Статья 'Орфография частицы "бы" в истории русского письма: дефисное написание как этап становления нормы' - журнал 'Litera' - NotaBene.ru
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Litera
Reference:

Spelling of the particle "by" in the history of Russian writing: hyphenated spelling as a stage in the formation of the norm

Chzhao Pengxiang

ORCID: 0000-0003-0617-8371

Postgraduate student, Department of Russian Language, Faculty of Philology, Lomonosov Moscow State University

119991, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Leninskie Gory, 1, str. 51

veralera1@yandex.ru

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8698.2022.6.37337

EDN:

PYVSOQ

Received:

18-01-2022


Published:

04-07-2022


Abstract: The article is devoted to the hyphenation of the particle "by(b)" in the XIX century. The purpose of the article is to establish a codified and customary spelling norm, trace its dynamics and find out what role the hyphenated use of the particle played at this stage. The codification of the spelling of the particle is presented in 2 editions of the Dictionary of the Academy of the Russian Federation of 1789-1794 and 1806-1822 and in the Dictionary of Church Slavonic and Russian of 1847, as well as in the recommendations of grammars of the XIX century. The material of dictionaries is also considered as a source of information about the usual use of particles. The Usus is established by the method of continuous sampling on the material placed in the "National Corpus of the Russian language" (a subcorpus of texts in the old spelling). As a result of the analysis of the usage and texts of dictionaries of the XIX century, the instability of this section of the spelling system of Russian writing throughout the XIX century was revealed. The Dictionary of the Russian Academy normalizes separate spellings of "by (b)", and separate and merged uses vary in the text of the dictionary, hyphens are not found. However, throughout the XIX century, the particle "by (b)" is written in the use of a hyphen, although the number of separate spellings exceeds the number of hyphens. Ya.K. Groth, having analyzed the patterns of use of the particle "by (b)", finally legalized its separate spelling in works of an analytical and codifying nature at the end of the XIX century.


Keywords:

history of Russian writing, usage and codification, the spelling of the particle would be, merged spelling, hyphenated spelling, separate spelling, the usual norm, codified norm, development of the norm, spelling standards

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

However, in the II volume of the "Works of Ya.K. Groth" of 1899, cases of the use of a hyphen, not recommended by him, are found: as if [8, p. 54] if-b [8, p. 624]. Perhaps these spellings are simply skipped during editing, at the same time they reflect Grote's thought about the use of a hyphen "between words that make up a single understanding, but which it is not customary to write together: Something, some, someone, something, that is, after all, there is- the way, the way, in our way, in Russian, in a good way, the third, maybe" [8, p. 799]. Nevertheless, not all of the hyphenated spellings listed by Grote were established in Russian orthography later.

Conclusion

Thus, we have fully achieved the purpose of the study and fulfilled its tasks — we traced how in the XIX century. during the development of the hyphen as a sign of semi–alphabetic writing in Russian writing, there was an attempt to establish the hyphenated use of the particle b (b). Dictionaries of the late XVIII - early XIX centuries do not reflect this trend and codify the separate spelling of the particle in cases where when it does not become part of other particle words and conjunctions. After analyzing the usage data, Groth approved the separate spelling of the particle would (b). It seems that this is not accidental, because it does not have a strict position in the sentence, which does not contribute to the formation of new lexical units with the studied particles, and this is a necessary condition for using a hyphen. The theoretical significance of our work is that it confirms the modern requirements of the theory of spelling to the conditions for the use of the hyphen: "Semi-composite ... (hyphenated) spellings reflect the incompleteness of the transformation of two lexical units into one whole and represent a kind of compromise: such elements of the language are written through a hyphen, in which one can see both lexical (characteristic of the word) and grammatical (characteristic of the morpheme) meaning" [10, p. 176]. Revealing the practical significance and prospects of the study, it should be noted the fuzzy codification of hyphenated particle spellings in modern Russian writing and the difficulties in studying this orthogram by schoolchildren. Our diachronic analysis can be taken into account when improving the existing rules and methods of teaching literate writing.

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Peer Review

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The reviewed article "Spelling of the particle "b" in the history of Russian writing: hyphenated spelling as a stage of norm formation" is devoted to the stages of formation during the XIX century. spelling of the particle "b", the author establishes a codified and customary spelling norm, traces its dynamics and finds out what role the hyphenated use of the particle played at this stage. The author sets a clear research goal and defines the tasks that contribute to achieving this goal. The scientific novelty of the research undertaken by the author is determined by the absence in science of a diachronic description of the stages of the formation of the spelling norm of the particle b(b). The article has a clear structure, the main components of which are the introduction, the main part and the conclusion. In the introduction, the author formulates the purpose and objectives of the study, as well as the theoretical and practical significance. The main part solves the tasks set, namely, the recommendations on spelling the particle of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAR) are compared: the first (1789-1794) and the second (1806-1822); the recommendations of the SAR are compared with the norms set out in the Dictionary of Church Slavonic and Russian in 1847; the rules for using the particle would be established(b), codified in grammatical works of the XIX century; the usual norm of the XIX century is revealed on the basis of data from the National Corpus of the Russian language. Here the author works with a large number of examples of linguistic material, which allows us to conclude that dictionaries of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries do not reflect the tendency to establish the hyphenated use of the particle b(b) and codify the separate spelling of the particle in cases when it does not become part of other particle words and conjunctions. The separate spelling of the particle would(b), in the author's opinion, is not accidental, since it does not have a strict position in the sentence, which does not contribute to the formation of new lexical units with the particles under study, and this is a necessary condition for using a hyphen. These conclusions are well-reasoned, supported by examples of linguistic material and are beyond doubt. The work certainly has practical significance, its results can be used in teaching a Russian language course, as well as in improving existing rules and methods of teaching literate writing. The content of the work reflects its title and will be interesting to anyone who studies Russian. The quality of presentation of the research results is at a high level. The bibliographic list includes 10 titles that are relevant to the content and topic, as well as correctly designed. Based on all the above, it can be concluded that the article "Spelling of the particle "would" in the history of Russian writing: hyphenated spelling as a stage in the formation of the norm" meets all the basic requirements for such works and can be recommended for publication in the journal "Litera".
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