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Leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts (based on the materials of a sociological study in Barnaul)

Akhmedova Angelina Rustamovna

Assistant, Department of General Sociology and Conflictology, Altai State University

656049, Russia, Altai Krai, Barnaul, Dimitrova str., 66, office 520

axmedovaangelina@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Vakker Polina Andreevna

Lecturer, Department of Sociology and Conflictology, Altai State University

656011, Russia, Altai Krai, Barnaul, Dimitrova str., 66, office 520

vpa@mc.asu.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Zheldakova Arina Vladimirovna

Student, Department of Sociology and Conflictology, Altai State University

656049, Russia, Altai region, Barnaul, Dimitrova str., 66, room 520

arina.zheldakova@gmail.com
Other publications by this author
 

 
Medvedeva Margarita Vyacheslavovna

Student, Department of Sociology and Conflictology, Altai State University

656049, Russia, Altai region, Barnaul, Dimitrova str., 66, office 520

margaritochkamed@gmail.com
Other publications by this author
 

 
Gomonov Denis Ivanovich

Student, Department of Sociology and Conflictology, Altai State University

656011, Russia, Altai Krai, Barnaul, Chervonnaya str., 5, sq. B123m1

nfs398@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-7144.2024.1.69013

EDN:

CRBVEK

Received:

13-11-2023


Published:

20-11-2023


Abstract: The subject of this study is leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts. The relevance of studying the problem of leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts lies in the fact that family leisure has a significant impact on the relationships of family members, can improve relationships if properly organized, or aggravate conflict situations. The practical significance of the study is to increase the awareness of the adult generation about the importance of organizing family leisure, which will reduce the level of conflict in families. To study the influence of leisure practices on the occurrence of conflicts in the family, a methodology was developed and a sociological study was conducted among residents of the city of Barnaul. The study was implemented through a quantitative method of collecting information – a survey in the form of a questionnaire. In the process of scientific research, the following methods were used: descriptive method; categorization method; analysis method, as well as a survey. To study the influence of leisure practices on the occurrence of conflicts in the family, a methodology was developed and a sociological study was conducted among residents of the city of Barnaul. According to the results of the study on leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts, the following conclusions were made: Firstly, respondents prefer the consumption of different types of content as a form of family leisure. Secondly, respondents spend quite a lot of time organizing family leisure, it is logical that they are often interested in it. Thirdly, respondents believe that the main role of leisure is to strengthen and unite family members. They rarely argue about leisure, and when they argue, it is mainly because of its forms and content. Fourth, the level of conflict in the respondents' families is low. Respondents are more likely to encounter short-term and superficial conflicts, which indicates their desire to maintain close relationships.


Keywords:

family conflicts, leisure, leisure practices, sociological research, student youth, social processes, social problem, conflict resolution, conflictogens, public opinion

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Relevance

Today, one of the significant social problems is that family conflicts have serious destructive consequences, which affects the atmosphere within families, as well as the performance of the functions of the family as an important social institution.

The relevance of studying the problem of leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts lies in the fact that family leisure has a significant impact on the relationships of family members, can improve relationships if properly organized, or aggravate problematic situations. Shortcomings in the organization of leisure not only reduce the level of family education, but also affect the content of marital and family relations.

In this regard, it is worth finding out how the implementation of leisure affects conflict in the family, to track what factors can still influence this. This article presents an analysis of leisure practices and their impact on family conflicts.

Scientific elaboration of the problem

The theoretical basis of the presented research was the works of such scientists as: A.Y. Antsupov, A.I. Shipilov, N.I. Bocharova, V.A. Sysenko, etc. The problem of family conflicts has interested many researchers, but there is very little literature that fully reflects the social and psychological causes of conflicts in the family, in particular, disagreements about leisure practices are almost not studied.

First of all, consider the term "family conflict". It is worth describing it from the point of view of two constituent concepts – "family" and "conflict". A family is a small group based on marriage or consanguinity, whose members are connected by common life, mutual assistance, moral and legal responsibility. As a stable association arises with the decomposition of the generic system. [1]

If we talk about conflict, then there are many definitions of this concept. Davletchina S.B., for example, defines conflict as a contradiction, a clash of opposing views, interests, points of view, forms of behavior; disagreement within a person or between people, fraught with serious consequences for them, a state of internal discomfort or difficulties in establishing normal relationships. [2]

Antsupov A.Ya. and Shipilov A.I. see a conflict (from Lat. confict – collision) as the most destructive way of development and completion of significant contradictions arising in the process of social interaction, as well as the struggle of personality substructures. In addition to conflict, social contradictions can be completed and resolved through cooperation, compromise, concession or avoidance [1]. Within the framework of the general typology of conflicts, economic, ideological, social and domestic, family and household conflicts are distinguished by the sphere of conflict manifestation. [3]

Davletchina S.B. considers family conflict as a conflict relationship between family members (husband and wife, parents and children, brothers and sisters), generated by the contradictions of its development and functioning as a system, the divergence of interests, assessments, views and goals of individuals who are part of this family. [2]

In their work "Dictionary of the conflictologist" Antsupov A.Ya. and Shipilov A.I. write that a family conflict is a conflict that arises between members of the same family both about issues of family life, and about meeting the diverse needs of its members, matching role behavior expectations. Contradictions arising in the family, in most cases, are resolved and regulated by the spouses themselves without conflict. Where the position of one or both spouses contradicts generally accepted norms, disagreements often lead to long-term conflicts. [1]

Based on the above definitions given by different authors, it can be said that in this work, family conflicts are understood as conflicting relationships between family members generated by the divergence of interests, views and goals of individuals, as well as disagreements about the issues of family life and meeting the different needs of its members.

And turning to the subject of our research, it is worth saying that recently a lot of attention has been paid to the problem of family leisure. M.A. Ariarsky, A.F. Volovik, T.G. Kiseleva, V.E. Novatorov, I.A. Novikova, Yu.A. Streltsov and other Russian scientists made a significant contribution to the development of problems of socio-cultural activity and its role in the formation of family leisure culture. Despite such a significant scientific interest, the problem of the formation of value priorities of family leisure requires special consideration.

The problem of organizing family leisure is very acute nowadays. Psychologists and sociologists note that in the world of modern technology, everyone is busy with their own business, many people spend most of their free time on the Internet, and not always to replenish their knowledge. A serious problem of the modern world is that due to the lack of mutual understanding against the background of universal immersion in virtual communication and the lack of desire to spend more time with the family, conflicts are increasingly occurring, intra-family ties are being destroyed. Joint recreation and classes also improve the microclimate in the family, contribute to strengthening trusting relationships between children and parents.

The organization of family leisure, which is an integral component of the educational potential of the family, is susceptible to influence and significantly depends on the interaction of the educational institution with the family. Leisure is the time free from the main activity (work, study) used by a person for his spiritual and physical development, self–education, social activity, etc. [4] Family leisure is a collective activity, the content and forms of which depend on the level of culture, education, place of residence, income, national traditions, age of members families, their individual inclinations and interests.

In the classification of the causes of family conflicts, Sysenko V.A. considers conflicts, quarrels, quarrels on the basis of different needs and interests in recreation and leisure, various hobbies. V.A. Sysenko explores this problem precisely in marital conflicts, but it is clear that leisure can become a factor in both conflicts between spouses and between parents and children, and also between the children themselves.[5]

Krasilnikov Yu.D. in his book said this: "Leisure is an effective means of education, due to the fact that it enriches the personality, its spirituality, occurs without much didactic effort... Shortcomings in the organization of leisure not only reduce the level of family education, but also affect the content of the marriage and family relations themselves. They weaken the family's resistance to such destructive factors as alcohol, boredom, mutual psychological satiety, alienation." That is why it is especially important that the family's free time is competently organized, filled with active and joyful interaction between family members. [6]

Family leisure is very closely interrelated with family well-being. In most families, work takes a lot of time. A person is in constant emotional stress. Parents, due to excessive workload at work, do not have time to communicate with the child at all. It is the joint pastime of parents with a child that should become an active form of family education. [7] It is important to properly allocate time to meet the needs of each family member.

The content of family leisure is determined by the interests of each family member. These interests are usually different, but often even externally different interests can be combined with one idea. Everything will depend on the mood with which the family will approach the organization of a particular case, how much all its members will be passionate about the process of preparing and holding weekends, holidays or just a quiet family evening. Family leisure should give pleasure to every member of the family. Only then will it have a developing effect on children and adults, raise their cultural level.

Based on the above, it is possible to identify the positive impact of joint leisure activities of children and parents on both sides of the process. Children form a positive image of the family, which remains with them for life. And, as adults, they will strive to implement the program of a happy family laid down in them, they will improve the skills of conflict-free communication. And adults get a good opportunity to get to know the interests of their children better and distract themselves from everyday problems, charging with positivity and a special children's perception of the world.

It should be said that if you do not follow the recommendations on leisure activities, then there may be negative consequences that affect conflict in the family. Considering the relationship between leisure practices and family conflicts, it must be said that it can be explored from different sides. There is a definite reason for any conflict. There can be a lot of them in the field of leisure (conflicts due to divergence of interests, due to dissatisfaction with leisure activities, etc.). Let's analyze this relationship in different aspects.

First, let's trace the connection between leisure and family conflicts of different types, by subjects (marital conflicts, conflicts between parents and children, as well as children's conflict).

Marital conflicts arise to a greater extent due to dissatisfaction with needs. Different needs and interests in leisure activities strongly affect the relationship of spouses, alienate them from each other. This provokes the deepening of problems between husband and wife, hence the constant conflicts, infidelity, etc.

Conflicts over the leisure of spouses, for example, may arise when each of them spends time apart or one of them is not satisfied with the rest of the other. If the spouses respect each other, have common interests, then they can easily find suitable forms of family leisure for themselves. Meanwhile, it is necessary to recognize the right of each of the spouses to a separate pastime.

Conflicts between parents and children are interconnected with leisure no less than marital ones. The family as a social institution performs many functions, one of the main ones is educational. Its influence on the younger generation is of great importance: the personality of the child is formed, the development of his abilities and interests, the social experience accumulated by society, aesthetic development, physical improvement are transmitted by adult family members. Based on this function of the family, it has a huge impact on the development of the personality of each of its members throughout life. The educational function is closely related to leisure, which includes the implementation of the organization of rational leisure, the satisfaction of certain needs of the individual in leisure activities. Due to these two important functions of the family, the interests of the spouses and their children are mutually enriched. But if the organization of leisure is ineffective, the educational function is also violated.

Leisure puts a positive image of the family in the child's mind. But what kind of positive image can we talk about if parents conflict every time when choosing a form or time of leisure. If a child feels a healthy atmosphere at home, he will strive to form a similar harmony in his future family. That is why it is necessary to create plans for family leisure in harmony, in a pleasant atmosphere.

Unfortunately, little has been written about the relationship of brothers and sisters, more attention is paid to parents and children's problems, but it is easy to assess the importance of the connection of children in the family with each other, their influence on the development of personalities. Whether it will be interesting for brothers and sisters to communicate in adulthood or not depends largely on leisure time in childhood and adolescence. Common pastime is not a guarantee of intimacy, but it is more likely to develop affection for each other in children in this way. Different hobbies and interests divide, create reasons for conflicts.

Secondly, let's consider leisure as subjective (internal) and as objective (external) factors of conflicts. On the one hand, conflicts arise when it comes to personal preferences, tastes and interests – this is a subjective factor. The difference in the preferences of each family member seriously complicates the organization of leisure, because for its effectiveness, the interests and needs of everyone should be taken into account, taking into account their age, psychological characteristics. A conflict can arise if the preferences of at least one family member are ignored. Family leisure must necessarily satisfy everyone.

On the other hand, leisure as an objective factor of conflict arises when there are financial problems in the family or one or another infrastructure is poorly developed in the place of residence. As an option: the wife asks her husband to go on vacation to the sea, and due to financial problems, he can only offer her to go to the village or to the country, conflict is inevitable.

Thirdly, the length of leisure time can create conflict in the family. Each person has different resources to engage in one or another type of leisure. For example, someone is inclined to engage in mental activity longer, while another is more willing to devote more time to active recreation.

And finally, the quality of leisure activities affects conflict in the family. Intra-family leisure relationships provide a favorable psychological climate in the family and perform a rehabilitating function. Orientation to joint leisure of adults and children has a positive effect on the strengthening and cohesion of the family. Family leisure should be based on the main areas of family relations and taking into account all the functions of the family. According to Lavrentsova S.V., two thirds of modern families in Russia do not have hobbies. One third of families are generally called "dysfunctional", in which no importance is attached to the upbringing of children. [8] Quite often children from such families visit a club or a section only in order to find their second family in the person of a coach and friends. But there are families who actively spend their leisure time together. Such families are more cohesive, less conflicted, children from such families are less likely to become antisocial elements.

Leisure helps not to feel lonely, or vice versa. If one of the family members feels misunderstood or not accepted, this may contribute to problems in his life in the future. To eliminate this feeling, a person needs mutual understanding from his relatives, which, in turn, can be achieved only with regular constructive communication. Moreover, interaction is important for both adults and children. If a person does not receive this support, then later this leads to permanent self-doubt, as well as to prolonged depression, vulnerability to various addictions.

In the case when family members close during family leisure, they do something by force, this only aggravates the disunity. The more we learn about loved ones, the more clearly we understand the motives of their behavior. This helps to form a more accurate picture of each other; as a result, mutual understanding deepens, and conflicts in the family are minimized.

So, the relationship of leisure practices and conflicts in the family can be traced. On the one hand, communication and spending time together can strengthen intimacy and family relationships, influence the increase of emotional connection between family members and provide an opportunity for the development and strengthening of family traditions. But, on the other hand, differences in the preferences of leisure activities can lead to conflicts. Conflicts may also arise due to the inability to establish a balance between personal interests and communication with the family. In general, the relationship between leisure practices and conflicts in the family depends on how the family manages its common and personal interests and how much they contribute to strengthening intra-family relations.

Methodology and methods of research

In the process of scientific research, the following methods were used: descriptive method; categorization method; analysis method, as well as a survey. To study the influence of leisure practices on the occurrence of conflicts in the family, a methodology was developed and a sociological study was conducted among residents of the city of Barnaul. The study was implemented through a quantitative method of collecting information – a survey in the form of a questionnaire. The general population of the study was made up of residents of Barnaul. The sample size was 450 people. The type of sampling is targeted. In the study, such a selection method as the method of spontaneous selection was used. The practical significance of the study is to increase the awareness of the adult generation about the importance of organizing family leisure, which will reduce the level of conflict in families.

Research results

In order to characterize leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts, the study measured indicators affecting various aspects of this problem relevant to families of the city of Barnaul. One of the signs of the studied problem is leisure preferences, characterized by such indicators as the form of leisure, its duration, venue, cost, as well as preferences, tastes and interests of family members, the composition of participants in family leisure. The next feature is the process of leisure realization, characterized by the quality of leisure organization and actual implementation, as well as the orientation of family members to joint leisure. The final feature is the characteristic of family conflicts, namely, their duration and frequency, sources and types, severity and depth, forms of manifestation of conflicts, as well as the atmosphere in the family.

Firstly, the study characterized the leisure preferences of respondents, since the presence of serious differences in the interests and hobbies of each family member can have an impact on the emergence of a conflict situation. Based on this, first of all, respondents were asked about their preferred types of family leisure.

The analysis of the answers to the question showed that the majority of respondents choose such forms of family leisure as joint access to audiovisual information (watching TV, accessing the Internet and other types of media) (58.4%), recreational recreation outside the home (45.5%), as well as joint visits to theaters, museums, cinemas, and other cultural and entertainment events (34.7). Respondents pay little attention to such forms of leisure as family reading (5.9%), outdoor walks (2%). It can be concluded that respondents prefer content consumption in different variations rather than active recreation.

To determine how much time respondents spend with their family, the following questions were asked: "How much time do you spend on average on family leisure per week (entertainment, reading books, watching movies and TV series, etc.)?", "How much time do you prefer to spend on family leisure per month (weekends and holidays days: active recreation, hobbies, excursions, etc.)?", "What approximate period of time would you prefer to spend on family leisure in total per year (vacation, vacations, travel)?".

Most respondents spend 1-3 hours a week with their family (28.7%), 4-5 hours (23.8%) and 6 hours or more (20.8%). Respondents prefer to spend 6 days or more on family vacations per month (39.6%), 2-3 days (31.3%), and only 6.3% of respondents spend 1 day or less on family leisure. In a year, most of the respondents spend more than 4 weeks in total (58.9%). The analysis of the answers to these questions allows us to conclude that respondents spend a lot of time with each other in a month and a year, the minimum limits of the answer options were rarely chosen, but almost the minimum time interval was chosen by the majority of respondents per week.

If we talk about a desirable place for respondents to spend leisure time with their family, 51.5% of respondents would prefer to spend family leisure time at home, 48.5% outside the home. The quantitative difference in the responses is insignificant. It can be assumed that the place of leisure does not greatly affect the satisfaction with it.

Satisfaction with the amount of funds allocated for family leisure can cause conflicts, therefore, to determine whether the financial component of leisure can be attributed to conflict-prone, respondents were asked the appropriate question. The majority of respondents are fully satisfied (13.7%) or partially (44.2%) with the amount of funds that can be allocated for family leisure (57.9% in total). 15.8% are partially dissatisfied, 26.3% are completely dissatisfied (42.1% in total). So, we can assume that the cost of leisure cannot affect satisfaction with it.

To identify respondents' opinions about the similarity of interests of their family members, they were asked the question "Do you think your leisure preferences are similar to those of your family members?". So, the majority of respondents assume that their family members' leisure preferences are similar (61.4% and 12.9%). The rest deny the similarity of interests in their leisure and family members (5% and 18.8%). It can be concluded that many people do not have a difference in preferences, therefore there can be no conflicts on this ground.

The respondents were also asked the question: "What is the composition of participants in the implementation of family leisure by your family is more preferable?". 43.6% of respondents are satisfied with leisure exclusively in the family circle, and a significant part of respondents also attract friends and relatives to family leisure - 37.6%. Friends, relatives, friends and acquaintances usually participate in leisure activities for 17.8% of respondents, and only 1% of respondents allow neighbors to be invited to leisure. It can be concluded that respondents are more willing to share pleasant moments of joint leisure with the people closest to them.

Secondly, the study characterized the organization and implementation of leisure practices in the families of respondents, as well as satisfaction with them. The respondents were asked whether the respondents paid enough attention to the organization of family leisure, the most popular answer was "rather yes than no" (36.6%). Further down, the answers are "rather no than yes" (32.7%), "yes, quite" (22.8%), as well as "definitely not" (6.9%) and "I find it difficult to answer" (1%). The following answers were received to the question "Who takes an active part in the organization of family leisure?": "You are on a par with other family members" (54.5%), "You are to a greater extent" (22.8%), as well as "Someone is one of the family members" (22.8%).

So, we conclude that most of the respondents devote sufficient attention to leisure activities, in their opinion, with personal active participation in this process. This is constructive behavior, since taking into account the opinions of all family members is important for organizing the best leisure time.

It is important to understand how much respondents are interested in family leisure, so they were asked the appropriate questions. The following answers were received to the question "Are you interested in spending leisure time with your family?": "yes, always" (59.4%), "yes, sometimes" (36.6%), "no, never" (4%). The distribution of answers to the question "How often do you have a desire to spend your free time with your family, and not with friends or colleagues, for example?" is: "sometimes" (40.6%), "constantly" (38.6%), "rarely" (7.9%), "I find it difficult to answer" (5.9%), "never" (5%) and "other" (2%). So, analyzing the answers to the previous two questions, we can say that the majority of respondents are really interested in family leisure on a regular basis. This may be due to the fact that the organization of leisure activities in the families of respondents is successful, and therefore its implementation is pleasant for them.

Then a number of questions were asked to respondents to identify satisfaction with family leisure. First, let's look at the distribution of respondents' answers to the question "Are you happy with how your family is spending their leisure time together?". 45.5% of respondents are definitely satisfied with family leisure, 48.5% are "not quite" satisfied, and only 5.9% are definitely not satisfied. Secondly, the distribution of answers to the question "What would you like to add to your family's leisure?" is as follows: "more family activities" would be preferred by 18.8% of respondents, "more options for leisure activities" - 64.4%, "I would not like to change anything, I am completely satisfied with my family's leisure" - 22.8% (total: 106%). Thirdly, let's consider the respondents' answers to the question "What prevents leisure activities in your family?", presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Distribution of respondents' answers to the question "What prevents leisure activities in your family?" (in% of the number of respondents)

Answer option

Valid % of respondents

Insufficient amount of free time

68,3

Unwillingness of family members to spend time together

24,8

Lack of funds

10,9

Lack of appropriate places to spend leisure time with the whole family

9,9

Nothing hinders

11,9

Other

3

Total

128,8

*The sum of percentages in the table exceeds 100%, because respondents could point to several answer options.

 

And finally, consider the distribution of respondents' answers to the question: "By what indicators do you assess the success of leisure time spent with your family?". 61.4% of respondents determine its success by the mood of family members before, during and after leisure, 73.3% by the emotions received during leisure, 10.9% by the amount of time spent together, 13.9% by the presence of quarrels and conflicts.

So, let's conclude on the questions about respondents' satisfaction: for the most part, respondents are satisfied with family leisure, but there are some factors that can lower the level of pleasure from the process of joint recreation. Such a factor is allocated by the majority of respondents an insufficient amount of free time. Respondents lack options for implementing forms of leisure, which can also lower the level of satisfaction. There are also different ways to assess the success of leisure activities, most often respondents use the definition of the mood and emotions of family members before, during and after leisure.

Thirdly, the study characterized the respondents' subjective assessments of the impact of leisure practices on the emergence of family conflicts. This is necessary in order to assess what importance respondents attach to family leisure.

According to respondents, leisure in family conflicts plays the following roles: "leisure helps to unite family members, strengthens relationships" (65.3%), "leisure can help resolve some problems, conflicts in the family" (23.8%), "leisure itself is often a source of conflicts for various reasons" (10.9%). Respondents consider family leisure as a positive pastime together, even if they have conflicts, they do not call them the source of leisure to a greater extent. And only 10.9% of respondents believe that leisure can become a source of conflict. This may be explained by the fact that positive emotions from the leisure itself overlap the negative ones from the conflict, as well as by the fact that respondents perceive and interpret the concept of "conflict" differently.

We asked whether the respondents and their family members argued about the form of leisure, its organization, duration or content. 11.9% of respondents constantly face disputes on this ground, rarely – 65.3%, never – 18.8% and 4% of respondents found it difficult to answer. Previously, respondents noted that leisure cannot become a source of conflict, but now 65.3% of respondents say that there are disputes in their family about this or that choice regarding leisure, although rarely. This can be explained by the fact that disputes among respondents are not identical to conflicts, as well as by the fact that disputes can take place constructively, that is, each family member defends his point of view without conflict interaction.

The distribution of respondents' answers to the question: "For what specific reasons do conflicts arise about family leisure?" is as follows: 35.6% of respondents had conflicts due to forms of leisure, 23.8% due to leisure organization, 13.9% due to the duration of leisure, 39.6% due to the content of leisure. 27.7% of respondents have no conflicts about leisure time. Respondents most often argue because of the forms of leisure and because of its content. This may be due to the fact that they do not always have the opportunity to implement more desirable forms of leisure, and therefore they are less satisfied, respectively, conflicts arise.

Let's determine whether respondents see the positive role of family leisure in reality. To do this, consider the distribution of answers to the question "Have there been such cases when, on the contrary, you managed to reconcile, resolve a conflict in the family?", presented in Figure 1.

Fig. 1. Distribution of respondents' answers to the question "Have there been such cases when, on the contrary, you managed to reconcile, resolve a conflict in the family during leisure time?" (in% of the number of respondents)

So, most of the respondents have seen reconciliation of family members at least once during leisure, therefore, the positive role of leisure prevails over the negative one.

To the question "Do you think leisure can provoke conflicts in the family?" 18.8% of respondents answer that leisure can definitely provoke a conflict, "rather yes than no" 26.7% answered, "rather no than yes" - 50.5% and "definitely not" only 4%. Distribution of respondents' answers to the question "Can leisure practices (their forms, duration, etc.) affect the frequency and severity of conflicts in the family?" such: 54.5% of respondents answered "yes", 23.8% answered "no" and 21.8% answered "I find it difficult to answer". The majority of respondents believe that leisure can influence the severity and frequency of conflicts, based on the previous answers to the questions, we conclude that more often leisure can make the conflict come to naught, and in general so that conflicts will occur less often.

Fourth, the study characterized the respondents' family conflicts, their forms of occurrence, duration and frequency, and severity.

To identify the duration of the respondents' family conflicts, they were asked the question "How long are the conflicts that occur between members of your family?". We see this distribution of responses: very protracted conflicts occur in 9.9% of respondents, protracted - in 4%, short–term – in 63.4%, minute - in 12.9%, and 9.9% of respondents found it difficult to answer. We see that most of the respondents' families face short-term conflicts more often. This can be explained by the fact that people have a need to maintain harmonious relationships, especially with those who are nearby and matter in their lives. Also, people may try to avoid serious conflicts, because they can lead to the breakdown of relationships and the destruction of the family. In addition, short-term conflicts are more related to everyday problems, which are just more obvious.

Next, we asked the respondents the question: "How often do conflicts arise in your family?". 37.6% of respondents have family conflicts several times a month, 29.7% extremely rarely, 19.8% several times a week, and only 5.9% constantly. The distribution of responses is shown in Figure 2.

Fig. 2. Distribution of respondents' answers to the question "How often do conflicts arise in your family?" (in% of the number of respondents)

This distribution can be explained by the fact that the respondents' families have a high degree of closeness and trust. In addition, as they have already answered earlier, leisure helps them to unite, teaches them to cope with various kinds of problems.

It is important to identify which causes of conflicts are the most frequent in the respondents' families. Consider the distribution of respondents' answers to the question: "For what reason do conflict situations usually arise in your family?", presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Distribution of respondents' answers to the question "For what reason do conflict situations usually arise in your family?" (in% of the number of respondents)

Answer option

Valid % of respondents

Incompatibility of family members in household management and participation in this process

45,5

Opposing interests, values

37,6

The struggle for leadership in the family

8,9

Limited resources (monetary, temporary, etc.)

25,7

Inconsistency of expectations of reality in relation to the behavior of family members

43,6

Dissatisfaction with the need for positive emotions (lack of affection, care, attention and understanding from family members)

26,7

Other

1,0

Total:

189

The most frequent sources of family conflicts among respondents were the incompatibility of family members in household management, the discrepancy between expectations and reality, as well as opposing interests and values. This can be explained by the personal characteristics of each family member, a different vision of the world as a whole, as well as different needs in everything.

To determine the types of conflicts by their participants in the families of respondents, the question was asked "Between whom do conflicts arise most often in your family?". Most often, the respondents' families face marital (44.6%) and child-parent conflicts (34.7%), followed by conflicts between children (6.9%). Let's explain the most frequent marital conflicts in relation to others by the fact that the spouses live closer to each other than other family members share the same room and communicate throughout the day. They often face different opinions and needs, which can lead to conflicts. Parents and children, on the one hand, have separate roles and functions in the family, their interaction is often more limited and not as close as that of spouses. But, on the other hand, conflicts between parents and children can also arise, especially during adolescence, when children begin to look for their place in life and independence from their parents.

The depth of conflicts that occur between family members of respondents is estimated by them as follows: superficial conflicts occur in 40.6% of respondents, deep – in 23.8%, very superficial – in 20.8%, and very deep in 7.9%. The more frequent occurrence of superficial conflicts, rather than frequent ones, is explained by the fact that more everyday, everyday disputes over the distribution of homework or the choice of a movie, for example, are easily solved and do not require serious discussions. Deep conflicts may be less obvious, and therefore require a deeper understanding and respect for different points of view. Some people avoid serious conflicts in the family in order not to lose the intimacy of the relationship.

We also found out in what forms family conflicts occur among respondents through the question: "In what form do conflict situations occur in your family?". The distribution of answers to this question is shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Distribution of respondents' answers to the question: "In what form do conflict situations occur in your family?" (in% of the number of respondents)

Answer option

Valid % of respondents

Quarrels, scandals, fights, etc.

23,8

Silent grievances

64,4

Demonstrative actions (slamming the door, breaking dishes, knocking on the table, etc.)

24,8

Verbal abuse

23,8

Other

6,9

Total:

143,7

So, the most common form of conflict in the respondents' families is silent resentment, this can happen for various reasons, from fear and apprehension to unwillingness to hurt someone and fear of breaking up relationships.

And finally, to the question "How do you assess the relationship in your family?" the following answers were received: "good" (54.2%), "very good" (20.8%), "not very good" (14.6%), "not very bad" (4.2%), "bad" (6.3%), the answer option "very bad" not a single respondent chose. In general, the majority of respondents assess family relationships well, such an outcome could be assumed from the distribution of answers to previous research questions.

Main conclusions

According to the results of the study on leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts , the following conclusions were made:

Firstly, respondents prefer the consumption of different types of content as a form of family leisure. They spend enough time with their family members, choosing both home leisure and leisure outside the home. In addition, respondents are more satisfied with the amount of funds allocated for family leisure. Also, respondents believe that their and their family members' preferences in the content of leisure are similar.

Secondly, respondents spend quite a lot of time organizing family leisure, it is logical that they are often interested in it. They are rather satisfied with the realization of leisure, but they lack forms of leisure, as well as free time for its implementation.

Thirdly, respondents believe that the main role of leisure is to strengthen and unite family members. They rarely argue about leisure, and when they argue, it is mainly because of its forms and content. During leisure time, the respondents' family members reconcile more often than not. Respondents note that leisure rather cannot provoke a conflict, but it can affect its severity and frequency of occurrence. It turns out that respondents give more of a positive role to family leisure, "healing".

Fourth, the level of conflict in the respondents' families is low. Respondents are more likely to encounter short-term and superficial conflicts, which indicates their desire to maintain close relationships. Most often, conflicts arise when there is a discrepancy in views on the world, respectively, because of the personal characteristics of family members. Respondents rate the relationships in their families as good in most cases, which is logical and follows from the previous conclusions.

 

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The subject of the research in the presented article is leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts. The descriptive method, the categorization method, the analysis method, and the survey were used as the methodology of the subject area of the study in this article. To study the influence of leisure practices on the occurrence of conflicts in the family, a methodology was developed for conducting a sociological study, where a survey in the form of a questionnaire was conducted to collect information, and spontaneous selection was also used. The relevance of the article is beyond doubt, since the study of the problem of leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts lies in the fact that family leisure has a significant impact on the relationship of family members, can improve relationships if properly organized, or exacerbate problematic situations. Shortcomings in leisure activities not only reduce the level of family education, but also affect the content of marital and family relations. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the study of the characteristics of leisure practices as a factor of family conflicts. In the course of the study, indicators were measured that affect various aspects of this problem, relevant for families of the city of Barnaul. The sample size was 450 people. One of the signs of the studied problem is leisure preferences, characterized by such indicators as the form of leisure, its duration, venue, cost, as well as the preferences, tastes and interests of family members, the composition of participants in family leisure. The next feature is the process of leisure realization, characterized by the quality of leisure organization and actual implementation, as well as the orientation of family members to joint leisure. The final feature is the characteristic of family conflicts, namely, their duration and frequency, sources and types, severity and depth, forms of manifestation of conflicts, as well as the atmosphere in the family. The article is presented in the language of scientific style with a very competent use in the text of the study of the presentation of various positions of scientists on the current problem under study and the use of scientific terminology and definitions. The structure is designed taking into account the basic requirements for writing scientific articles. The structure of this study includes the relevance, scientific elaboration of the problem, research methodology and methods, research results, main conclusions and bibliography. The content of the article reflects its structure. Especially effective in the content of the study is the description of the results of the study, as well as the design of the most significant research results in the form of tables and figures, which very effectively ensures the visibility of the results obtained. The bibliography contains 8 sources, including mainly non-periodical domestic publications. The article describes the various positions and points of view of various scientists characterizing the definitions of family conflict and emerging problems in the organization of family leisure, and also contains an appeal to various scientific works and sources devoted to this topic, which is part of the scientific interests of researchers dealing with this issue. The presented study contains the main conclusions concerning the subject area of the study. Firstly, respondents prefer the consumption of different types of content as a form of family leisure. Secondly, respondents devote quite a lot of time to organizing family leisure, it is logical that they are often interested in it. Thirdly, respondents believe that the main role of leisure is to strengthen and unite family members. Fourth, the level of conflict in the respondents' families is low. Respondents are more likely to encounter short-term and superficial conflicts, which indicates their desire to maintain close relationships. The materials of this study are intended for a wide range of readers, they may be of interest and used by scientists for scientific purposes, teaching staff in the educational process, government and municipal employees, representatives of public organizations dealing with family issues, conflict scientists, psychologists, mediators and analysts in the preparation of reviews, reference materials and explanatory notes on the stated topic. As a suggestion and recommendation for this study, it should be noted that it would be possible to use more modern periodicals on the stated topic and refer to them in the text of the article, as well as refer to foreign sources. This recommendation does not reduce the high scientific significance of the study itself, but is only a wish. It is recommended to publish the article.
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