Статья 'Теория аспектуальности русской школы в фокусе китайской лингвистической школы' - журнал 'Litera' - NotaBene.ru
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The theory of the aspectuality of the Russian school in the focus of the Chinese linguistic school

Lyu Xinyan

Postgraduate student, Department of Russian Language and Methods of its Teaching, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia

117198, Russia, Moskovskaya Oblast' oblast', g. Moscow, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya, 6, aud. -

l.sinyan@yandex.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8698.2022.6.38040

EDN:

RBWZYK

Received:

11-05-2022


Published:

04-07-2022


Abstract: The subject of the research is the theory of aspectuality in Russian and Chinese languages: this theory defines the main ways to prevent linguistic interference (the consequences of the influence of one language on another) among students. The object of the study is the theoretical study of the verb of the Russian and Chinese languages. The author examines in detail the functional characteristics of the category of aspectuality in Russian and Chinese languages. In addition, he explores the meaning of aspectual forms in the system of Russian and Chinese languages, etc. Particular attention is paid to identifying patterns in the Russian and Chinese grammar, defining verbal grammatical semantics, comparing the languages with further description and systematization of aspectual meanings and means of their transmission. The main conclusions of the study are related to the specificity of the theory of aspectuality of the Russian school in the focus of the Chinese linguistic school. The Russian verb is the central section of the grammatical system, acting as the core of the sentence and denoting the variability of reality. In Chinese language, the verb serves as an important component of the part-speech system, correlates with the subject, expressed pronoun or noun. The author's special contribution to the study of the topic is to identify the functional and semantic characteristics of the category of aspectuality in Russian and Chinese languages. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time, within the framework of the typological approach, a comparative analysis of the problems is made: the problems are connected with the category of aspectuality in Russian and Chinese languages, with the category of the aspect of the verb, with its internal form as a specific way of displaying and presenting knowledge about the world, a special «linguistic worldview».


Keywords:

the aspectual system of the language, theory of aspectuality, type category, viewmodern relations, national picture of the world, the meaning of species forms, Chinese linguistic school, extralinguistic factors, species pairs, functional characteristics

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

1. Introduction

One of the most difficult sections of the study of Russian and Chinese languages is the theory of aspectuality, which is currently insufficiently developed and has a number of open theoretical questions (for example, regarding the essence of the verb type, criteria for the pairing of specific verbs, grammatical meaning of the verb type, etc.). All this, of course, actualizes the problem under consideration, and also translates It is transferred from the plane of "descriptive research to typological" [1, p. 68], i.e. the emphasis is placed on identifying the patterns of development of Russian and Chinese grammar, determining verbal grammatical semantics, comparing the languages under consideration with further description and systematization of aspectual meanings and means of their transmission.

Russian Russian linguistics As part of achieving the goal of this work (which is to identify the specifics of the theory of aspectuality of the Russian school in the focus of the Chinese linguistic school, which defines (theory) the main ways to prevent linguistic interference in students), it is advisable to solve a number of tasks: firstly, to present a functional characteristic of the category of aspectuality in Russian and Chinese; secondly, to consider the meanings of species forms in the system of Russian and Chinese languages. To identify the specifics of the theory of the aspectuality of the Russian school in the focus of the Chinese linguistic school, general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison, analogy), methods of logical analysis, classification of logical groupings, methods of evaluation and interpretation of factual material are used in the work.

The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time, within the framework of a typological approach, a comparative analysis of problems related to the category of aspectuality in the Russian and Chinese languages, with the category of the verb type, with its internal form as a specific way of displaying and presenting knowledge about the world, a special "linguistic worldview" was carried out

The theoretical basis of the research was the work of modern Russian and Chinese scientists considering the problems of the theory of aspectuality in Russian and Chinese, including in the comparative aspect (L. G. Abdrakhimov [2], I. I. Akimov [3], E. A. Berezovskaya, A. N. Vasilyeva [4], Wang Xuemei [5], E. A. Gorobets [6], D. A. Karpeka [7], S. A. Karpukhin [8], Peng Fan [1], E. N. Remchukova [9], [10], , , ?11?, ? [11], etc.). Practical significance Russian Russian language teaching methods in the Chinese audience, the selection of material, methods of explanation, fixing the category of the species, in scientific work directly related to the consideration of the specifics of the species theory in the Chinese language in the context of the theory of the type of the Russian verb. Russian Russian linguistics, Russian Chinese linguistics, comparative grammar of Russian and Chinese languages, as well as the theory of Russian-Chinese translation, can also be introduced in order to prevent language interference in the course of training Russian philologists, linguists, translators in the disciplines: Russian and Chinese linguistics, comparative grammar of Russian and Chinese languages, as well as the theory of Russian-Chinese translation.

 

2. Functional characteristics of the category of aspectuality in Russian and Chinese

In the framework of the consideration of the functional characteristics of the category of aspectuality, first of all, it should be noted that in the Russian language verbs are divided into two main groups: perfect verbs (SV) and imperfect verbs (NSV). At the same time, the SV verbs indicate a unidirectional action, the unfolding of an action from one fact to another in a single system of events; the NSV verbs do not have such specifics of use, they (unlike the SV verbs indicating the dynamism of the action) assume static [8]. At the same time, all Russian verbs, falling into the field of this category, form specific pairs (with the exception of two-species and single-species verbs, the semantics of which are expressed contextually).

The category of aspectuality in Chinese is also inherent in all verbs, however, there is no pairing among verbs, verbs do not have a clear division into SV and NSV. In Chinese, only one grammatical meaning is formed in a certain context without exceptions (either SV or NSV). In Russian linguistics, the species is designated as a grammatical category that has a formally expressed opposition in the grammatical meanings of SV and NSV [6; 9], whereas in Chinese, the functional-semantic characteristic of features is expressed by non-morphological means, and with the help of "syntactic and lexical means, modal and service words, etc." [11, p. 338].

From the point of view of functionality, the most clearly specific forms of the Russian verb in their diversity are manifested in colloquial speech. The choice of the type in this case is influenced by various extralinguistic factors; the choice is also due to the "category of aspectuality in its understanding" [3, p. 221]. In works of art, as well as in the colloquial sphere, the verbs SV and NSV are equivalent in number. The same is observed in the journalistic style, reflecting the dynamic reality, which (style) bears the imprint of conversational and artistic styles. In official business and scientific genres, the forms of NSV dominate quantitatively, since they are more abstract (for example, in official business speech: a diploma is awarded, property is transferred, rights are secured, etc.; in scientific speech, in particular, as an element of sustainable expression: a methodology is formed, a task is solved, relevance is determined, etc.Accordingly, considering the various styles and the use of the category of aspect of the Russian verb in them, it is possible to distinguish the peculiarity of each style – the abstract-generalized nature of speech and the degree of its concreteness, expressed in the predominance of a specific type. It is very important to take this aspect into account during the functional assessment of the SV and NSV of the Russian verb.

Russian Russian is defined primarily by the fact that the Chinese language is focused on a special national picture of the world, which reflects the ethnic worldview of the Chinese, Chinese culture and way of thinking, which is significantly different from the worldview of native speakers of the Russian language, since Chinese and Russian ethnic groups and their linguistic worldview are formed in different geographical areas. and cultural conditions [12]. For example, Tan Aoshuang, noted "the hidden nature of the grammatical system of the Chinese language" [13, p. 22]; he emphasized the orientation of language meanings to the Chinese ethnic group. I.e., a relatively simple sentence construction (significant + service units) indicates the hidden nature of the grammatical system based on a fixed word order and the presence of service elements. However, the service elements of the Chinese language do not have fixed functions, which indicates the intuitive nature of the expression of a particular grammatical category, including the type.

Wang Xuemei emphasizes the absence of a separate grammatical category of the form of the Chinese verb due to the fact that in the Chinese language verbs have no internal inflection, so the meaning of the form is transmitted through the aspect [5], which includes the type, mode of action, the nature of the course of action. In Chinese, aspectual meanings are conveyed by verbs in combination with various means of the Chinese language (formants). In particular, the following aspectual categories can be distinguished:

· perfect aspect (combination of verb with service word ?/ le);

· long aspect (combination of verbs and service words ?/zhe or ?/zh?);

· tested aspect (verbs in combination with the service word ? / guo);

· short-term aspect (indicated by a brief or weakened action: / k?nk?n / watch, / d?ngd?ng / wait) [3].

In a simplified form, this classification includes a perfect aspect (productive verbs) and a short-term aspect (a combination of a verb with a modifier expressing an aspectual meaning). However, the importance of effectiveness by many modern linguists is not associated with aspectuality.

 

3. The meanings of species forms in the system of Russian and Chinese languages

To date, the study of the meanings of specific forms of the verb is one of the promising areas of modern linguistics, since the emphasis on verbal semantics allows us to resolve some controversial issues. In particular, the question concerning the semantics of the Russian verb expressed by "reaching the limit" and "striving to reach the limit" [8, p. 15]. So, if a verb has SV, then it is characterized by the presence of the semantics of "reaching the limit"; if the verb has NSV, then it is characterized by the semantics of "striving to reach the limit". At the same time, the semantics of the "inner limit" is not characteristic of verbs with an unsaturated basis (such NSB verbs do not have an opposition in appearance). The value of the action is transmitted in this case by the time plan. Thus, the beginning (to light), the end (to sing), the time period of the action (to run), the limitation, the limit of the action by the one-act commission (to shoot) are determined: this is expressed with the help of some prefixes, as well as the suffix -nu- (this suffix is characteristic of unpaired verbs of SV) [5]. Affixes forming unpaired verbs of SV contribute to the expression of the limitation of action in an unsaturated basis.

Since the ambiguity of the Russian verb affects the discrepancies in the formation of the SV and NSV, the question of identifying patterns of "determining the specific expansion of forms of one word" is still very relevant today [6, p. 17]. The question of the multiple meanings of the Russian verb also underlies the problems of species-modern semantics and its content. The condition for the correlation of verbs is the opposition by grammatical features with the identity of the lexical meanings of the members of the species pair (one of the forms must have the semantics of SV, the other – NSV). However, there are cases when Russian verbs do not form a specific pair, which causes the occurrence of single-species / two-species verbs, paired / unpaired in appearance). Accordingly, semantic features in determining the type of a Russian verb can be expressed not only by the grammatical form, but also by the context and lexical meaning of the verb, actualized by the grammatical meaning [6]. In the formation of specific oppositions, there is a variety caused by the lexical meanings of a particular verb.

In Chinese, the meanings of species forms are associated with species-specific indicators that serve to express the category of aspectuality, such indicators include:

· ? / guo (indicates that the action happened in the past in an uncertain time, but ended up to the moment of speech (semantics SV): / gu? n? xu? zh?ngw?n ma? / have you studied Chinese before?);

· ? / le (correlates with the SV of the verb, as it indicates the nature of an action that has already taken place in the past, and was completed before the moment of speech: / w? d?xu? b?y? li?o / I graduated from university);

· ? / zhe (indicates that the action proceeds continuously at the moment of speech, turning into a lasting, continuing (present long time, NSV semantics): / t? xi? zhe x?n / he is writing a letter);

· (?)? / (zh?ng)z?i (denotes an action that occurs at the moment of speech and turns into a long one in continuous flow (NSV): / w? zh?ngz?i g?ngzu? ne / I'm working right now);

· / l?izhe (indicates the continuous flow of the action in a certain time period in the past, which is comparable to the NSV: / w? z?i c? ch? l?izhe / I washed the car) [11].

In the absence of a formal distinction between parts of speech in Chinese, syntactic connections reflecting grammatical categories play an important role. Speaking about the syntax of the Chinese language in order to identify the features of modern semantics, it is necessary to mention the framework constructions (closure) created by placing formal elements in a sentence that are closely related to each other and represent semantic unity regardless of the distant position relative to each other [7]. These constructions are used to express temporal (in particular, species-temporal, since some constructions use service words to express the species) relations, which include: firstly, constructions formed by combining a preposition and a postposition (a... / z?i...y?h?u / after; a... / z?i...y?qi?n / before, etc.); secondly, constructions formed by a combination of prepositions (postpositions) with special lexical units or a combination of two lexical elements (a ...a ? / z?i...sh?hou / during, etc.) [11].

Accordingly, the meanings of the form in the Chinese language are understood as the interaction of the lexical meaning of verbs, syntactic connections, forms of tense and mood, context. The designation of the species is always accompanied by certain species-specific indicators. The category of aspectuality in comparison with the Russian verb form as a category with a formally expressed opposition of the meanings of SV and NSV (species opposition) does not exist in Chinese, but the meaning of the form in Chinese is aspectual. It is important to note that Chinese verbs do not have an aspectual category in the volume that is present in the Russian language. The values of the type are expressed by special lexical units and service words. Russian Russian semantics of the expression of the species in Chinese is not synonymous with the values of the category of the species in Russian, i.e. the aspect is not equal to the species; the values of CB and NSB in Russian and Chinese do not coincide.

 

4. Conclusion

Russian Russian and Chinese languages' aspectuality theory is thus specific due to the fact that in the Russian language the verb is the central section of the grammatical system, acting as the core of the sentence and denoting the variability of reality (in the forms of mood, tense, number, voice, person); at the same time, the verb is associated with such levels of the text as vocabulary, morphology, syntax. In Chinese, the verb serves as an important component of the partial system, but since words in Chinese do not change morphologically, the verb has no variability in numbers and genders, and the absence of a voice, mood, person is also characteristic (but in the absence of a person category, which is an important grammatical feature, the Chinese verb correlates with the subject, expressed pronoun of any person or noun).

Having presented the functional characteristic of the category of aspectuality, it was found that in the Russian language SV denotes action as a single, indivisible whole (concentrated, collapsed, integral action); NSV is used to denote the dynamism of action and the process of its development. At the same time, the category of aspectuality in the Russian language is characterized by the presence of species pairs (with the existence of two-species and one-species verbs, the meaning of which is read through the context). The category of aspectuality in Chinese does not include a specific opposition, however, each verb of the Chinese language belongs to either SV or NSV, i.e. each verb has only one grammatical meaning. The category of aspectuality is expressed by non-morphological means through syntax and lexical means, service words, etc.

Russian Russian and Chinese languages, it was revealed that the specific semantics of the Russian verb is generally universal, expresses only certain meanings of certain types of verbs representing species-modern/species-modal forms. The meaning of the category of aspectuality in the Chinese language is manifested at the level of syntax: the absence of a semantic category of the type is compensated for by service words. In addition, the meaning of the type of Chinese verb is transmitted both by various suffixes and by their absence (an unformulated suffix verb conveys an action related to the present or future tense). Accordingly, the semantics of the expression of the category of aspectuality in Chinese is not synonymous with the meanings of the category of the kind in Russian.

 

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The article "The theory of the aspectuality of the Russian school in the focus of the Chinese linguistic school" submitted for consideration, proposed for publication in the journal "Litera", is undoubtedly relevant. The purpose of the reviewed work is to identify the specifics of the theory of aspectuality of the Russian school in the focus of the Chinese linguistic school. The scientific novelty of the study is stated in the fact that for the first time, within the framework of a typological approach, a comparative analysis of problems related to the category of aspectuality in Russian and Chinese, with the category of the verb type, with its internal form as a specific way of displaying and presenting knowledge about the world, a special "linguistic worldview" was carried out. To identify the specifics of the theory of aspectuality of the Russian school in the focus of the Chinese linguistic school, the work uses general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison, analogy), methods of logical analysis, classification of logical groupings, methods of evaluation and interpretation of factual material. The research methodology is quite adequate to the goals and objectives of the study. However, the volume of the corpus to which the author resorted in the course of his work is not specified. The research was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing the formulation of the problem, the main part, traditionally beginning with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, a research and a final one, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. Structurally, the article consists of several semantic parts, namely: introduction, literature review, methodology, research progress, conclusions. I would like to note the great and scrupulous work of the author in the analysis of theoretical sources and the thorough interpretation of practical material. We emphasize that in the study the author considers both the theoretical basis of the problem field concerned and the practical problems. The bibliography of the article contains 13 sources, including both domestic and foreign works. However, the logic of the author is unclear, who violated the traditional alphabetical principle of building a bibliography, as well as the mixing of domestic works and works in foreign languages, which are traditionally placed after sources in Russian. In general, it should be noted that the article was written in a simple, understandable language for the reader, typos, spelling and syntactic errors, inaccuracies were not found. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. Russian Russian language theory The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the research materials can be used to develop a methodology for teaching Russian in a Chinese audience, the selection of material, methods of explanation, fixing the category of species, in scientific work directly related to the consideration of the specifics of the species theory in the Chinese language in the context of the theory of the type of the Russian verb. Russian Russian linguistics, Russian linguistics, and Chinese linguistics, comparative grammar of Russian and Chinese languages, as well as the theory of Russian-Chinese translation, can also be introduced in order to prevent language interference in the course of training Russian philologists, linguists, and translators in the disciplines of Russian and Chinese linguistics, comparative grammar of Russian and Chinese languages, and the theory of Russian-Chinese translation. The overall impression after reading the reviewed article is positive, it can be recommended for publication in a scientific journal from the list of the Higher Attestation Commission.
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