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Philosophical Thought

Reduction of Consciousness to Cognition as the Methodological Principle of Cognitive Science and Humanities

Maximov Leonid Vladimirovich

Doctor of Philosophy

Leading Scientific Associate, Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences

109240, Russia, Moskovskaya oblast', g. Moscow, ul. Goncharnaya, 12 str. 1, of. 421

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Object of research and the critical analysis in this article is the epistemological reductionism – the methodological approach defining the main contents and structure of cognitive science. The basis of this approach is made by idea, very widespread in philosophy of consciousness and psychology, that human mentality (spirit, mentality) in general and in all the manifestations can be reduced to knowledge and knowledge and is respectively described and explained in terms of an epistemologiya. In cognitive science the specified traditional approach changed a little, language of a classical epistemologiya gave way to a conceptual framework of the theory of information, however these changes left the general kognitivistsky interpretation of consciousness in inviolability. In article other methodological approach – a nonkognitivizm according to which the consciousness (spirit, mentality) includes a number of phenomena, essentially irreducible to knowledge is opposed to an epistemological reductionism of cognitive science; these are emotions, estimates, interests, the purposes, etc. Novelty of research consists that it allowed to reveal and theoretically to articulate characteristic for "sciences about spirit" a methodological mistake, namely – the unilateral cognitive and information approach to consciousness which is excessively simplifying its structure and by that considerably distorting results of scientific searches in this area. Correction of the specified methodological approach from a position of an anti-reductionism has to promote successful advance of science in the solution of a number of actual problems, in particular – an applied problem of "artificial intelligence", a psychophysical problem and some other.

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