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Reference:

Structural and semantic features of abbreviation in Russian educational discourse

Chen' Si

Postgraduate Student, Department of the Russian Language and Methods of its Teaching, Faculty of Philology, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia

117198, Russia, Moscow region, Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 10-2A

1042218129.@pfur.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8698.2023.6.40892

EDN:

MYUNEN

Received:

01-06-2023


Published:

05-07-2023


Abstract: The object of this research is abbreviation as a way of creating terminological nominations of educational discourse. The subject of the study is the structural and semantic specificity of the termsЦabbreviations used in the field of educational activity. In the first part of this article, the author characterizes the process of abbreviation, clarifies the content of the term "abbreviation", differentiating it from the concept of "abbreviation", after which such an area of discourse theory as educational discourse is touched upon. Having determined the spheres of influence and interaction of this type of discourse, the author of the article gives a structural and semantic classification of terms-abbreviations, after which, using various terminological and explanatory dictionaries, identifies abbreviated linguistic units of educational discourse. The second part of this study is devoted to the description of abbreviations in the field of education. Having divided the abbreviated nominations into six semantic groups, the author of the article describes them in accordance with the structural classification. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the majority of abbreviations are acronyms (forty-five units out of the identified sixty abbreviated nominations). The scientific novelty of the research lies in the application of structural and semantic analysis to the abbreviated nominations of the field of education. But, having studied the terms-abbreviations in the context of the relationship between structure and semantics, the author of the article comes to the conclusion that only a small part of the abbreviations of educational activities are familiar to consumers of educational services, and therefore he believes that the broad abbreviation affecting the field of education does not justify itself.


Keywords:

educational discourse, educational process, educational product, educational service, normative document, abbreviation, reduction, initial abbreviation, acronym, syllabic abbreviation

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

In recent years, the need for new names has increased in Russian society, for which various ways of word formation are used. One of the most characteristic trends of the Russian language at the present stage of its development is the abbreviation.

In a broad sense, an abbreviation means any abbreviation. According to N.V. Matveeva, a person's desire to reduce in an utterance is associated with many factors, among which is an increase in the volume of transmitted information, the speed of transmission, the use of technical means for information exchange" [1, p. 116].

However, from the point of view of both Russian and foreign scientists, the concepts of "abbreviation" and "abbreviation" should be differentiated.†

The term "reduction" in relation to the lexeme "it is customary to call the replacement of the full form with a shortened form" [2, p. 289]. The reduction, according to T.S. Sergeeva, reduces the "sound or graphic length of the correlate", which can be "a set of morphemes, a word, a phrase, a set of words" [3, p. 175]. The concept of "reduction" in linguistic literature can be denoted by such terms as "truncation", "truncated word", "abbreviated word", "shortening", etc. As the American researcher G. Marchand wrote, an abbreviation is "truncation of a word to one of its parts" [4, p. 357].

An abbreviation, as a rule, refers only to those nominations that were formed from the initial letters or syllables of words. According to the definition of T.S. Sergeeva, the abbreviation ? this is an abbreviated "nomination for those concepts and realities that were originally designated descriptively, using attributive phrases" [3, p. 175].

Thus, an abbreviation is not a "shortening of a word in comparison with its prototype", but the formation of a word "from the names of the initial letters or syllables of words included in the original phrase" [5, p. 9].

Many researchers do not consider abbreviation to be a word-formation process. For example, V.N.Shevchuk inclines to this idea, believing that the abbreviation does not enter into lexical and semantic relations with the nomination of the object of reality, that there is no semantic shift in the process of abbreviation formation, and therefore it is very difficult to decipher the abbreviation if you do not know the original phrase [6, p. 46] E.N. Ozhogin understands by abbreviation the process of creating secondary nomination units, as a result of which the linear length of the original name is reduced and its abbreviated structural version is formed" [7, p. 18]. Such an understanding of the abbreviation does not allow equating this type of language units with lexical units of the full nomination (words, phrases). Nevertheless, abbreviation is considered an important process of lexical neoplasms, since abbreviations, having appeared in the text space (and they are usually used in writing), save the author's speech resources, but provided that the addressee understands the meaning of the abbreviation.

Since the end of the twentieth century, abbreviation as a linguistic phenomenon has been reflected in various spheres of Russian public life Ц socio-political, economic, cultural and others. At the beginning of the new millennium, the abbreviation also affected the sphere of education, becoming part of the educational discourse.

In comparison with pedagogical discourse, educational discourse affects not only such areas of interaction as "teacher Ц student", "teacher Ц student", but also includes "public discussion of problems, trends, advantages and disadvantages of education and academic science" [8, p. 192]. Educational discourse "is organized within the framework of a certain social institution (educational institution); its content is personality-oriented (the purpose, methods and means are related to the development of the student's personality in the organized process of social education); it is characterized by status-role relations of communication participants (teacher and student) and has a specific goal (socialization of a new member of society)" [9]. In addition to the educational process, the structure of the educational discourse also includes educational reforms, laws and other processes in the field of education [10].

In recent years, the Russian educational discourse has been enriched with many new concepts, which is associated "with the adoption of federal state standards for primary, primary and higher education, as well as for preschool education, with the implementation of various federal target programs, with innovations occurring at all levels of education" [11, pp. 54-55]. And against the general background of terminological nominations, abbreviations occupy a significant place in the educational discourse. At the same time, it is important to note that the scope of the term-abbreviation, like any educational concept, "includes two aspects: its use in the real pedagogical process and its operation in the process of studying the pedagogical process" [12, p. 62].

Educational abbreviated nominations are divided into:

- proper initial abbreviations, which include the initial letters of the words of the abbreviated phrase (these abbreviations are pronounced alphabetically);

- acronyms Ц abbreviations, also formed from the initial letters of each word of the abbreviated phrase, but read as words;

- syllabic abbreviations, which include part or parts of the words of the abbreviated combination;

Abbreviations in the Russian educational discourse are subject to:

? nominations of educational and scientific educational institutions and centers;

? nominations of educational stages;

? nominations of commissions and associations

? nominations of educational products and services;

? nominations characterizing the educational process;

? regulatory documents.

Let's consider each group of abbreviated nominations, defining the types of abbreviations included in its structural types.

Abbreviated nominations of educational institutions and research and educational centers are mainly represented by acronyms: University Ц a higher educational institution; SSUZ Ц a secondary specialized educational institution (technical school, college, college, etc.); DOE Ц a preschool educational institution, commonly referred to as a kindergarten; TSVIMP Ц a Center for temporary isolation of juvenile offenders; FIPI Ц the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Measurements, conducting research in the field of assessing the quality of education; FCIOR Ц Federal Center for Information and Educational Resources; RAO - Russian Academy of Education [13]. And at the same time, this group includes a number of initial abbreviations: VPU is a higher vocational school; IMC is an Information and Methodological center whose tasks include: the study and introduction of new programs and technologies in the educational process; finding effective methods and forms in the implementation of pedagogical approaches to the upbringing and education of children; studying the work of teachers, identifying and disseminating best practices; UKK Ц educational andcourse combine, "an institution of primary vocational education that implements educational programs for retraining, advanced training of workers and specialists, as well as training of workers and specialists of the appropriate qualification level in an accelerated form of training" [14, p. 427]; CPC Ц educational and production combine. Some of these abbreviated nominations have an interesting history of development. As an example, let's give the abbreviation of the CPC, which appeared during the existence of the Soviet Union. The Educational and Production Combine (CPC) was an organization providing primary vocational training to high school students. After the collapse of the USSR in the Russian Federation, compulsory primary vocational education was excluded from the general secondary education program, and training in the CPC began to be voluntary. In 1999, the Government of the Russian Federation approved the "Model Regulation on Interscholastic educational Complex". This is how the acronym MUK appeared, replacing the abbreviation of the CPC.

This group also includes two-component abbreviations-acronyms. These include: GBOU SOSH Ц state budgetary educational institution "Secondary general education school"; MOU SOSH Ц municipal autonomous educational institution "Secondary general education school"; GBOU OOSH Ц state budgetary educational institution "Basic general education school" [15].

The stages of education are represented by the following initial abbreviations and acronyms: SOSH Ц secondary educational school, IRO Ц institute of working education; NGO Ц primary vocational education; VPO Ц higher vocational education; SPO Ц secondary vocational education; PREЦpreschool education [14].

The abbreviations of commissions and associations include both initial abbreviations (PMPC Ц Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Commission; KPDN Ц Commission for Minors and Protection of Their Rights) and acronyms (MO, or SHMO, is a school methodical association that carries out educational, methodical and extracurricular work in all academic subjects; GEC Ц state Examination Commission) [15].

The third group of abbreviations correlates with the nominations of educational products and services.

An educational product is "an object capable of satisfying the needs of the subject associated with the development of the spiritual sphere and the acquisition of new knowledge, skills and abilities" [16, p. 159]. In the modern era, educational products are represented not only by printed materials (textbooks, programs, etc.), but also by training computer programs, Internet resources, automated systems of the educational process.

The abbreviated categories of educational products include both initial abbreviations (UMK Ц an Educational and methodological complex, which includes a textbook, a book for teachers, a workbook, audio and/or video applications, MHK - an educational subject "World Art Culture") and acronyms (ORKSE Ц a training course "Fundamentals of Religious Cultures and secular ethics"; OOP Ц the main educational program; AOS Ц an automated training system, i.e. a complex of technical, educational, methodological, linguistic, software and organizational support based on ICT, designed to individualize learning; ACS RSO Ц an automated system for managing the resources of the education system, which provides all the necessary and relevant information, related to the educational process; SIPR Ц a special individual development program, "aimed at mastering an adapted educational program for students, taking into account the satisfaction of their specific educational needs" [17, p. 53]; APSPO Ц a program of secondary vocational education, "adapted for teaching disabled people and persons with disabilities, taking into account the peculiarities of their psychophysical development, individual opportunities" [17, p. 8].

An educational service is "a complex of purposefully created and offered to the population opportunities for acquiring certain knowledge and skills to meet certain educational needs." [18, p. 48]. Educational services are usually provided on a paid basis. Thus, the acronym of the PDE stands for paid additional educational services and correlates with circles, sections, etc., conducted for schoolchildren in educational institutions. An educational service is also a Webinar, which is a syllabic abbreviation (formed from the word web (web) Ц "network" and the second part of the word "seminar"). This is the name of an online seminar held in the form of a report, presentation or lecture on a specific topic, which are organized through web technologies and are broadcast live [19].

Concepts nominator various aspects of the educational process, represented by a large number of abbreviations in the acronyms: TOGIS technology education in a global information society; OS Ц educational environment that creates the conditions of identity formation [15]; GU?A State final examination held at the end of the academic year of 9 and 11 classes of secondary schools to establish the level of education of students and for the further issuance of the certificate; OGE Ц the Basic state exam, which is designed for pupils of the 9th grade; exam Ц the Uniform state exam designed for pupils of 11 classes before entering the University; NICO Ц National study of the quality of education, initiated by the national accreditation Agency in 2014 and held in the fifth and eighth grades of the level of training in different disciplines; IFOM Ц single Federal estimated material that is part of the validation of the methodological, theoretical, psychological and pedagogical competence of the teacher); UUD Ц universal educational actions, representing the ability of the learner consciously understand, absorb and take into practice the lessons of knowledge; CSR collective learning system [13]; IEP Ц individual educational plan, which provides "the development of the educational program on the basis of individualization of its content subject to the characteristics and educational needs of a particular student" [17, p. 24], IO Ц inclusive education, i.e. education, providing "equal access to education for all students with a variety of special educational needs and individual capabilities" [17, p. 24]; the PLO Ц special educational needs; OTH Ц individual educational trajectory (so called "personal path of creativity realization of the personal potential of each student in education" [17, p. 22].

But a small number of initial abbreviations also belong to this group: PSI Ц individually oriented training, i.e. "training based on the interaction of students and teachers, when optimal conditions are created for the development of students' ability to selfЦeducation, self-determination, independence and self-realization" [17, p. 23]; VPR - All-Russian testing works, conducted to check the progress of high school students; OIA Ц Educational work; PPE - the point of the unified state exam [14].

The name of almost every regulatory document reflecting the legal and legal aspect of the Russian educational system and the trends of the educational process is transmitted by an abbreviation. First of all, educational standards are included in this group. For example, the acronym of the Federal State Educational Standards is Federal State Educational Standards. Some of these abbreviations consist of two components, the first of which is an acronym, and the second is an initial abbreviation: the State Educational Standard of Higher Primary Vocational Education, "a normative document establishing general requirements for the main professional educational programs of higher education and the conditions for their implementation" [14, p. 49]; the STATE NGO Ц The state educational standard of primary vocational education, "a normative document defining the basic requirements for the training of workers" [14, p. 50]; the State Educational Standard of General Education, "a system of basic parameters accepted as the state norm of education, reflecting the social ideal (social order) and taking into account the capabilities of a real person and system education in terms of achieving this ideal" [14, p. 53]; State SPO Ц the State educational standard of secondary vocational education, "a normative document defining the content and requirements for the training of specialists in educational institutions of the SPO system" [14, p. 56].

The same group also includes the acronym GIFO Ц a State nominal financial obligation, the so-called "certificate of the results of the unified state exam passed by a citizen with an appropriate record, which is the basis for providing the university with budgetary funds for the training of this citizen in it during the entire period of study in accordance with the state educational standard" [14, p. 48].

The abbreviated nominations presented in this article are just a small part of the abbreviated terms of the educational discourse. when you start studying the Russian educational system, then, according to V. Bogdanova, "it seems that Russian education (and world education, too) consists entirely of abbreviations" [20]. "The most difficult thing to understand them," the journalist writes, "is for young teachers and parents. And if many people know what the OGE and the Unified State Exam are, then there is a vague idea about NICO or about the VPR" [20]. Nevertheless, the realities of the time are such that the terminological apparatus of the pedagogical and, in general, the educational system includes abbreviated nominations, represented, as a rule, by initial abbreviations and acronyms. Thanks to the active process taking place in the field of creating new terms-abbreviations reflecting the system of Russian education, new concepts are emerging, many of which, on the one hand, need adequate understanding on the part of participants in educational relations, and on the other hand, occupy an important place in the terminological system of educational discourse, although they require additional description and definitions in pedagogical and scientific-methodical literature.†

References
1. Matveeva, N.V. (2021). Lexical abbreviations in English-language texts of the Internet space. Theoretical and applied linguistics, 7(1), 116-132.
2. Maruso, J. (2004). Dictionary of linguistic terms. – Moscow: URSS.
3. Sergeeva, T.S. (2013). Abbreviation in the system of lexical abbreviations. Philological sciences. Questions of theory and practice, 6, 174-179. Tambov: Diploma.
4. Marchand, H. (1966). The Categories and Types of Present-day English Word-Formation. A Synchronic-Diachronic Approach. Alabama Linguistic and Philological Series (Vol. 13). Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
5. Nelyubin, L.L. (2003). Explanatory translation dictionary. Moscow: Flint: Nauka.
6. Shevchuk, V.N. (1983). Regarding the status of abbreviations in English and their translation into Russian. System of language and translation (pp. 14-48). Moscow: Moscow State University.
7. Ozhogin, E.N. (1999). Abbreviations in the military sublanguage (dissertation). Moscow: Military university.
8. Yakovleva, V.V. (2021). Discourse in educational activity (terminological aspect). Herald of the MGLU. Humanities, Issue 11(853), 191-203.
9. Asadullin, R. Educational discourse and its system-forming features. Retrieved from https://pandia.ru/text/80/138/41612.php
10. Dobrenkova, E. V. (2006). Social morphology of educational discourse. Moscow: Alfa-M.
11. Polonsky, V.M. (2017). Conceptual and terminological apparatus of pedagogy and education. Scientific result. Pedagogy and psychology of education, 2, Vol. 3, pp. 54-60.
12. Chechet, V.V., Punchik V.N. (2018). Pedagogical terminology: limits of application. Education and upbringing, 4, 57-63.
13. Sklyarevskaya, G.N. (2004). Dictionary of abbreviations of the modern Russian language. Moscow: Eksmo.
14. Professional and pedagogical concepts. (2005). G.M. Romantsev (Ed.). Yekaterinburg: Publishing House of the Russian State university.
15. Novikov, A.M. (2013). Pedagogy: dictionary of the system of basic concepts. Moscow: Publishing Center IET.
16. Zhuravleva, L.V. (2009). Educational product: concept and value. Bulletin of Tomsk State University, 326, 159-163.
17. Makariev, I.S. (2015). Short dictionary of the system of concepts of inclusive education: terminological dictionary. SPb.: SPb GB POU "Okhta College".
18. Lolaeva, A.S. (2019). Digital rights in the structure of objects of civil rights. Agrarian and land law, 6, 47-49.
19. Explanatory, dictionary of terms of the conceptual apparatus of informatization of education. (2013). Moscow: Binom. Lab. Knowledge.
20. Bogdanova, V. Guide to abbreviations in education. Retrieved from https://gazeta-pedagogov.ru/gid-po-abbreviaturam-v-obrazovanii

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The reviewed work is devoted to the problem of abbreviation in Russian educational discourse. As the author notes, "in recent years, the need for new names has increased in Russian society, for which various ways of word formation are used. One of the most characteristic trends of the Russian language at the present stage of its development is the abbreviation". Indeed, this is so, therefore, the study of the abbreviation issue is topical, relevant and in demand. The article has both theoretical and practical signs; the main block of judgments is objective, accurate, and no actual violations have been identified. The material is well thought out, the main author's concept is fully manifested. For example, this is manifested in the following judgments: "since the end of the twentieth century, abbreviation as a linguistic phenomenon has been reflected in various spheres of Russian public life Ц socio-political, economic, cultural and others. At the beginning of the new millennium, the abbreviation also affected the field of education, becoming part of the educational discourse", or "in recent years, the Russian educational discourse has been enriched with many new concepts, which is associated "with the adoption of federal state standards for primary, primary and higher schools, as well as for preschool education, with the implementation of various federal targeted programs, with innovations taking place at all levels of education." And against the general background of terminological nominations, abbreviations occupy a significant place in educational discourse. At the same time, it is important to note that the scope of the term-abbreviation, like any educational concept, "includes two aspects: using it in the real pedagogical process and operating it in the process of studying the pedagogical process," etc. In my opinion, the structural typology of abbreviations is successful, which quite clearly specifies the options for abbreviations. The examples given in the texts of the article are appropriate, there is a correspondence to the educational discourse: "the concepts nominating various aspects of the educational process are represented by a large number of abbreviations Ц mainly acronyms: TOGIS Ц technology of education in the global information community; OS Ц the educational environment that creates conditions for the formation of personality; GIA Ц State final certification, which takes place at the end of the school year, among grades 9 and 11 of secondary schools, to establish the level of education of students and for further issuance of a certificate; OGE Ц The main state exam that students of grade 9 take; USE Ц A unified state exam designed for 11th grade students before entering a university ..." etc. I believe that the main goal of the study has been achieved, a number of tasks have been solved; the material is appropriate to use when studying the processes of abbreviation not only in educational discourse, but also in a number of others. In the final part of the work, it is indicated that "the realities of the time are such that the terminological apparatus of the pedagogical and, in general, the educational system includes abbreviated nominations, represented, as a rule, by initial abbreviations and acronyms. Due to the active process taking place in the field of creating new terms-abbreviations reflecting the Russian education system, new concepts are emerging, many of which, on the one hand, need adequate understanding from participants in educational relations, and on the other hand, occupy an important place in the terminological system of educational discourse, although they require additional description and definitions in pedagogical and scientific-methodical literature". Thus, by the end, a certain integrity of the text is achieved, although a guideline for further study of the problem is also indicated. The basic requirements of the publication have been taken into account, editing of the text is unnecessary. I recommend the article "Structural and semantic features of abbreviation in Russian educational discourse" for open publication in the journal "Litera".
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