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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "География города"
География города
Khusyainov T.M. - Accessibility of the urban environment: ensuring citizens' rights pp. 10-18


Abstract: In this paper, the author analyzes the provisions of the "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 2006, as well as the prominent international legal obligations of the participating countries to ensure accessibility for mobility-impaired citizens, and the provisions of legal acts of the Russian Federation as a U.N. Convention country, regarding accessibility on the background of modern urban development and social welfare. The author examines the concepts of "accessible environment", "barrier-free environment", "universal design", their social function and the consequences of their implementation. The author uses the following methods of research: analysis of the Russian and foreign legislation and a theoretical analysis of the Russian and foreign scientific literature. The main conclusions of this work are focused on the importance of universal design principles is much wider accessible environment that can meet the needs of more people. Another important conclusion is that the creation of an accessible environment provides the realization of human rights for a group of citizens with limited mobility, allowing them to use the services, to acquire goods, attend the institutions, and can solve multiple issues regarding access to education and employment.
Voronicheva O.V. - Metaphorical nature of ravines as an element of Bryansk’s natural landscape pp. 11-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the metaphorical nature of ravines as a distinct element of Bryansk’s natural landscape and the conceptual constant of Bryansk text. Special attention is focused on the decoding of the hidden cultural meanings realized within the framework of spatial oppositions “top-bottom” and “periphery-center”, in which there is a clear manifestation of a ravine as a capacious symbol of border and attribute of the bottom level of earthly vertical. Academic interests lies in determination of the role of these natural dominants in revelation of the fundamental idea of Bryansk text – antiquity of topos that sealed its fate, image, and purpose. For understanding of the semantics of its cultural landscape along with the ideological-conceptual wealth of a cultural text, the author applies a metaphor. The article represents a first attempt to interpret the natural landscape of Bryansk as a metaphor that generated the cultural meanings. The author concludes that the ravines define the distinctness of natural landscape of Bryansk, and as a result, substantiate the specificity of Bryansk text. As an important element of Bryansk’s landscape, the ravines contain the information about a peculiar geopolitical location of the city, history of its origin, and dynamics of growth. Identification of metaphorical meanings of the ravines allowed concluding about their ambivalent nature, which indicated the dialectical unity of the opposites in Bryansk character, as well as predetermined the wealth of creative potential of the Bryansk cultural space.
Yashkov I., Ivanov A., Vinogradova T. - The experience of studying the transformation of industrial city at the turn of XX-XXI centuries (by the example of Zhanatas, Kazakhstan) pp. 27-42


Abstract: The object of research is urban space Kazakh industrial city Zhanatas, appeared on the map of the Soviet Union in the 1960s of the last century and became one of the largest centres of extraction of phosphorite ore and production of the mineral and chemical raw materials.The authors pay special attention to the study of the transformation of the urban space, which is an illustration of the complex of geo-political, socio-economic, geoecological, historical, demographic and migration processes in Kazakhstan abroad XX-XXI centuries.The authors of the report focus on the evolution of the urban landscape that has experienced special aspects of rapid industrial development and the destructive processes of nature and became an arena of new industrialization.The methodological basis of the study is the aggregation of Earth sciences methods - field work route, geoinformation mapping and thematic interpretation with geo-ecology and environmental history methods, which allows you to make the tools of modern urbanity base more effectively.Particular attention is paid to the role of multiple crises of the 1990s in the evolution of cities and urban environmental management that affected the comfort of the population living in an urban environment.In the study, the authors come to conclusions about the complex mechanism of the transformation of urban space, urban system conditions of adaptation to the social and economic reality and the process of searching of effective urban environmental management instruments.
Polyushkevich O.A., Popova M.V. - Symbolic construction of territorial identity (on the example of typonymy of Irkutsk) pp. 117-134


Abstract: This article demonstrates that Irkutsk, being a historical city of the Russian Federation and oriented towards the development of tourism, has a number of unresolved issues associated with typonymy. Such questions are often discussed at different levels – from the local mass media to city administration. Toponyms in the city of Irkutsk can be generally characterized as the reflection of a strong print of the previous government regime, whether or not it corresponds with the historical image and preserved historical heritage. The described situation creates problems on the path of establishment of the historically factored image of a city, necessary for the harmonious comprehension of city and in the context of plans for the advancement of tourism. The work carries an interdisciplinary character, and is depicted through socio-political and historical-cultural approach within the framework of the problem of typonymy and city image. The socio-political approach is reflected in examination of the problem through the prism of influence of political views of the citizens alongside the political situation in a particular case of study; while the historical-cultural approach implies a complex examination of such historical segment, which significantly affected the cultural development of symbols of the city of Irkutsk. At the same time, takes place the symbolic construction of territorial identity of Irkutsk residents through the previous, current, and future names of the streets and squares of Irkutsk. Despite the opinion of the supporters of typonomic restoration, the primary task in popularization of such idea among the city residents must consist not in the explanatory work about the value and following advantages, but rather debunking of myths and delusions pertaining to the expenses that are the main stumbling block in this question. However, the author underlines that at the present time, mass media covers the information on toponymic restoration of the cults quite inappropriately, which escalates the associated with it deceptions in the society. Due to this fact, the initiators of toponymic restoration must provide adequate information to the population, as well as mass media; otherwise, the process of information distribution to population can receive a low level of trust.
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