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Arctic and Antarctica
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Human, Arctic and Antarctica
Goncharov V.V. - On certain questions of the Antarctic legal status pp. 75-79

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2016.1.20473

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the current legal status of Antarctic. The author notes that despite the fact that this continent has been discovered by the researchers some time ago, its geographical and climatic peculiarities do not allow it to be used to the fullest extent. Moreover, the legal status of Antarctic even back in the 1960’s was based on the following principles: international character of land use; demilitarized character of the territory (with possibility to use exclusively for peaceful civilian purposes); prioritized scientific research of the Antarctic territory. However, currently, a number of problems complicates the determination of the legal status of Antarctic: firstly, there are some disputes between the countries regarding the attribution of the certain parts of Antarctic to the zone of interests of the particular national state; secondly, the number of countries who have just become the leaders in global economic development (for example, China, and India) experience difficulties with admission to the territory of Antarctic; thirdly, at the UN level there is no unified international legal act, governing the Antarctic, which would be adopted by all of the world countries; fourthly, there is no efficient mechanism for verification of the use of Antarctic by various foreign states, particularly as the place of storage (disposal) of nuclear radioactive waste or place of displacement of nuclear weapons and other military equipment; and fifthly, the absence of the organizational legal mechanism of holding the violating countries accountable.
Proshkina V.A., Khoroshikh P.P., Sergievich A.A., Lekhanova F.M. - Climatic effect of the Arctic regions upon the development of adaptational health resources of the children population of indigenous people pp. 80-85

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2016.1.21290

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the review of the main research associated with the study of adaptational potential status of the health of children among the representatives of indigenous population of Arctic regions of the Russian Federation. The latest research demonstrate that the growing body is affected by multiple stressogenic factors in the conditions of Arctic. Starting from birth, we can trace the negative influence of climatic and environmental factors, which becomes the cause for various maladaptive reactions and decrease of the reserve homeostatic mechanisms. All of these factors lead to the formation of various noninfectious chronic diseases. General analysis of the conducted in Arctic regions research of the health status of children population allowed determining the main regularities of the adaptive potentials of health. The author suggests that the health of children population residing in Arctic territories requires particular attention, which is caused by the low birth rate, as well as growing number of various pathological conditions and chronization of diseases. For improvement of the aforementioned situation it is necessary to run an early comprehensive diagnostics regarding the character of the delinquency in development of a child.
Shchegolev I.B. - On the role of the Arctic in RussiaТs economic development in the 21st century pp. 138-145

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8922.2016.2.20164

Abstract: The paper studies the role of the Arctic in the economic development of Russia in the 21st century. The author notes that the Arctic’s role in the economic development of our country hasn’t been significant so far. It can be explained, partially, by the fact that the huge mineral resources reserves of Siberia, the Urals and Russian Far East haven’t been comprehensively explored and used. However, the change of the economic situation in the world, the fall in hydrocarbons prices and the declining of freshwater resources substantiate the necessity for Russia to join the struggle for the Arctic resources development. The author applies the set of scientific research methods: description, the formal-logical method, statistical and historical methods, modeling and comparison. The author believes that not being involved in the development of the Arctic resources, Russia will not be able to keep the leading position in the economics and the status of a military superpower; therefore, there appears the risk of its dissolution, the loss of control over its territory and the deprivation of the state sovereignty and independence. 
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