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Integrative voice therapy: linguistic aspect

Bordanova Anna Sergeevna

PhD in Philology

Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics and Translation Studies, St. Petersburg University of Management Technologies and Economics

190103, Russia, Saint Petersburg, Lermontovskii pr., 44, lit. A

Plistik Ol'ga Borisovna

Supervisor, Therapist, Moscow Gestalt Institute

199178, Russia, g. Saint Petersburg, ul. 10-Ya liniya vasil'evskogo ostrova, 59








Abstract: The relevance of the study of the linguistic representation of psychological practices is due to the need to introduce complex effective methods into the professional use of psychologists, allowing clients to cope with problematic psychological conditions. It is the linguistic perspective of considering these practices, the analysis of the word usage associated with them, that will increase their effectiveness by outlining the image of the linguistic personality. Interjection performs the function of mediation between the verbal and nonverbal levels, acting as an ideal linguistic element for both elaboration and representation of such psychological practice. In turn, research at the intersection of sciences will allow solving topical linguistic problems related to interjections. The article describes for the first time the author's psychological method of integrative voice therapy of O.B. Plistik and investigates the linguistic side of this technique: the features of the use of interjections in the framework of the practice "Human world order in the field of sound", which is the basis for integrative voice therapy. The article analyzes the data obtained during the survey based on the results of a free associative experiment, showing a tendency to the distribution of interjections according to the stratification developed within the framework of integrative voice therapy. The obtained results provide a rich material for the study of the features of the modern Russian-speaking picture of the world and the specific features of the linguistic personality correlated with the respondents.


interjection, integrative voice therapy, emotional sphere, stratification, language personality, the picture of the world, psychological practices, associative experiment, free associations, the survey

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

The purpose of this article was to describe the psychological practice of integrative voice therapy (hereinafter referred to as IGT) and to study the use of interjections within the framework of IGT stratification. The relevance of this work at the intersection of linguistics and psychology is due, firstly, to the need to introduce complex stress management practices into the professional use of psychologists with minimal duration and significant positive effect; secondly, the continuing interest of linguists in interjections, manifested in a large number of studies and discussions regarding the classification of this part of speech, a special mediation function between verbal and nonverbal, the inherent interjection, the convenience of its application in complex practices, the current problem of studying the expression of emotions through interjections [27], the ability to reflect the inner world of a person and the role in the study of a linguistic personality, the interest in which corresponds to the anthropological nature of modern linguistics [25].

The study of interjections is still a large field of discussion [14], therefore it is necessary to outline the scope of the concept and give a definition of interjections that reconciles numerous research positions. Interjections are taken by us in a broad sense, including onomatopoeia, onomatopoeia, particles - lexical categories, both deduced by researchers beyond the category of interjections and included in it. It seems justified to describe interjections as "a continuum extending from the simplest emotions" to feelings "closely fused with mental activity that do not exist outside of it", differing within this continuum "by the predominance of the emotional component over mental activity and vice versa" [22, 33]. We share the opinion about the validity of interjection as a linguistic unit, the presence of its meaning and the ability to decode conceptual structures. The study of interjections, which play an essential role in the realization of the category of personality, is a study of the "semiosphere of the inner world of man" [25]. Interjection is considered as a visual-sensory image associated with the direct experience of the speaker [6; 15], the primary "emotional-semiotic matrix", on the basis of which words began to appear in the process of sensory perception of the world by a person. Interjections are also "a verbalizer of human emotions, an expression of worldview attitudes of native speakers" [14, 22].

As for the term "emotion", which is significant for this study, its universal scientific definition does not yet exist [6]. The complexity of the classification of emotions, as well as the systematization of their verbal representations, is associated with "the diffuseness of the denotation and the inability to unambiguously determine the boundaries of individual emotional manifestations within the emotional continuum" [2]. "The appeal of linguists to the relationship between language and man led to the emergence of the linguistics of emotions, which mainly considers modern man as Homo Sentiens. The whole surrounding reality causes the "feeling person" to have different polar emotions, reactions to emerging stimuli, thereby forming a certain emotional field in which he exists" [17, 122]. The problem of emotivity and emotionality of language in linguistics corresponds to the view that "there are different cognitive (conceptual) structures in different parts of speech, that the distribution of words, if not completely dictated by the existing state of affairs in the world, is at least fully consistent with it" [6, 60]. The question of recognizing some emotions as basic is still open.

The potential of interjections as emotive signs in the theory of language has also not been revealed to date [6]. In the Russian language, interjections are traditionally considered as "speech signs that serve to express the emotional-volitional reactions of the subject to reality - the direct emotional transmission of experiences, sensations, affects, volitional expressions. Unlike significant parts of speech, interjections do not represent any object of the world around us, but convey a person's subjective attitude to a certain object or phenomenon" [6, 60]. The use of interjections corresponds to the principle of iconicity and economy in grammar. "These words are able to convey a variety of shades of meaning due to the expansion and displacement of their semantics in the process of historical development" [11, 130]. Researchers note a wide range of interjections, in which there is an expression of the mental or emotional state of the speaker, and attracting the attention of the listener, and a reference to action, and a description of the idea symbolized by certain sound imitations [35, 302]. At the same time, "the meaning of a number of interjections for native speakers is obscured, which emphasizes the importance of their correct lexicographic representation" [26, 147].

The classification of interjections by A. Vezhbitskaya seems to us the closest to the stratification of IGT: "1) emotive (emotional, emotional-evaluative), marking a particular emotional state of the speaker (in their semantics there is a component "I feel something"); 2) volitional (imperative, vocative), marking any desire of the speaker (have in their semantics a component "I want something" and do not have a component "I feel something"); 3) interjections of logical (intellectual) evaluation (cognitive), indicating the state or process associated with the receipt and processing of any information by the speaker (in their semantics - the component "I think something" or "I know something" [37, 3].

Interjection in voice practices gives a special code of access to emotions and feelings, facilitates the spontaneity of the speech act, but at the same time it contains a conventionality that gives structure and form to spontaneity. Interjection, bringing subjectivity to the utterance, at the same time gives a common associative core, consistent for the picture of the world of native speakers. Interjections-onomatopoeia are initially "voice signals of pre-speech communication" [9], while the interjection "directly goes back" "to the original syncretic sign, in which voice, facial expressions, gestures merged together" [15]. Interjection as a unit of research at the intersection of sciences is "an energy-modern pattern having cultural representation and colored by personal emotional experience" [24, 6]. The origins of "intonated meaning" determine the process of musical creativity, fantasy, inspiration, understanding and meaning formation in art" [9] - thus, the phenomena studied by musicologists reveal significant similarities with the linguistic category of interjection.

The beneficial effect of vocal therapy is beyond doubt, the use of mirror neurons and self-tuning of the vocal apparatus are described, resulting in a complex aesthetic experience in listeners, supported by physiological ideomotor skills [9]. Integrative voice therapy is a complex method and combines, in addition to the actual techniques of voice disclosure, a philosophical method, elements of body-oriented therapy, gestalt therapy, a systematic approach, and a transpersonal approach. IGT is the author's technique of Olga Plistik. The method has been tested in the neurosis clinic and in the practice of the author and students, vocal teachers and psychologists. (Materials of integrative voice therapy practices are available at the following links: Plistik O. B. In resonance with the soul. The practice of Integrative voice therapy for self-help in stressful situations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxIU8DRrg-w ;Plistik O. B. "7 notes" of your inner harmony // https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXooBg5Pc1o ;Plistik O. B. Method of integrative voice therapy in dealing with anxiety and panic states // https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNqs8ynYU6A ).

The basis for the development of IGT was the empirical observation of the author of the methodology that the Russian mentality is characterized by the simultaneous presence of extreme expressiveness and fear of manifesting itself both verbally and nonverbally. The spectrum of life manifested through vocal movement turns out to be closed for modern man, in connection with which there is a stop of natural natural movement. The way out of this situation was the creation and application of a comprehensive, integrative method of therapy involving all "levels" of the human personality in the therapeutic process.

The methodology is based on the idea of a person, which includes biological, social and spiritual levels. This idea, originating from philosophy, is present in the views of musicians, psychologists and linguists. Thus, A.D. Kirnarskaya describes three types of communication in a diachronic aspect related to the historical stages of information exchange. The first distinguished stage of information exchange is associated with "pre-human" forms of communication, "bodily-kinesthetic, spatial and organic communication, characterizing information exchange within the biosphere", carried out "at a direct level with the help of sensory organs and not related to semiotic systems. The second stage is social communication related to the transfer of relationships, communicative intentions and other emotional information between people. It is rooted in pre-human communication and passes into a new quality in human society," conditioned by meaningful sound (the appearance of speech) and visual symbols. "The third stage is epistemological communication related to the transmission of ideas and thoughts, based on the noosphere and the highest intellectual abilities of a person. It presupposes the existence of special sign systems - written speech, mathematical symbols and other artificial languages created for a special purpose" [13]. The researcher identifies the archetypes of invocation, petition, games and meditation associated with the types of communication [13]. It is worth noting that when extrapolated to the levels allocated by O.B.Plistik, "epistemological communication" will correspond to the transcendental level.

The emergence of IGT is directly related to both the understanding of the phenomenon of musical consciousness and the idea of musical archetypes. The sound lines of archetypes, as well as the intonation features of voice practices, are beyond the scope of our study, however, based on the data of a written survey, it will be possible to observe a correlation between the row-the rise of the vowels named by respondents and the phonetic expression of emotions.

IGT for personal and group psychotherapy uses a deep method of working through the body and voice, explores a special kind of interpersonal communication and sound as a bodily process. Scientists state [36] the success of human attempts to recreate their sensory experience with the help of sounds. Researchers distinguish "ideophones" – words related to the idea expressed by sound [11]. The sound, spontaneous and situational, instantly works both for the speaker and for the listener as a screen, a cast, in a concentrated form carrying a reflection of the physical, mental, mental, spiritual state of a person. By sound, it is possible to determine which areas of the body need support. It is through bodily awareness that the therapeutic effect of IGT is achieved. O.B. Plistik says: "It is necessary to be aware of what we are in resonance with. A modern person needs to lower attention "from the head to the heart." The head in the psychological picture of the world is only an analyzer of signals coming from the body and from the senses. Sound helps us "stay in the body, vibration helps activate the vital impulse." It is necessary to voice your condition in order to maintain psychological health, and it is interjections that can perform this function without losing concentration on the center of the body. The interjection connects the semantic zones of speech with the "sonorous" and "bodily" ones involved in the bodily process of the speaker and the listener (see Plistik O. B. In resonance with the soul. The practice of Integrative voice therapy for self-help in stressful situations; Plistik O. B. "7 notes of your inner harmony").

The task of IGT practice is to find a balance between the expressible and the inexpressible, without the need to resort to a lexical, denotative, layer of language. This task is due to the difference in mental constructions even among speakers of the same linguistic picture of the world, as well as the need to preserve the spontaneity of the speech act and the associated time savings.

The practice of IGT begins with "bodily grounding" and the adoption of a comfortable pose by the participants, visualization of vital energy rising along the center of the body and diverging to its periphery. Through vibration, sound spreads through the bone tissue through the body, and then through the muscle tissue to the periphery of the body. Opening and relaxing the mouth is noted as a condition of bodily relaxation and a path to authenticity. Through sound, the body receives information about its presence in space, the reaction of the body's proprioceptive system, which can be verbally formulated with the affirmative "I am". The author of the technique has confirmed on empirical material that in an extremely relaxed state of the body and psyche, only interjections can be uttered. Linguistic researchers note the connection between verbal and nonverbal expression of emotions (for example, "the speech activity of a subject experiencing fright may be accompanied by external activity of the body" [4]).

The practice of IGT contains "work with the soul". However, the category of the soul used in the practice of IGT and widely used by philosophers and psychologists is still unprovable by scientific method. This category was developed by A. Maslow. Speaking about the higher nature of man, the scientist expands the subject field of classical psychology, turning to a new concept of psychology, going beyond the individual (manifestation of personality as such) and transpersonal (manifestation of personality in interaction with society). Thanks to A. Maslow, "the inner spiritual world of man and the range of possibilities for his spiritual growth" became visible to scientists [5].

In the theoretical part of the IGT, O.B. Plistik draws attention to the diverse lexical compatibility of the word "soul": "the soul rejoices, hurts, yearns, cries, glows", making the observation that the soul has a whole life. The easiest way to get to the soul is through sound, and not verbal. About 85% of the "listening" is not connected with verbal communication, but is "translated by the whole essence" of a person, representing the "untranslatable language" of the soul. "The specificity of voice therapy is that it instantly appears on the territory of the soul." "The soul of another person, manifested through sound." The theory of IGT is characterized by the antithesis "intellect-soul", mental - soul (O.B. Plistik).

What has been said about the category of the soul (in particular, instant access to the emotional sphere, a close connection with nonverbal, a strong relationship with the nature of the sound) is also characteristic of the interjection functionality. Using the concept of a language need that is not reducible to a communicative need, but includes "a whole set of needs reflecting the interrelation of socio-cultural priorities in the field of language communication and personal hierarchy of values" [18, 171], we can talk about the need for a linguistic representation of all three strata of IGT. "As independent components of the language need, we can single out the need for language as a way of self-identification and the need for language as a source of emotional experiences. The first of these needs can have both an instrumental function (the use of language as a means of achieving a certain social position, obtaining a profession) and a spiritual and symbolic one (unification through language by an ethnos, a nation). The second is connected with the deep historical roots of humanity as a whole, but its actualization is largely determined by the socio-cultural characteristics of society" [18, 172].

In this study, we will limit ourselves to describing the basic, first IGT technique associated with the use of interjections and visualization, called "The human world order in the field of sound." This therapeutic practice is aimed at establishing contact with different levels of self. The levels can be represented as an isosceles triangle drawn horizontally into three layers.

The lower part of the triangle illustrates the proportion of biological sound, a vocal manifestation aimed at voicing one's own biological process, at contact with one's own nature: the base of the triangle corresponds to the animal structure of the "I", and this is the absolute majority of all reproduced sounds. At this level there are biological sounds that can be recognized in your body and in your environment, representing yawning, hiccuping, snoring, sneezing, slurping, coughing, moaning, varieties of laughter (neighing, laughing, giggling, cackling, hysterical laughter), crying (and its characteristics: loud, sobbing, screaming, tearing, whining, grunting, whining, silent), singing, gnashing teeth, smacking, screaming, or, squeaking, screeching, etc. (biological sounds are given here in the order listed by the participants of the training "In resonance with the soul. The practice of Integrative voice therapy for self-help in stressful situations"). As a rule, respondents name about 40-50 sounds, but an adult makes about five of these sounds in practice, which, according to O.B. Plistik, certainly leads to bodily stiffness, total inability to express himself. At the biological level, there is also a significant layer of rhythmic music associated with the animal nature of man.

The second level is associated with society, the communicative horizontal, communication with their own kind and mainly with speech communication (including the widespread use of interjections at this level). The middle segment of the triangle can be called the horizontal level of communication. Participants note the difficulty of sounding in front of others, but also copying each other's facial expressions and sounds, social consistency. During socialization, there is a regulation of the sound by the norms of society. At the social level, there is a layer of music associated with the social interaction of people (in particular, folklore music, a circular phenomenon associated with the creation of community).

The third level, graphically placed by the author at the top of the triangle, is associated with transcendence, spirituality, with the above-mentioned concept of the soul. This level is actualized when in contact with art, music, which gives a person a sense of himself in connection with something larger, a supra-temporal vertical. This level has different cultural interpretations: archetypal reality, field, quantum world and other names denoting knowledge within us. At the third level of the world order, a person comes into harmony with silence or in resonance with sounds conducting to the upper level (church singing, classical music, mantras, sounds of nature). The appearance of "goosebumps" was noted as a bodily response when activating this level.

Researchers of interjections from the perspective of linguistics, as a rule, stop at the cognitive level, and not at the spiritual, transcendental, however, the cognitive level can remain unaffected, since the overwhelming majority of linguists talk about the emotive and communicative-volitional function of interjections [6].

A person lives mainly in the communication zone, but using interjections from the proprioceptive, biological level and bringing them to the transpersonal level with a focus on breathing and a variety of self-manifestation at different levels and in different vectors of its manifestation allows a person to become more stable, more stable, more holistic and cope with the challenges that the modern the world.

In this paper, an attempt is made to study the existing linguistic picture of the world in the Russian cultural environment through the study of the distribution of interjections on the three basic levels of the IGT "Human world order in the field of sound".

The use of interjections according to the stratification used in IGT.

Based on the need to confirm interjection uses by the "real linguistic consciousness of native speakers" [22, 33-34], an associative experiment was chosen as a way to study the distribution of interjections according to three levels of IGT. By allowing us to get closer to the mental lexicon, the associative experiment "opens access to verbal memory, illustrates cultural stereotypes, reveals the content of the concept in the mental space, allows us to rank the signs that form the concept [28, 169]. The results of such a study allow us to form an idea not only about the linguistic personality, but also to trace the features of the national linguistic picture of the world, "the connection with the cultural and historical layer of the formation of the nation" [28, 170]. The linguistic personality is understood by us as "a set of human abilities and characteristics that determine the creation and perception of speech works, language competence characterized by the depth and accuracy of reflection of reality, the degree of structural and linguistic complexity" [12, 59], inextricably linked with word usage and the richness of vocabulary, through the study of which it is possible to understand the hierarchy of meanings and values, allowing, in turn, to get closer to understanding the national picture of the world. At the same time, the diversity and difference of individual linguistic worldviews is valuable [7].

The associative experiment was conducted according to the method of free associations. Respondents received a task for an individual written response, without strict time limits and the number of possible associations. The method of free associations used in the work also included an interactive component, the possibility of contacting respondents for clarifying questions and obtaining additional information. The respondent indicated age, gender and occupation. Additional information was found out about the respondents whose answers were unique in their group (including the source of the association).

The survey participants were given a task:

"Write your answers to the following three questions:

1. What interjection (*) can illustrate your state when you are sad/joyful/ scared/ hurt/ are you surprised?

2. What interjection can illustrate your appeal to other people?

3. What interjection can illustrate your feeling of connection with the Higher Principle, outer space, transcendence? That state when goosebumps run from your favorite music or when you fall in love?

For each state, there may be several examples of interjections that you utter or want to utter, but are confused.

Your name will not be indicated anywhere, only the age category and gender.

(*) Interjection is a special part of speech associated with expression and emotions. Examples in English, so as not to affect the Russian sample: exclamations (ouch!, wow!), curses (damn!), voiced reflections (uh, er, um), etc."

In order to clarify the essence of the term and not to direct the choice of the Russian-speaking audience in the field of word usage, basic monosyllabic interjections from the English language, understandable to all respondents, related to expressions of emotions in a speech act, were taken for illustration.

Thus, the survey included eight main associations:

5 types of interjections corresponding to the first, biological stratum of the IGT "Human world order in the field of sound", aimed at reflecting one's own emotions of sadness, joy, fear, pain, surprise and not involving the obligatory presence of the interlocutor,

1 interjection corresponding to the second, communicative stratum of IGT, associated with an outward orientation towards society/the interlocutor,

1 interjection corresponding to the third communicative stratum of IGT, manifesting an outward orientation associated with a transcendental experience.

100 respondents took part in the survey, the age category of participants was 21-45 years old. The composition of the participants is relatively homogeneous in terms of belonging of all respondents to the same social class (intelligentsia, students and specialists – the so-called middle class) and homogeneous in terms of belonging to the same ethnic group (Russians). 16 respondents gave 1 answer to each question, 84 respondents gave more than 2 answers to one question. As a result of the survey, 2523 associative reactions were obtained. The results are presented below in the form of usage columns. After each interjection, the percentage of respondents who gave the appropriate answer is indicated. Interjections are arranged in order of decreasing frequency of mention by respondents. In parentheses on one line there are variants of interjections with prosodies and repetitions. As the main variant of word usage with different severity of prosody in respondents, we will leave an interjection with one vowel (if there is a consonant) or with two identical vowels (if there is no consonant). Interjections with graphic differences (capitalization, punctuation marks) were not written out separately.

Among the respondents there were 4 people who had passed Olga Plistik's IGT training and were well acquainted with the stratification available in IGT, but their answers did not show significant differences from the answers of other respondents. Within the framework of this work, no comparison was made between the results of spontaneous use of interjections by the participants of the IGT seminar and the results of a written survey, in which the respondents had a lot of time and had no observers.

I. The first stratum is characterized by the following distribution of pronouns:

1) An interjection expressing sadness:

1. Oh (Oh oh, Ohh, Ohoho, Oh-ho-ho) - 89%

2. Eh (Eh eh eh, Ehhhh, Ehehee, Eheeeh) - 21%

3. Yyy (Yyyyy) - 19%

4. Uh (Uh, Uh) - 9%

5. Oh, no - 7%

6. Hnyk (Hnyyk) - 6%

7. U-u-u- 5%

8. Ah (Aah) - 4%

9. Ee - 3%

10. Oh - 3%

11. O-o-o-3%

12. Alas - 3%

13. Well, here - 3%

14. Oh how - 2%

15. Well, damn - 2%

16. M-yes - 2%

17. Wow - 2%

A single use of interjections expressing sadness: 3yyyy, Meow-meow (with an explanation: "in our family, it has been transferred to the category of interjections. Sigh, say "meow-meow...", be hugged by a spouse"), Rrr, Aaa (marked "disappointment"). There are 187 word uses in total.

2) An interjection expressing joy:

1. Ah (Ahhhh, Ahh) - 80%

2. Her (Eeeeeee, Eeeee) - 76%

3. Wow (Wow) - 67%

4. Juhu (Yahoo, Yu-hu, Vuhu) - 63%

5. Uii (Uiiiiii) - 61%

6. Yes (Daaa, Daa) - 42%

7. Hurrah- 30%

8. Ogo (Ogogo, Ogogoshenki) - 29%

9. Class - 27%

10. Oo (Oooh) - 27%

11. Cool (Cool) - 27%

12. Wow (Wow, Wow) - 26%

13. Super - 24%

14. Great - 19%

14. Cool - 16%

15. Awesome - 14%

16. Pancake - 9%

17. Bravo - 7%

18. Wow - 7%

19. Aa (Aaaaa) - 4%

20. Egey (E-ge-gay) - 4%

21. Eey - 3%

22. Rapture - 3%

23. Bingo - 3%

24. Oh - 2%

A single use of interjections expressing joy: Mya, 3eeeeee, Pidum-pidum, Hehe. There are 674 word uses in total.

3. An interjection expressing fear:

1. Oh (Oh, oh, oh, oh, oh) - 81%

2. Aa (Aaaaa) - 73%

3. Moms - 30%

4. Damn - 29%

5. Horror - 26%

6. Lord - 18%

7. Pancake - 17%

8. God - 15%

9. Nightmare - 10%

10. Batyushki - 7%

11. Brrr - 5%

12. Horror - 5%

13. Tin - 5%

14. Yy - 3%

15. Ah - 3%

16. Oh - 3%

17. Ai - 3%

18. Mlya - 2%

19. Oo (Oooooh on the inhale) - 2%

20. Your w - 2%

A single use of interjections expressing fear: Hchchch, Kh, Shh. There are 342 word uses in total.

4. An interjection expressing pain:

1. Ai (Ai-yai-yai, Ai-ai) - 90%

2. Oh - 61%

3. Au (Ouch) - 43%

4. Mmmm! (Mmm, Mooing) - 16%

5. Mom - 12%

6. Damn (Oh damn) - 11%

7. Pancake (Mliiin, Mlin) - 5%

8. Uy - 4%

9. Aaa - 4%

10. Ou (Oooh) - 2%

11. E-moe - 2%

A single use of interjections expressing pain: Ss, Ts, Asch, Tzhm. There are 254 word uses in total.

5. An interjection expressing surprise:

1. Wow! - 92%

2. Wow (Wow) - 78%

3. Oo (Oooh, Oooh, etc.) - 61%

4. Wow - 34%

5. Ou - 20%

6. Awesome - 16%

7. Aah (Hah) - 10%

8. Daa (M-daa) - 10%

9. Oh - 10%

10. Wow - 3%

11. Olya - 2%

12. Oh, come on - 2%

13. Well and well - 2%

14. Wow - 2%

A single use of interjections expressing surprise: Look, What, Hmm, Nothing, Come on. There are 347 word uses in total.

II. To express the values of the second stratum , the use of the following interjections is characteristic:

1. Hey - 71%

2. Sorry (Sorry, please, sorry, I'm sorry) - 58%

3. Hi - 37%

4. Hello - 28%

5. Khe-khe (Gkhm, Gh) - 28%

6. Yo (yo) - 27%

7. Hey (hey) - 23%

8. Uh (Uh, Uh, etc.) - 21%

9. Egey - 9%

10. Priv - 9%

11. Au - 8%

12. Hello - 8%

13. Great - 8%

14. O - 3%

15. Be kind - 3%

16. Go (Go) - 3%

17. Ida - 2%

A single use of interjections on the second stratum: Clucking with the tongue, Etsamoe, Stop. There are 349 word uses in total.

III. The expression of the values of the third stratum is characterized by the use of the following interjections (with great variability in the graphical representation of prosody in all uses, occurring more often than 4% of cases):

1. Ah (Ahh, Ahh, etc.) - 60%

2. Wow (Waau, Waaau) - 54%

3. God (Oh God) - 27%

4. Mm (Mmmmm) - 23%

5. Daa (Daaa) - 22%

6. Uii - 20%

7. Ee - 20%

8. About daa - 15%

9. Oo - 14%

10. Aa (Aaaa) - 13%

11. Lord - 13%

12. Oh - 10%

13. Ai - 10%

14. U-hu - 6%

15. Ogogo - 5%

16. Aau - 4%

17. Good - 4%

18. Inhale without sound - 4%

19. Uh (Uuh) - 4%

20. Oum (Oumm) - 4%

21. Ai - 3%

22. Fine - 3%

23. Great - 3%

24. Batyushki - 3%

25. Wow - 3%

26. Thank you, God - 2%

27. Bozhechki - 2%

28. UV - 2%

29. Vah - 2%

30. Well and well - 2%

A single use of interjections on the third stratum: Yaba-daba, M-aaaaaaa, S-ssss-sss, HS-ssss-sss ("ancient dinosaur sound"), Oh, heaven, Bravissimo, Ur, Uv, Eah, Waaaayayaya, Wahhhhh, Waay, Oh m-m-m. There are 370 word uses in total.

The survey shows a large number of variations of prosodies and repetitions based on monosyllabic primary interjections as an attempt by respondents to accurately display the sound on the letter: oh–oh–oh-oh-oh, etc.

In general, the task did not cause any difficulties for the respondents, but the complexity of the verbal expression of the third stratum was noted.: 20% of participants reported more time spent responding to the third point (corresponding to the third stratum of IGT), 19% of respondents reported the inability to express this experience verbally ("In this state, I usually don't want to express anything, even interjections, at such moments I stop thinking," – respondent Zh, 34). Also, this difficulty is presumably related both to the general tendency of fear to manifest itself ("it's awkward to voice some points" - respondent Z, 38) and to the possible absence of stratification similar to IGT in the respondents' worldview ("I've never thought how you can fix such a state with words" - respondent M, 31; "it turns out, we are talking about the voice of the soul" - respondent Zh, 28).

In the first place in terms of the frequency of mentions by respondents are the units that represent the most common layer of monosyllabic primary interjections. The expression of sadness corresponds to 89% of the use of the interjection Oh, joy - 80% of the use of the interjection Ah, fear - 81% of the use of the interjection Oh, pain - 90% of the use of the interjection Ai, surprise - 92% of the use of the interjection Oh, for the second stratum (expression of communication) - 71% of the use of the interjection Hey. This observation confirms the opinion of researchers that "every language has a certain potential for expression. The knowledge of how, when and which emotional interjections should be used belongs to background knowledge" [27, 419]. At the same time, it is worth taking into account the written nature of the survey, because the question of the oral realization of language potential remains outside the scope of this study. Despite the opinion of researchers that formally shorter interjections have the largest range of emotional meanings [21], we observe a fairly clear distribution of basic interjections in seven categories.

At the same time, the distribution of the use of interjections for the third stratum gives the largest number of variants: 30 repetitive uses and 13 unique ones. One can observe a significant intersection of the interjections of the third stratum with the interjections of joy and reconciliation. The researchers described the variety of interjections and interjective expressions in the Russian language, explicating the emotion "joy". Here are the found coincidences of the word usage of interjections explicating transcendence and interjections of joy expression in the following order: the main interjection of the third stratum, its ordinal number in the list, the number of mentions by respondents as a percentage - the interjection of joy expression of the first stratum, the ordinal number of the main interjection in the list, the number of mentions by respondents as a percentage.

The third stratum: 1. Ah, 60%, interjection of joy expression: 1. Ah, 80%.

The third stratum: 2. Wow, 54% - interjection of joy expression: 3. Wow, 67%.

The third stratum: 5. Yeah, 22% - interjection of joy expression: 6. Yes, 42%.

The third stratum: 6. Uii, 20% - interjection of joy expression: 5. Uii, 61%.

The third stratum: 7. Ee, 20% - interjection of joy expression: 2. Her, 76%.

The third stratum: 9. Oo, 14% - interjection of joy expression: 10. Ooh, 27%.

The third stratum: 10. Aa, 13% - interjection of joy expression: 19. Aa, 4%.

The third stratum: 14. U-hoo, 6% - interjection of joy expression: 4. Juhu, 63%.

The third stratum: 15. Ogogo, 5% - interjection of joy expression: 8. Wow, 29%.

The third stratum: 19. Uh, 4% - interjection of joy expression: 12. Uh, 26%.

The third stratum: 25. Wow, 3% is an interjection of joy expression: 18. Wow, 7%.

The third stratum: 22. Fine, 3% and 23. Great, 3% - expressions of joy are represented by other interjections of the same LSP: 13. Super - 24%, 14. Great - 19%, 14. Cool - 16%, 15. Awesome - 14%, 17. Bravo - 7%, 22. Delight - 3%, 23. Bingo - 3%.

Researchers also note a greater "use of interjective expressions with a sacred semantic component (Thank God, Thank God)" [1, 67] in Russian speech, in comparison with other cultures. The second aspect is explained by the feeling inherent in Russian linguoculture of "dependence of everything that happens on a higher power and inability to control the state of affairs in the world" [1, 67]. This provision also requires additional verification, since the maximum number of word usage with a sacred semantic component (42) is observed by us relative to the third stratum of IGT (3. God (Oh God) - 27%, 11. Lord - 13%, 26. Thank you, God - 2%, 27. God - 2%). In other cases, interjective expressions with a sacred semantic component were found only in responses to the emotion of fear (8. God - 15%).

In the choice of certain lexical units as the most commonly used, dependence on extralinguistic factors was traced: a correlation of responses and components of the respondents' linguistic personality was found. Thus, taking into account the belonging of all respondents to one social class (intelligentsia, students and specialists – the so-called middle class) and one ethnic group (Russians), a pattern of dependence of word usage on age, gender, subcultural (related to belonging to a specific speech community) affiliation was revealed. In the modern language, mainly in slang, a certain group of interjections is actively used, which has not yet received lexicographic interpretation [26]. The most different cases of word usage (slang words, Anglicisms) were recorded in the responses of men aged 20-30 years. So, the most stylistically vivid answers were given by a representative of the basketball subculture (M, 23 years old), among which specific jargonisms (Waaaayayayaya), expressive interjections unusual for the Russian language (Wahhhhh Yo, Wow, Yeeeee).

Many respondents graphically highlighted the interjection as a syntactic unity. Respondents of the 20-30 age group more often used graphemes, emojis, brackets to clarify and graphically design interjections in their answers.

In the survey results, we see an abundance of interjections introduced from the English language: uii, wow (wow), yee, hey, yo, wu-hu, go, ouch, ya-hu, etc., essentially representing transcribed English-language whee, wow, yeah, hey, yo, woo hoo, go, ouch, yahoo, French-language o la la, borrowed from the language of meditation originating from Sanskrit mmm, oum. In connection with the survey results, it is worth mentioning that researchers consider modern language processes associated with the active entry of borrowed interjections into the Russian language (in particular, the wow interjection) and conclude about the adaptation of this interjection, the transition to other lexico-grammatical classes, the susceptibility to reduplication, participation in the formation of new words and even penetration into the sphere of terminology [23]. Interjections are formed on the basis of speech facts and are assimilated from the experience of previous native speakers, in accordance with the evolutionary view of the development of language "as a special communicative-verbal system, where each sign is used to perform a communicative-informative function" [14, 22]. At the same time, researchers pay attention to the gradual displacement of many Russian interjections from everyday life, finding "creolizing" ("simulating") translated texts of mass culture <...> appealing, from an emotional point of view, exclusively to the so-called zero level of linguistic personality" [8, 166]. The mechanisms of "creolization" lead to "primitivizing crossing" with the recipient linguoculture and fundamentally prevent the transition of the linguistic personality to the linguistic-cognitive level, which, according to the concept of Y.N. Karaulov, assumes that the linguistic personality has a choice [8, 167]. Stylistic variations were traced in the use of slang, subcultural, euphemistic interjections. The survey showed a large impact of borrowing, proportionally increasing as the age of respondents decreases. Perhaps this trend is evidence of generational dynamics towards creolization and simplification of language, which directly cause negative processes in thinking, but further research is needed to distinguish between negative trends and possible features inherent in a multicultural multilingual personality. "The most vulnerable area of modern Russian linguoculture is translations from English in the field of mass culture" [8, 165].

Interjections-homonyms (or polysemous interjections) are the most frequent for several groups – native Russian (ah, oh, oh, ay, hey). Borrowed interjections (as a rule, transcribed interjections of the English language) seem to be more unambiguous in expressing the emotional background of the speaker.

Considering the responses of respondents indicated only by a vowel sound (with different levels of prosody), we can make the following generalizations. And (upper rise, front row): most often occurs as a variant of the explication of the emotion of joy (61%) and the third stratum (10% of the word usage for the third stratum), S (upper rise, middle row): most often occurs as an explication of the emotions of sadness (19%), Y (upper rise, back row): most often occurs as an explication of sadness (5%), E (middle rise, front row) is most often found as an explication of the second stratum (21%), with a yote sound - for the emotion of joy (76%) and the third stratum (20%), O (middle rise, back row) is most often found as an explication of surprise (61%), the second stratum (3%), the third stratum (14%), emotions of joy (27%) sadness (3%), fear (2%). A (lower ascent, middle row): most often occurs as an explication of the emotions of fear (73%) and pain (4%), however, it is also present in the third stratum (13%), and to express joy (4%). However, of course, this study can continue only taking into account the intonational specifics of pronouncing vowels (and combinations of vowels) to express emotions.

So, the practice of IGT "Human world order in the field of sound" demonstrates three semantic strata, the distribution of interjections according to which was revealed during a survey using the method of free associations. The main difficulty for the respondents was the need to "express the inexpressible", transcendence at the verbal level. Despite O.B. Plistik's observation that people make very few sounds illustrating their own physicality, the survey showed 1,804 word usage associated with the first stratum, and a significant quantitative advantage was given by the respondents' responses related to the manifestation of the emotion of joy (674 word usage, which on average is twice the number of word usage associated with the expression other emotions). This result allows us to talk about the limitations associated with the situational-speech expression of five emotions already present in the form of interjections in the language and easily reproduced by respondents in writing.

Interjection, having shown itself to be a productive link between feeling and verbalism, valuable for studying the linguistic picture of the world, can further serve as fruitful material for research. Interjections are the only level of language suitable for dealing with stress, for expressing internal states with the help of expressive words and working with them. Interjections can be used both as a diagnostic: phonetic and linguistic response, and as a linguistic marker of the therapy process, and as a means of voicing therapeutic processes. The row-lift correlation of vowel sounds of interjections and the projection of physiological states on the sound deserves a separate study.

The results of the work can be used in psychological practice, in psycholinguistics, studies of linguistic personality and worldview through the analysis of interjections used, in language learning. The purpose of this article was not to create a new classification of interjections, however, we consider it productive to study the linguistic picture of the world to distinguish interjective word usage at three levels of the practice of IGT "Human world order in the field of sound".

The characteristics of the features of the national linguistic picture of the world reflected in interjections, according to our sample, are ambiguous: the data obtained demonstrate trends in word usage, which can be considered both in the context of the increasing creolization of the Russian language and in the context of replenishing it with a new layer of words, the range of meanings of which has yet to be explored. The author's word usage included in the individual picture of the world, subculture features, obsolete words, slang words, euphemisms imprinted in speech deserve to be studied with a wider sample.


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The article "Integrative voice therapy: a linguistic aspect" submitted for consideration, proposed for publication in the journal "Litera", is undoubtedly relevant, the need to introduce complex stress management practices into professional use by psychologists with minimal duration and significant positive effect; the interest of linguists in interjections, manifested in a large number of studies and discussions regarding the classification of this part of speech, the special function of mediation between verbal and nonverbal, inherent in interjection, the convenience of its application in complex practices, the current problem of studying the expression of emotions through interjections, the ability to reflect the inner world of a person and the role in the study of a linguistic personality, the interest in which corresponds to the anthropological character of modern linguistics. The purpose of this article is to describe the psychological practice of integrative voice therapy and to study the use of interjections within the framework of the stratification of IGT. It should be noted that in the study the author considers both the theoretical basis of the problem field concerned and the practical problems. The research was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing the formulation of the problem, the main part, traditionally beginning with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, a research and final one, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. Structurally, the article consists of several semantic parts, namely: introduction, literature review, methodology, research progress, conclusions. The article presents a research methodology, the choice of which is quite adequate to the goals and objectives of the work. The author turns, among other things, to statistical methods to confirm the hypothesis put forward. This work was done professionally, in compliance with the basic canons of scientific research. We note the scrupulous work of the author on the selection of material and its analysis. The bibliography of the article contains 38 sources, among which both domestic and foreign works are presented. We believe that the list of references is sufficient and contains relevant authoritative works in the field under study: scientific articles, dissertations. However, we consider it incorrect to include links to Internet sources in the text of the article, it would be more convenient to place the output data in the bibliographic list. Some typos and technical errors were found in the article, for example, "with an explanation ...". However, these remarks are not essential and do not relate to the scientific content of the reviewed work. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. The results of the work can be used in psychological practice, in psycholinguistics, studies of linguistic personality and worldview through the analysis of interjections used, in language learning. The article "Integrative voice therapy: linguistic aspect" is recommended for publication in the journal from the list of the Higher Attestation Commission.
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