Genesis: Historical research
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Publications of Bleikh Nadezhda Oskarovna
Pedagogy and education, 2019-1
Bleikh N.O. - European-Caucasian parallels of chivalrous education in the feudal era (IX Ц XIX centuries) pp. 37-43


Abstract: In the article, the European-Caucasian parallels of knight education in the feudal era of IX – XIX centuries are observed. It tells that at that period both Western and Caucasian chivalry becomes the prevailing way of life, requiring not only the battle skill but also a well-known style of moral and ethical, and social behavior, which could not appear on its own. It was assimilated in the process of education. Particular attention is paid to the identification of the features of the code of chivalry of the European and mountain peoples. When writing the article the following methods were used: the study and theoretical analysis of historical, ethnographic, pedagogical, philosophical, literary, and folklore sources; comparative analysis of scientific materials. It is concluded that chivalry in the "North Caucasian performance" was a wonderful example of building a sufficiently robust and flexible model of behavior necessary during wartime. Besides, this model influenced the mountain society from top to bottom, transforming its traditions with no less force than did the commandments and statutes of the Western Catholic church. Therefore, the code of chivalry of the mountain peoples with its educational postulates can be considered a significant cultural achievement, a treasury of wisdom for modern pedagogical science.
Genesis: Historical research, 2017-8
Bleikh N.O. - Educational activity of the Imperial officials aimed at establishment of unitary social space in North Caucasus in the early XIX century pp. 101-111


Abstract: This article examines the questions regarding the educational activity of imperial officials aimed establishment of unitary social space in North Caucasus in the early XIX century leaning on the introduced for the first time archive sources. It is noted that in the course of educational work the Caucasian administration resorted not only to the political and economic reform of the region, but also the ideological effect, which namely consisted in propaganda of the state ideas and values using the missionary organization or national education. Methodology of this research applies the philosophical provisions on correlation of social development and education, historical-social institutionalization of pedagogical thought, as well as dialectics of the general and particular. Conclusion is made that the missionary work  became an actual way for bringing together the North Caucasian peoples with Russia; and the school policy, despite the inaccuracy of Royal culture-carriers and inadaptability to the local circumstanced, led to the positive results: by the mid XIX century, the entire North Caucasus appeared to be integrated into the Russian educational space.
Law and Politics, 2017-7
Bleikh N.O. - Legal establishments of the Russian Empire in formation of the status of Islam and Muslim clergy in the North Caucasus Region (late XVIII Ц XIX centuries) pp. 85-99


Abstract: The subject of this article is the legal establishments of the Russian Empire in formation of the status of Islam and Muslim clergy in the North Caucasus Region (late XVIII – XIX centuries). The author presents an original view of the situation at hand, and arguing that throughout the entire chronological period Muslim religion manifested as an efficient tool for “conciliation of the alien tribes” and was implemented by the government, analyzes the key postulated of lawmaking of the empire with regards to Islam. A conclusion is made that as a result of conflictness of multiple legal establishments in the North Caucasus Region, the adjustment of Russian legislation to Muslim religion took quite long time – the entire XIX century, which contained the religious legal models that fluctuated from the formation of basic foundations of the religion to creation of the legal precedents. In order to not repeat the past wrongs, the modern legal experts and politicians must analyze the existing experience in the “Muslim question” that can help finding the right ways for ruling the multi-confessional nation.
Politics and Society, 2017-6
Bleikh N.O. - Russian missionary policy and its role in sociocultural construction of North Caucasus region (XIX century) pp. 110-119


Abstract: This article is first to introduce the archive and document sources, leaning on which examines the Russian missionary policy and determines its role in sociogenesis of the North Caucasus region of the XIX century. Special attention is focused on the activity of Orthodox and Catholic missions in the context of ideological policy realized by the Russian state. It is proven that unlike the other Russian regions, the main objects of missionary work in North Caucasus were not the representatives of Islam, but rather Jews and pagans, dissidents and schismatics.  The conclusion is made that the North Caucasus missionary has gone a long path in its evolution. Its establishment was affected by the external and domestic determinants, and namely the policy of the Russian Empire. Spiritual pastors objectively played an important role not only in spread of the faith, but also consolidation of the national peripheries, activation of state authority in addressing the exigent cultural-educational and socio-economic challenges.
Politics and Society, 2017-5
Bleikh N.O. - Islamic factor in confessional policy of the Russian Empire of the XIX century pp. 19-26


Abstract: The subject of this research is the confessional policy of the Russian Empire of the XIX century regarding the Muslim nations residing in the North Caucasus. It is proved that due to accession of this region to Russia, the highlanders faced the opportunity to advance in their sociocultural development. Namely in the XIX century took place the period of their revival, called the "Islamic Renaissance". Its characteristics implied legitimacy of the new government, opening of mosques, functioning of the Islamic traditional institutions, and development of religious education. The conclusion is made that the conducted in North Caucasian suburb modernization in the social and spiritual sphere conduced the strengthening of authority of the religion in life the alien society, as well as encouraged the Islamization of highlanders. However, multiple projects on modernization of North Caucasus remained uncompleted (including its Islamization), and still are the subject for discussion. Such fact requires the development of the more balanced policy of the Russian authorities with regards to the "Muslim question".
History magazine - researches, 2017-4
Bleikh N.O. - The Stages of the Development of Islam in the Northwest Caucasus in the Context of Missionary Work During the First Half of the 19th Century pp. 121-128


Abstract: On the basis of reintroduced archival and documentary sources, the article examines the history of the adoption of Islam by the mountaineers of the Northwest Caucasus. Special attention is given to exploring the stages of the Islamization of the area associated with the external and internal political situation of the time. It is proved that the spread and strengthening of Islam in the region was due to the missionary activities of foreign (Arabic, Turkish, Persian) and ethnic (Northern Caucasian) preachers, who personified the political situation and the ideological requirements of the period. The methods used to achieve this vary from promises of material benefits to forced repressions. The methodology of this work is presented by the philosophical terms regarding the correlation of social development and policy, the historical and social situation of missionary work, the dialectics of the general and specific.The author comes to the conclusions that the existing in Caucasian studies term of the "crash" of missionary work can be considered unreasonable. During the specified period in the North-Western part of the Caucasus occurred the process of penetration and adaptation of the Islamic faith, preached by the missionaries. Despite the fact that the emissaries in the region pursued different goals, the activities of Muslim preachers had contributed to the mobilization and consolidation of the forces of the mountain peoples. As a result, by the time of the bourgeois reforms, the majority of the Circassians made their choice in favor of Islam, which in their minds began to take the main position.
Pedagogy and education, 2017-3
Bleikh N.O. - The Role of Islam and the North Caucasus Ethno-Pedagogy in the Education of Children pp. 58-65


Abstract: In this article Bleikh analyzes the role of Islam and the North Caucasus ethno-pedagogy in the education of children based on the analysis of little-known materials. It is proved that a key component of North Caucasus folk pedagogy is Islam which has rich educational potential and has allowed the mountain people to survive all the hardships and bad weather. The main focus is made on the theoretical and practical significance of the research which is caused by the lack of specific studies on the subject, lack of attention to the use of the family and the school of folk traditions and achievements of the Muslim ethno-pedagogy. The methodological basis of the research consists of the civilizational approach that requires extensive use of the comparative method. When considering specifics of the development of education among Muslims of the North Caucasus region the researcher has used comparative analysis and content analysis of texts. The conclusion is that the ideas and practices inherent in Islam were and still are advanced and progressive. They were reflected in the ethno-pedagogy of peoples of the North Caucasus which with its own methodology (nature, purpose, methods, technologies of education), and for many centuries it has been reflecting the philosophy of educational activities and has led to positive results in the development of the perfect personality. This duo demonstrates the high pedagogical culture of the Muslim peoples, thus confirming the theory that the current pedagogy can successfully meet educational objectives guided by the ideas of folk pedagogy. 
Modern Education, 2017-3
Bleikh N.O. - Pedagogical resource of Islam of the North Caucasian peoples in the educational practice of modern school pp. 66-72


Abstract:  Based on the newly introduced sources, the author examines the implementation of pedagogical ideas of Muslim peoples of North Caucasus in the practice of modern school. Relevance of the topic at hand is associated with the social request and substantiated by the following aspects: insufficient readiness; need for empirical comprehension of the examined question that consists in cognition of nature of the pedagogical principles of the North Caucasian Islamic education in the modern situation of secular society; relevance of application of the rich Muslim pedagogical experience of North Caucasian people focused on the success and specificity of the national school; methodological and scientific-practical importance of the formulated problem within the current social environment. In order to answer the set tasks, the article uses the corresponding research methods, represented by psychological-pedagogical and theoretical analysis of the academic and methodical literature on the topic, general scientific and dialectic method of enquiry of the social phenomena and processes. The author concludes that the modern educational process must be realized based on accomplishments of the North Caucasus Islamic culture, presented by the moral and spiritual component, as well as in correlation with the secular educational program and training; it is essential to consider the Muslim traditional values of Caucasian peoples in educating of the youth that are adequate to the modern moral social standards.   
Pedagogy and education, 2017-3
Bleikh N.O. - Life stages of the Educational-Pedagogical Activities of Kazi Atazhukin (1841 Ц 1899) pp. 40-57


Abstract: The subject of this research article is the life path, pedagogical activity and educational views of Kazii Musayevich Atazhukin. The scientific novelty and theoretical significance of the research is caused by the fact that the author offers a systematised description of scientific and pedagogical biography of Atazhukin and performs a comprehensive analysis of the stages of his teaching activity: Stage 1 from 1858 to 1864 marked by his drafting of the alphabet of the Kabardian language, translations of books by Russian and Arab authors, creation of "Kabardian alphabet" and the replication of it; Stage 2 from 1865 to 1899 associated with the opening of his school, and summarisation of lessons learned. The methodological framework of the research consists of the philosophical provisions of the unity of the general and specific, universal and national, spiritual values and their impact on the development of personality, about the ideas of democratization and humanization based on national culture, creative and attentive attitude to the spiritual heritage of the past. Bleikh makes conclusions that the activities of Kazi Atazhukin contributed to the creation of Kabardian alphabet and the first textbooks, development of highland folklore and pedagogical education, and his scientific-educational and pedagogical views were advanced, progressive, answered the spirit of time and satisfied the cultural needs of the population. New interpretation of his views can be used today, too. 
Pedagogy and education, 2017-2
Bleikh N.O. - Problems of Religious Education of Muslims of the Northern Caucasus (the XIXth Century) pp. 67-74


Abstract: The article is based on little known archival and documentary sources. The author of the article examines the problems of religious education of Muslims of the North Caucasus. It is proved that socio-political and cultural development of the North Caucasus region in the nineteenth century was marked by the involvement of Muslim peoples in the social, cultural and economic field of Russia through school policy. The Russian government in the region tried to implement not only the "stick" (military action, economic blockade), but also the "carrot" policy (education development), knowing that the latter will evoke sympathy among the local population and the spiritual elite. To the traditional system of education, which was submitted to the Koranic school, the Mekteb and medrese were added to the state "public" educational institutions that educate youth in loyalty to the Russian state. Methodologically the article is based on the achievements of Russian historical science in the field of Caucasian studies, history of Russian education, educational thought, urban studies, and studies of the social system of the Russian Empire. The methodological basis of the research involves the principles of objectivity, consistency and historicism, which is dictated by the complexity of studying the topic. Conclusions are made about the fact that after the establishment of the Russian statehood in the area of distribution of Islam, everyday way of life of Muslims changed for the better. The traditional Muslim system of education has been changed, too, in which there was an increase in the number of new theological schools, and have significantly improved their training facilities. However, Muslim educational paradigm implemented by the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus still needed in a substantial upgrade.
Man and Culture, 2017-2
Bleikh N.O. - Educational trends in the work of the founder of Ossetian literature Kosta Levanovich Khetagurov pp. 64-72


Abstract: The subject of this article is the creative heritage of Kosta Levanovich Khetagurov. Based on the archival research and documentary materials examined his life and educational legacy. The author carefully examines the pedagogical beliefs of the thinker, who not being a pedagogue, made a significant contribution into the spiritual heritage of the Caucasian nations. Special attention is turned to his views on questions of national education in South Ossetia: the expansion of chain of schools, didactic principles of teaching, training of national personnel. Methodology if this work is presented by the philosophical terms of correlation between the social development and education regarding the historical and social consituation of pedagogical thought, as well as tole of personality in history. The conducted research demonstrated that Kosta Levanovich Khetagurov was a critic of the existing system of education and upbringing of the young citizens, offering his original view upon the structure of the new school. The conclusion is made that the idea of Kosta Khetagurov on the development of school learning are still relevant and have great practical value.
Genesis: Historical research, 2016-5
Bleikh N.O. - The causes of emergence and transformation of military democracy among the nations of North Caucasus pp. 181-189


Abstract: The lifestyle and mentality of any nation form based on the geographical conditions, as well as economic, political, and sociocultural component of its existence. But they cannot always be consistent, and thus, depending on the living standards they vary, forcing people to adjust to the new circumstances. In this aspect, all native ethnoses of the North Caucasus were involuntarily subjected to a centuries-long challenge, because they often became an object of foreign attacks: Tatar Mongols, TImur, Iraq, England, etc. Namely under these conditions, an acute necessity for establishment of military democracy has emerged. The author concludes that the form of organization of authority characteristic to military democracy means that the power belongs to the leaders of the tribes. One of the external manifestations of the system of military democracy became the creation of the strong military organizations under the leadership of military chiefs, as well as plundering raids of the neighbors. Leaders for the campaign were chosen usually in a specially designated place. Within time, such democracy transformed from elected based on merits to inheritable, turning democracy into tyranny. This also bring changes into the system, content and forms of martial arts of the North Caucasian nations.
History magazine - researches, 2016-4
Bleikh N.O. - Basics of Highlander Material Culture during the Wartime (Armory and Fortifications)


Abstract: Based on rarely used archival and document material, this article analyzes the role of Highlanders material culture of the Wartime (13th–17th centuries), represented by armory and fortifications. This article states that all Caucasian nations developed a clear defense system against foreign enemies and fellow tribesmen alike, who were raid driven by feudal elites, need or personal bravado. Therefore, there are almost no settlements in the Caucasus region, where turrets or habitable towers did not overlook the buildings and surrounding grounds did not have defense walls, customs posts, cave covers, fortresses or castle-like complexes. Methodological basis for this article was formed by historical and comparative, structural, abstract and logical research methods. Each of them had a particular application and played a significant part in processing, systematization and generalization of studied sources. Specifically, historical and comparative method allowed to analyze the facts under comparison and thereupon define both consistent patterns and characteristics of discovering Highlander material culture of the Wartime, represented by fortifications and armory of all kind. Structural analysis method was necessary for a study of complex structural components without dividing them into elements. Abstract and logical method allowed generalization, synthesis and integration of article’s conclusions. The author concludes that the fortification culture was defined by the genetic ties to the empirics of house building and therefore contained all the positive achievements of ethnic architecture. Its workmanship was beautifully reflected in historical and cultural landmarks created by the nations who inhabited this region.
Man and Culture, 2016-4
Bleikh N.O. - Progress in the sociocultural development of North Caucasus (second quarter of the XIX Ц beginning of the XX century) pp. 80-89


Abstract: The subject of this article is the progress in the sociocultural and economic development of North Caucasus (second quarter of the XIX – beginning of the XX century). Based on the archive and documental materials the author narrates that by the end of the XVIII century the lengthy and gradually developing process of voluntary entrance of the Caucasian people into the composition of the Russian State was completed. The changes occurred in life of the highlanders after this historical act under the influence of the cultural figures of Russia and inclusion of the North Caucasus into the orbit of the capitalist relations, initiated the spread of education and literacy among them. The historical-comparative method allowed analyzing the comparable facts and based on that determine the regularities and specificities of the path of regional processes in sociocultural sphere. The article proves that the progress in sociocultural development of the aforementioned period led to the social-spiritual and political-economic revival of the highlander tribes, although there was still lack of educated people and schools. The national intelligentsia has just recently began its inception. Certain improvements in the school system, which emerged by the beginning of the XX century, primarily was determined by the active positions of the residents themselves. The reformation period became the time of future discoveries on the multinational Caucasian Krai and the unique culture of its people.
Pedagogy and education, 2016-2
Bleikh N.O. - Educational Concept of Georgy Baev (1860 Ц 1939), Prominent Ossetian Politician and the First Mayor of Vladikavkaz


Abstract: The subject of the study is the educational activity of the head of the city administration Georgy Baev whose activities have been ambiguously taken by the academic community until recently, more with the negative label of "the enemy of the Soviet government". However, while his public and political activitywas exposed by Caucasian historiographers rather well, his educational activities has been given far less attention. In this article the author tries to get rid of stereotypes that have been prevailing in science for many decades. It is time to redeem the good name to the aforesaid Ossetian activist and with good reason call him a distinguished son of Ossetia of his era, the first Ossetian economist, politician, publisher, folklorist as well as a fervent guardian of public education. The researcher has used the method of study and theoretical analysis of archival materials, scientific and literary sources. Analysis of Baev's journalistic materials on the history and didactics of the Ossetian school has allowed the author to make a conclusion about the progressive value of the ideas they put forward (humanization and democratization of school education, support of school education at the state level, continuous learning, transforming of school into the center of studies and educational work, development of the network of primary, secondary and higher institutions, etc.), which are still topical and can be used in modern education. The example of Georgy Baev's activities can teach the youth to love and respect their homeland, the place where they were born and live.
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