-106

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2019.2.29300

Abstract:  The object of this research is the British country estate of the Queen Victoria. The subject of this research is the typological elements common to the country mansions of Victorian era, such as the tower, so-called Great hall and chapel. It is worth noting that these elements are not just typical for the Victorian country mansions, but carry a paramount semantic charge. The ideas of social ministry and moral responsibility to the public, so important for the Victorian era mentality, find visual reflection in these forms. Methodology includes such traditional research methods of art history as the formal-stylistic and historical-culturological analysis. The scientific novelty of this work is defined by the fact that the Victorian country estate is viewed not only as a certain phenomenon in the history of architecture, but primarily, as the phenomenon that allows shedding light upon the peculiarities of Victorian mentality. The conducted research demonstrates how such mentality finds its manifestation in the architecture of British country mansion of this era.   
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