Статья 'Технологии информационного моделирования в практике реставрационных работ памятников архитектурного наследия' - журнал 'Урбанистика' - NotaBene.ru
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Information modeling technologies in the practice of restoration works of architectural heritage monuments

Prokopenko Il'ya Vladimirovich

Graduate Student, Department of Building Design and Real Estate Expertise, Institute of Civil Engineering, Siberian Federal University

660041, Russia, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny str., 82, office A-356

hellya1208@gmail.com
Teterina Kristina Sergeevna

Graduate Student, Department of Building Design and Real Estate Expertise, Siberian Federal University

660041, Russia, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny str., 82, office A-356

k.padanaeva@mail.ru
Saenko Irina Aleksandrovna

Doctor of Economics

Professor, Department of Building Design and Real Estate Expertise, Siberian Federal University

660041, Russia, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny str., 82, office A-356

saenko-irina@yandex.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2310-8673.2023.2.40766

EDN:

HGXYYY

Received:

16-05-2023


Published:

27-06-2023


Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of the application of modeling technologies during the repair and restoration work of architectural heritage monuments. The author analyzes the methods of building a digital model, as well as the scope of its application. The subject of the article is the technology of information modeling. The purpose of the study was to identify the possibilities and means of using information modeling technologies (TIM) in the practice of carrying out restoration work on cultural heritage objects based on content analysis of available information resources devoted to this subject area, as well as information base, legislative acts and legislative projects regulating the use of information modeling technologies. The article presents the results of experiments and research confirming the effectiveness of the use of information modeling technologies in the practice of restoration work of architectural heritage monuments. The main conclusions confirm that information modeling technologies can significantly improve the accuracy and efficiency of restoration work, allowing more accurately recreate and preserve historical objects in their original form. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the analysis of existing methods used for the construction and further application of information modeling technology in the practice of restoration works of cultural heritage monuments. General summary data on the methods can be used in the work of specialists in restoration, digitalization and conservation of historically important objects.


Keywords:

Building information modeling, architectural monument, historical heritage, digital twin, software, modeling, restoration, intellectual log, laser scanning, construction technologies

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

In recent years, information modeling (TIM) technologies have been increasingly used in the practice of construction activities, including the restoration of historical and cultural heritage monuments. For this practical area, the use of TIM is a unique opportunity that allows not only to perform restoration work more efficiently, but also to continue to operate the object with the greatest efficiency of use.  The purpose of the study was to identify such opportunities based on the content analysis of available information resources devoted to this subject area.

The use of information modeling technologies in the performance of restoration work requires a high level of competence from performers both in the practice of carrying out restoration work itself and in the field of information modeling itself.

Architectural objects of cultural heritage are essentially museum exhibits, but which are presented not in a gallery, but in the open air, in a residential environment that has a sufficient impact on its condition. This environment can be characterized by a set of factors that should certainly be taken into account when carrying out restoration work, to develop appropriate measures that can reduce their aggressive impact on the state of architectural monuments. 

The information model is a specially organized cluster of information on a specific object, includes its characteristics, which can be represented in the form of graphical models, numerical expressions, etc., but the mandatory condition is the applicability of the information for further processing and interaction with it.

The creation of an information model of a building or structure of historical heritage is a complex process, as a result of which there is a project for performing restoration work, as well as work on further maintenance, current repairs, reconstruction and restoration in the long term. In other words, the information model of an architectural monument should be a complete and reliable digital copy of a real building or structure that has undergone reconstruction or restoration, which should be convenient to work with in the future at the operational stage.

The main feature of the use of TIM in the restoration of cultural heritage objects is that modeling will be closely related to the study of history, since earlier there could have been a reconstruction of the object and in this case the original appearance, internal layout could have been lost, therefore the modeled object is subjected to detailed study, all archives are raised, its entire history as an architectural object is studied cultural heritage. The information model strives to match the original appearance of the building or structure as much as possible, that is, to its original appearance, without subsequent layering from finishing, restoration work and remodeling.

Approaches to creating digital models of architectural monuments

There are two approaches to creating digital models in this field of activity: discrete and traditional.

By application, the discrete technique is mainly used for the restoration and reconstruction of monuments made of wood. The functionality that information modeling technologies offer today is very wide, and the basic tools allow you to recreate an exact digital copy of a building or structure. So, each log, bar, board and other elements have their own individual parameters that you can work with. However, the disadvantage of this approach is the resource intensity and the time spent on drawing the element "piece by piece". The sequence of modeling is determined from the real picture of the elements of the monument assembly. In this case, only the accuracy of measurements, architectural and planning solutions, the size of each individual part is important, it is necessary to take into account all deviations along the horizontal and vertical axes, as well as the boundaries of each new inclusion. The process of modeling each individual element goes in the same order in which the construction of the building will take place, that is, from the process of the actual construction of the architectural monument. The result of the simulation should be a digital double of the architectural monument that fully corresponds to reality.

The argument in defense of the development of this method of modeling is that for many centuries in Russia wooden architecture has been the dominant way of building, which leads to the need to create a universal tool in digitization – the "intellectual log". Since basically all wooden architectural monuments have long oblong objects: boards, logs.

The traditional method, in turn, involves working with buildings and structures made of stone and brick. The traditional methodology is characterized by the predominance of basic modeling tools, on the basis of which the supporting structure of the architectural monument is created. The traditional method is applied mainly to homogeneous structures of buildings and structures that have few or minor damage. The basic objects of the information model when using the traditional methodology are such elements as, foundation, windows, doors, ceilings, columns, beams, roof and so on.

One of the most important tools in creating a model by both methods is laser scanning, which has become an integral part in recreating the "digital double".

The main feature in working with architectural heritage monuments is that all the designs of such buildings differ from modern ones. Thus, each of the elements of a building or structure requires an individual approach. For example, in modern architectural solutions, there is practically no concept of a composite wall or a domed roof. Quite an important point in working with a monument of historical heritage is that it is necessary not only to recreate the authentic appearance, structural and supporting structure, but it is also necessary to recreate the curvatures, irregularities, slopes of structures and other parameters identified during engineering surveys, surveys, measurements and historical research.

The use of TIM in the restoration of an architectural monument

One of the most striking examples of restoration works of a cultural heritage monument using information modeling technology is the Church of the Savior from Zashiversk, located in the open-air historical and Architectural museum of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk (Fig. 1).

 

 

       a) real view b) digital model

Fig. 1 - The Church of the Savior from Zashiversk

The stage-by-stage nature of the restoration work on this real object determined the stage-by-stage modeling and creation of a digital model of the church.

Several software complexes were used to model the church, in which all the features of the restoration object were taken into account, based on the available functionality of each of the software complexes.

From the main software that was used in the modeling process, it is possible to distinguish:

1.     Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis. This software package carries the main functionality about the load of objects, strength calculations. The program is one of the components of the Revit Structure ecosystem;

2. The Autodesk Revit software package (Revit Architecture, Revit Structure) is the main software package for creating a complete information model of a building and structure. Programs are components of the Revit Structure ecosystem;

3. Autodesk AutoCAD Architecture is a software package for creating some complex shaped elements.

The information model of the church played one of the key roles at the moment when the stage of the construction of the dome structure made of logs began. The structure was conceived and designed as self-supporting, but all dimensions and joints were taken from the data provided by the information model.

Creating an information model of each individual architectural monument requires detailed individual study. The sequence of modeling works goes hierarchically down: from the general to the particular to eliminate program collisions and inconsistencies of individual elements. In general , the following stages of modeling cultural heritage objects can be distinguished:

1.     Designation of levels;

2. Modeling of the supporting structure with basic tools;

3. Creating a topographic surface;

4. Creating windows, doors, ceilings, slopes;

5. Roof modeling;

6. Design of roofing materials;

7. Detailing and final rendering of individual elements.

The main task presented to the information modeling of cultural heritage objects is the very fact of the existence of such an object, no matter how absurd it may sound. The need to preserve the individuality and uniqueness of the object imposes such high requirements on the information model.  The development of a digital model involves compliance with construction technologies and their use in subsequent repair or restoration work.

         Conclusion

Thus, information modeling technologies have become a bridge between cultures and epochs. Any architectural monument can actually be attributed to a museum exhibit, but subject to environmental aggressiveness, which shortens its life cycle, and active use of such a monument, such as, for example, most churches and cathedrals of St. Petersburg, is also possible.

         TIM is not the only tool in working with architectural monuments, but it has a great influence on the work performed, subject to application.

         With the arrival of TIM in the field of culture and cultural architectural heritage, the general principles of building "digital doubles" have not changed, but they have been slightly adjusted. Thus, TIM has become an environment in which information and information for each specific circus model corresponding to a real object is stored.

The application of the digital model is quite extensive, it can be used both for its intended purpose, that is, during repair, restoration or other work, as well as in applied fields, that is, in research, as well as in educational or communication activities.

Along with the introduction of TIM into the construction sector, in the future this technology will find mandatory application in the field of restoration work of architectural monuments.

 

References
1. Mallory-Hill, S. (2017). Architectural Research Methods. Routledge.
2. Mostafavi, M. (Ed.). (2017). Architecture and Digital Technologies: Design and Representation. Springer.
3. Pena, W., & Parshall, S. (2016). Problem Seeking: An Architectural Programming Primer. John Wiley & Sons.
4. Ross, S. (2018). BIM and Construction Management: Proven Tools, Methods, and Workflows. John Wiley & Sons.
5. Roth, L. M. (2018). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. Routledge.
6. Schodek, D. L., Bechthold, M., Griggs, K., Kao, K. H., & Steinberg, M. (2017). Digital Design and Manufacturing: CAD/CAM Applications in Architecture and Design. John Wiley & Sons.
7. Sharples, S. (2019). BIM in Small Practices: Illustrated Case Studies. Routledge.
8. Snyder, J., & Mitchell, D. (2016). Manual of Section. Princeton Architectural Press.
9. Turk, Z. (Ed.). (2018). Digital Workflows in Architecture: Design - Assembly - Industry. Springer.
10. Uddin, M. S. (2020). Building Information Modeling: Technology Foundations and Industry Practice. CRC Press. Retrieved from http://coderprog.com/building-information-modeling/

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The author presented his article "Information modeling technologies in the practice of restoration work of architectural heritage monuments" to the Ubranistika magazine, in which a study was conducted on the potential of using digital technologies in the restoration of architectural objects. The author proceeds in studying this issue from the fact that in recent years information modeling technologies (TIM) have been increasingly used in the practice of construction activities, including the restoration of monuments of historical and cultural heritage. The use of TIM is a unique opportunity that allows not only to perform restoration work more efficiently, but also to continue to operate the facility with the greatest efficiency of use. The relevance of the research is due to the wide possibilities of using modern technologies in the preservation of objects of tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Unfortunately, the article lacks a theoretical component, in particular, an analysis of the scientific validity of the studied problem, which makes it difficult to make provisions on the scientific novelty of the study. The study also lacks a bibliographic analysis. The practical significance of the research lies in the fact that the application of the digital model is quite extensive, it can be used both for its intended purpose, that is, during repair, restoration or other work, as well as in applied fields, that is, in research, as well as in educational or communication activities. The methodological basis of the research was an integrated approach, including general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, historical and cultural method, and content analysis. The purpose of the study is to identify the potential of the method of information modeling of architectural objects based on content analysis of available information resources devoted to this subject area. The author explains the choice of the subject of research by the fact that architectural objects of cultural heritage are museum exhibits presented not in a gallery, but in the open air, in a residential environment that has a sufficient impact on its condition. This environment can be characterized by a set of factors that should certainly be taken into account when carrying out restoration work, and appropriate measures should be developed that can reduce their aggressive impact on the state of architectural monuments. The author defines an information model as a specially organized cluster of information on a certain object, including its characteristics, which can be represented in the form of graphical models, numerical expressions, etc., but the mandatory condition is the applicability of information for further processing and interaction with it. The author sees the creation of an information model of a building or structure of historical heritage as a complex process, as a result of which there is a project for performing restoration work, as well as work on further maintenance, current repairs, reconstruction and restoration in the long term. The author identifies two approaches to the creation of digital models of cultural heritage objects: discrete and traditional. Using the example of restoration works of a cultural heritage monument using information modeling technology, we can highlight the Church of the Savior from Zashiversk, located in the open-air historical and architectural museum of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk, the author shows in detail the step-by-step modeling and creation of a digital model of the object using a software package. In conclusion, the author presents a conclusion on the conducted research, which contains all the key provisions of the presented material. It seems that the author in his material touched upon relevant and interesting issues for modern socio-humanitarian knowledge, choosing for analysis a topic, consideration of which in scientific research discourse will entail certain changes in the established approaches and directions of analysis of the problem addressed in the presented article. The results obtained allow us to assert that the study of the potential of using modern technologies for the restoration of objects of historical and cultural heritage is of undoubted theoretical and practical cultural interest and can serve as a source of further research. The material presented in the work has a clear, logically structured structure that contributes to a more complete assimilation of the material. An adequate choice of methodological base also contributes to this. However, the bibliographic list of the study consists of 10 sources, which seems sufficient for generalization and analysis of scientific discourse on the subject under study. The author fulfilled his goal, received certain scientific results that allowed him to summarize the material. It should be noted that the article may be of interest to readers and deserves to be published in a reputable scientific publication after these shortcomings have been eliminated.
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