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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Sociodynamics" > Rubric "Politicical behavior"
Politicical behavior
Shliakhova R.A., Mantseva E.R. - Typology of knowledge in the United States according to Fritz Machlup as a theoretical source of determination of the types that affect the establishment of political consciousness of American society pp. 44-51


Abstract: The object of this research is the political consciousness of American society. The subject is the types of knowledge that affect the political consciousness the most. One of the key characteristics of society of the late XX – early XXI century is the knowledge, which results in the acute need for studying the nature of knowledge dominant in modern society, its main forms and functions, one of which is the establishment of public opinion. Fritz Machlup is an Austrian and American economics, whose typology of knowledge underlies the foundation of this article; its detailed description is provided. The scientific novelty lies in application of F. Machlup’s typology in modern realities of the American society, determination of the types of knowledge that affect the formation of political consciousness in the United States as well as the extent of such impact. Fritz Machlup highlighted the five types of knowledge: practical, intellectual, entertaining, spiritual, and undesirable. Each of them to one or another extent affects the social consciousness; but only three of them (intellectual, entertaining and spiritual) produce impact upon the establishment of political consciousness in the United States.
Shalaev N. - Turnout distribution: anomalies and the norm. pp. 49-66


Abstract: Turnout has been widely used to operationalize a large number of variables, from the level of support for political institutes to the degree of electorate consolidation. In recent years, yet another application emerged: statistical distribution of turnout as an indicator of electoral fraud. This application, however, rests on a weakly substantiated assumption that in absence of electoral fraud the turnout distribution should be Gaussian (normal). The goal of this paper is to find out whether there is a certain distribution that describes most cases of elections, and whether deviations from normality are indeed anomalous. Eastern Europe appears to be a promising testing ground for these assumptions, providing an array of countries which started developing electoral democracy at almost the same time, after decades of sharing similar political regimes; the properties of electoral competition are similar as well. This study corroborates the hypothesis that elections are usually exhibiting the same turnout patterns, but shows that the most regularly found distribution isn't normal: the values of skewness and kurtosis do not match those expected of a Gaussian distribution. Finally, it reveals that the deviations from said distribution are indeed exceptions from the general rule, and are accompanied by unusually frequent and/or rapid changes in turnout shape between the elections.
Ippolitov V.A. - Komsomol Members in Grain Procurement Campaign of 1930 pp. 123-138


Abstract: In the present article the role of the Komsomol organizations in carrying out the grain procurement campaign of 1930 is investigated. The author considers Komsomol as a sociocultural phenomenon, reveals factors of its versatile influence on the society and tries to summarize both positive and negative experience in that sphere. The author focuses on participation of young people in compulsory withdrawal of bread from peasants. Based on the case study of the Central Black Earth Oblast (CBEO) the contradictory attitude of Komsomol members to procuring policy of the state is shown. Special attention is paid to cases of performances and speeches of Komsomol members against grain collection. Evolution of the mechanism of grain collection is also traced. Objectivity of the author's approach was shown in his aspiration to overcome ideological stereotypes both in studying the social and economic situation and Komsomol, in his search for methods of historiographic analysis allowing to overcome biased submission of information in official documents. As a result of the research the author comes to a conclusion that the compelled participation of Komsomol members in grain procurement campaign created the opposition between them and other people living in the village. The party used the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League to perform political campaigns and thus putting young people in line of fire. Passive behavior of young people in carrying out this campaign was the most widespread form of resistance to the plunderous policy.
Lyubarev A., Shalaev N. - Vote Splitting in Mixed Electoral Systems: Attempt of a Comprehensive Research pp. 125-286


Abstract: The research is devoted to vote splitting (i.e. voting for a list of one candidates of one party or a candidate of the other party) in mixed electoral systems with the two ballot papers when single-member electoral districts are mostly used. The analysis is made based on the example of the three countries, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Russian Federation (including regional elections) and Ukraine. The authors of the article study elections held in different time periods and analyze votes for a large number of political parties as well as geographical differences within the aforesaid countrires. For each party in each campaign the average index of a rupture of voices, asymmetry of distribution of an index of a rupture of voices, an index of superiority of candidates, an index of influence of candidates and correlation between results of candidates and the party list were calculated. Also for each campaign the general index of a rupture of voices and an index of a specific rupture of voices considering only voluntary splitting of voices by voters were calculated. It is established that parties are divided on at what results of candidates it is generally best of all than results of party lists, and at what results of candidates are worse, and these distinctions generally remain in various campaigns. The authors make a conclusion about distinctions in behavior of voters in Germany, on the one hand, and Russia and Ukraine, on the other hand. 
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