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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Sociodynamics" > Rubric "The nationality issue"
The nationality issue
Koptseva N.P. - On the Question About Preservation and Reproduction of Cultural Traditions of Indigenous Small Ethnic Communities in the North, Siberia and Far East of the Siberian Federal Region pp. 1-16


Abstract: Indigenous small ethnic communities of the North, Siberia and Far East live in the constituents of the Russian Federation forming part of the Siberian Federal District. The author discusses state cultural policy in the sphere of preservation and development of the unique ethnic culture of indigenous small communities in the North, Siberia and Far East. She also touches upon activities performed by the executive authorities of the Russian Federation constituents forming the Siberian Federal District that are aimed at preservation and translation of the unique ethnic culture of small ethnic communities. In her research the author used such methods as the conceptual analysis, field researches, analysis of modern Russian and foreign scientific literature, modeling, focus group and interviews with experts. She also analyzes the current status of indigenous small ethnic communities of the North, Siberia and Far East. The author defines the main tendencies of state cultural policy aimed at preservation and translation of the unique ethnic culture and offers new ways to preserve and translate the unique ethnic culture. These ways deal with gifted children and adaptation of the younger generation to the educational urban environment. 
Koptseva N.P. - On the Question about Conceptual Grounds of Construction of the Russian National State pp. 1-14


Abstract: The author of the article discusses the theoretical aspects of construction of the Russian national state inluding social constructionism, primordialism, ethnicity theory, theories of ethnic identification and self-identification, cultural identification and self-identification. The author also touches upon the process of transformation of the ethnic cultural identity into the national identity; special features of the process of secondary modernization in modern Russian state and Russian society; the theory of artificial construction of nation by the means of political and ideological mechanisms that were used by the national elites during the period of transition from the traditional society to the Art Nouveau society; the main forms of nationalism during the period of transitio from the agrarian society to the industrial society. The author uses such methods as the conceptual analysis, determination of the ideal types of the social structure, analysis of the basic concepts 'ethnicity' and 'nation' and validation of the aforesaid theories based on the Russian realities. The author defines effective mechanisms of transformation of the ethnic cultural identity into the national identity. The author shows that construction of the national state is the process of social (artificial) construction of nation which differs this process from the 'natural' formation of ethnicity in a traditional society. Construction of the national state happens after creation of nationalism. There are several models of the latter. The main models were described by Ernest Gellner as Ruritania and Megalomania. The author concludes that the modern Russian state has the danger of developing the doctrine of nationalism in the form of Megalomania by peripheral national (ethnically monolithic) elites. 
Koptseva N.P. - Some Strategies for the Development of Contemporary Russian State in Terms of the 'National Issue' pp. 1-14


Abstract: The subject of research is the intellectual strategy (models) of formation of modern political mechanisms, including effectively functioning state adequate to calls of the Russian society in the XXI century. "Ethnic question", it "a political body" becomes the leader of the actual research agenda. The analysis of some aspects of strategy of the state construction in Russia where society has difficult polietnichny and polyconfessional character is offered. In article some concepts connected with ethnic and national characteristics of modern collective identichnost are specified, the assumption of the most effective integrative strategy of registration of modern Russian statehood becomes. This research has teoretiko-conceptual character. Some provisions of the modern ethnic theory in the context of actual political processes are specified. In this regard acts as the main methodology groups of the theoretical scientific methods connected with the analysis of empirical data, concrete historical events, the political principles, philosophical and political concepts. The method of allocation of ideal types of Max Weber allowing to create intellectual models explanations for understanding of concrete social processes is represented to the most effective. The conceptual and categorial analysis, including, specification of the concepts "ethnicity", "ethnos", "ethnic identity", "nationality", "nation" and some other is of great importance. In work the historical method allowing to be guided by the concepts and theories created during a certain historical period was also used. Scientific novelty of work is connected with the theoretical aspects of construction of the national Russian state connected with events of  "the Russian spring" in Ukraine. Classification of basic strategy of modern state construction is offered, some reveal strong and weaknesses of the existing concepts. Integrative strategy is offered and the task of theoretical modeling new the practician of the state construction of Russia is set.
Koptseva N.P. - The Influence of Modern Cultural Practices on Ethnic Identity of Indigenous Small Ethnic Communities of the Central Siberia pp. 1-27


Abstract: The subject under review is the indigenous small communities of the Central Siberia living in 12 regions of Siberian Federal District. The author is talking about 18 unique ethnic and cultural groups that are exposed to severe risks under the conditions of the secondary large-scale industrial development in the Arctic Region and Siberia. Modern practices which are carried out by various social subjects for preservation and development of unique social and cultural institutes of the indigenous small people, also are investigated concerning their efficiency or insignificance for preservation of social institutes of indigenous people of the Central Siberia. The methodology of research represents integration of theoretical and applied methods, including extensive field researches in places of compact accommodation of the indigenous small people of Krasnoyarsk Krai, the Republic of Tuva, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Field researches took place in 2010-2013. scientists of the Siberian federal university, Krasnoyarsk state pedagogical university of V.P. Astafyev and other universities. Scientific novelty of research is connected with its complex character. Processing of results of field researches is combined with interpretation of a statistical material, expert data, focus groups, quantitative sociological researches. The assessment is given to Post-Soviet practicians of preservation of traditional social institutes of the indigenous small people of the Central Siberia. The assumption that it is impossible to consider indigenous people of the North and Siberia as uniform ethnosocial group is made. Social and cultural processes in various ethnic groups of indigenous people considerably differ from each other.
Goncharov V.V., Chimitova I.Z. - Interethnic harmony between major ethnic groups in the Republic of Buryatia pp. 9-16


Abstract:  The Republic of Buryatia is referred to a number of subjects of the Russian Federation, in which the interethnic relations are characterized by stability, moderation, and mutual tolerance. This article examines the certain prerequisites for establishment and strengthening of the interethnic tolerance and its typical manifestations in the relationship of the two most numerous ethnic groups of the region – the Buryats and the Russians. Such variety of interethnic tolerance, inherent to the territories with the long and neighborly interethnic contacts, can be signified by the concept “an interethnic harmony”. The experts note the dominance of a positive trend in such communications. During the initial period, a role has played the positive perception by Buryats, as the representatives of Mongolian world, of the ambassadors of the Russian monarch – the principal of one of the suburbs of the erstwhile Golden Horde. One of the prerequisites of interethnic harmony is the regional climatic peculiarities, which encouraged the cooperation and mutual help between people regardless of their ethnic affiliation. Another factor is the key character traits of the communicating ethnic groups – peaceful disposition, relativity, Buryats’ willingness to compromise, and large communitarity of the Russian people in comparison with the West, the fact that the Russian idea is the idea of brotherhood and nations. Interethnic harmony is accompanies by the tolerant interaction of Buddhism and Orthodoxy. The specificity of the Republic of Buryatia lies in a substantial number of mixed families, kindred relations between the Buryats and the Russians. The strength of family values for the title nation of the Republic is also a prerequisite for interethnic harmony, because namely family forms the foundations for personal value orientations, including the sphere of interethnic communications. 
Avdeeva Y.N., Libakova N.M. - International practice of social and cultural projection with respect to the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East pp. 10-38


Abstract: The need for specialized studies in the field of socio-cultural development of indigenous peoples due to their low level of life and lack of theoretical and methodological elaboration of regional policy of state support of indigenous peoples. The subject of research is the international concepts and projects connected with social and cultural design in territories of compact accommodation of indigenous ethnic groups of the North, Siberia and the Far East. Relevance of research is connected with that the Russian Arctic prepares for large investment projects now. These investment projects have a direct bearing on indigenous ethnic groups of the North, Siberia and the Far East. They will have essential impact on quality of their life. Preservation of traditional culture of the northern people is the most important problem of the modern Russian state. The main method - the state-of-the-art review and a critical statement of the researches and projects connected with cultural space of indigenous ethnic groups existing in world scientific practice. It is applied descriptive techniques, and also a chronological statement of social and cultural projects. The analysis of a historiography testifies that development of indigenous people of the North was investigated by historical, ethnographic, anthropological, demographic and geographical sciences throughout several centuries. So far the big empirical and theoretical material devoted to a perspective of indigenous ethnic groups of the North, Siberia and the Far East collected. In the center of professional attention social and economic, ethnocultural development; environmental issues; preservation of traditional forms of managing, traditions, national language; questions of preservation of the rights for traditional environmental management, etc. However, in most cases, the created projects have an economic focus, that is, are aimed, more, at providing favorable conditions of activity of these people. As for sociocultural projects – they quite often carry an organizational orientation and carry out only the first steps in design of development of the sociocultural environment in KMNS. It is even less projects which are directed on modeling of prospects of development of sociocultural life of KMNS of Krasnoyarsk Krai. Need of specialized researches in the field of sociocultural development of indigenous people is caused by the low level of their life and an insufficient teoretiko-methodological readiness of regional policy of the state support of KMNS.
Babin B. - Freedom of National Self-Identity as a Factor of Modern Law pp. 15-43


Abstract: In article specifics of ethnic self-understanding in the context of a problem of subjectivity of the people in the modern right are considered. Questions of collective consciousness are investigated in jurisprudence extremely restrictedly; at the same time a perspective of collective subjects as carriers of the rights and duties, raises a question of legal mechanisms of realization of such rights and duties. This realization in a format of collective actions or inactivity causes need of research of its subjective component, namely – understanding by the collective carrier of the rights and duties of the general and uniform subjectivity, reflection in such consciousness of collective measures of realization and protection of the collective rights having legal value. Besides, understanding of subjectivity often is a necessary sign of that subjectivity in the right. The specified confirms that the problem of collective consciousness, in particular, in the context of collective self-understanding, becomes actual; among other things, it is important at determination of legal status of the people. In turn, research of self-understanding of the people as factor of their legal subjectivity, (being the purpose of this article) needs the analysis of the corresponding scientific doctrine in spheres of psychology, sociology and ethnology, in use of the philosophical practices considering development of society in the conditions of the second modernist style in determination of specifics of the current national and international regulatory base which reflected aspects of right subjectivity of the people and its subjective components. In article comparative, legal, hermeneutic methods are used, the author investigated positions of modern researchers, standards of international treaties, resolutions of the international organizations, standard of national legislations the prospect of gradual recognition of freedom of self-understanding of the people Is proved by the world community. The role of ethnic self-understanding as necessary by a sign of the people, as subject of the international and national legal relationship is shown. It is proved that the right of the people for self-understanding (freedom of self-understanding of the people) is primary collective natural right as its realization precedes emergence at the people of all rights, in particular, and the rights for self-determination. It is specified that freedom of self-understanding is key in natural and legal understanding of character of institute of the people, as the ethnoses participating in policy. Independently to define its restriction in the conditions of aspirations of the states, what social groups are the people and what - No, levels all recognized rights of the people, such as the right for self-determination, the right for resistance, the right for development, the right for the world, etc. Ethnic self-understanding is key subjective criterion of qualification of an ethnic group as people, on condition of existence of such objective signs, as cultural and language identity and a community in the long period of history of development of group.
Vnukova L. - National question of distribution of power in public speeches of the political leaders and representatives of opposition in Dagestan pp. 16-27


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of public speeches of Dagestan presidents and utterances of the representatives of political opposition from the perspective of articulation of the problems of national (ethnic) representation in government structures of Dagestan, as well as correlation with the actual political practices of distribution of the offices between ethnic groups. The scale of this problem in society is assessed by means of verbalization of the national affiliation of the officials, assignment of the post after a certain ethnic group, or the agreement-based distribution of offices, depending on the emotional coloring, essence and context of the utterance. The main method consists in discourse-analysis of the following texts: Dagestan Presidential Address, speeches and interviews of the political actors and representatives of opposition, laws, and collective addresses. In speeches of the three Dagestan presidents we can observe the evolution from admission of the need of considering the national factor in appointing to the position (the first two presidents) to the top priority of officials’ professionalism (the third president); and only R. Abdulatipov in disguised form shows preferences towards the national representation. Currently, in the official political rhetoric, the problem of distribution of power between various national (ethnic) groups is not enunciated, which corresponds with the Constitution of the Russian Federation. However, Dagestan political culture on the level of political practice in one or another level preserves the system of proportional representation of ethnic groups. Scholars note the decrease in the importance of national question in political sphere for the broad population groups.
Podyapolskiy S.A., Podyapolskaya A.V. - Ethnocultural situation in the modern Yakutia: demographical trends, historical mythologems, and humanitarian technologies pp. 19-27


Abstract: The Sakha Republic is extremely important in the geopolitical and economic regard. This article is dedicated to the problems of sociocultural development of this constituent of the Russian Federation, trends and prospects of interethnic relations within the region. Special attention is given to the historical mythologems, which can be used by the modern Yakut nationalism. These mythologems are examined from the perspective of historical science, as well as in the context of the modern humanitarian technologies. As it is evident in practice, the latter are quite often use the “soft power” resources for undermining purposes, and tendentiously interpret the historical facts. Sociocultural mythologems are viewed in comparison with the historical facts, “soft power” concepts, and the contemporary humanitarian technologies. The demographical statistics data is being used in this research.  The integration of the Sakha Republic into the Russian Federation demonstrates a complicated, but overall voluntary character. The Russian brought to Yakutia not only statehood, but paradoxically strengthened the positions of the local elite. Nevertheless, the historical by itself truth does not protect from manipulations; it requires humanitarian-technological reinforcement.
Samsonova I.V., Neustroeva A.B., Pavlova M.B. - Relationship issues between the indigenous people of the North and exploration companies of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) pp. 21-37


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interrelation between the indigenous communities of the North and exploration companies in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The authors analyze the legal grounds for regulating relations between the indigenous minorities of the North and subsoil users. The work gives special attention to examination of the role of the traditional types of activities in sustenance, food provision, and employment of indigenous people of the North; analyzes an opinion of indigenous people regarding compensation in case of the negative effect upon the natural resources necessary for the traditional economic activity. The following methods are applied in the course of this study: statistical analysis; analysis of the documents of indigenous communities; expert interviews with the founding parties, heads of the indigenous communities and heads of rural settlements, dwellers competent in social, economic, demographic, cultural, and other sectors of life of the indigenous minorities of the North; as well as method of questionnaire among the members of indigenous communities. The conducted research demonstrates that there exist certain restrictions in development of the relations between the indigenous people of the North and large exploration companies, which first and foremost are associated with the lack of legislative documents at the federal and regional levels. In addition, the authors determine the insufficiency of experience and practice among the representatives of the indigenous people of the North aimed at expressing the interests of their activity.
Seredkina N.N. - Ethnic Picture of the World In the Framework of Modern Social Research pp. 26-59


Abstract: The subject under research is a set value and meanings of the concept "ethnic picture of the world". This concept is actively formed in modern Russian social knowledge, first of all, of social ethnic researches. Application of the concept "ethnic picture of the world" of researches of processes of ethnic identification and self-identification is most actual. The ethnic picture of the world is a social and mental construct, characteristic for concrete ethnocultural group. As a rule, modern ethnic pictures of the world are base for formation of positive ethnic identity and self-identity. The main method is the conceptual analysis. For a definition of an ethnic picture of the world results of the state-of-the-art and critical review of scientific sources were used. In addition expert and information messages which expanded the academic understanding of an ethnic picture of the world were attracted. An ethnic picture of the world is a new and important scientific concept. In logic of social constructivism of positive ethnic identity the ethnic picture of the world appears not only as objectively developed construct but also as the tool for creation of national Russian identity. Ethnic pictures of the world accent specifics of outlook of a concrete ethnic group, act as the instrument of marking, separation of one ethnic group from another.
Gruzdev A.A., Konukhova A.V., Podyapolskiy S.A. - Social and cultural images of the pp. 27-49


Abstract: The concept of «soft power», introduced by John. C. Hiring Jr. in the sphere of academic and socio-political thought in the early 1990s, continues to attract the attention of modern researchers. Many countries have put into practice the concept of "soft power", understood as the ability to name the author achieve politically significant results are not due to military pressure or financial assistance, but because of image appeal and sympathy. It is about creating a "state of the brand" through the distribution of socio-cultural, the ability to attract and motivate. Interaction and cooperation of cultures combined in the modern world with their bitter struggle ("cultural wars").By interpreting ancient and modern texts studied images that reflect "soft power" of India. Accordingly, we can talk about the use of the article hermeneutical method. Based on historical material, the authors try to trace the relationship of the cultural heritage of India and modern trends. This reflects the comparative-historical method. Uses a number of classical and modern concepts: the theory of nonviolent resistanceGandhi, the concept of "soft power" (JS Nye, Jr.). "Culture wars" (P. Buchanan, I.Tomson), humanitarian technologies (PV Klachkov), and others.Variety of the "soft power" India can be represented in the three images. The first is connected with the traditions and Orientalist exoticism of medieval and colonial India, the second - with the activities of Gandhi and his supporters, and the third - with conflicting current trends, the rapid development of technology, the overcrowding situation and geopolitical choice.Strengthening of "soft power" promotes a harmonious balance of the three images. To date, the potential of the selected second image above seems somewhat underrated modern practice.
Berezhnova M., Pimenova N.N. - Growth of sociocultural diversity as a result of interethnic communications: Yakuts from the Lake Yessey pp. 28-40


Abstract: The subject of this research is the unique ethnic and cultural group of Yessey Yakuts (Krasnoyarsk Krai), which is isolated from the main Yakut ethnocultural group of the Sakha Republic. Currently the interethnic and intercultural contacts between the disconnected Yakut groups have been reestablished. The authors explore the history and current state of economics, social communications, and culture of the Yessey Yakuts, as well as analyze the prospects of future development of the social communications between the Yakuts of Krasnoyarsk Krai and Yakuts of the Sakha Republic. Certain peculiarities of the modern ethnogenesis of the indigenous people of the North are being determined. The authors conducted a field research in the places of residence of indigenous people; the in-depth interviews and the analysis of the historical and cultural peculiarities of these people were being implemented. The Yessey Yakuts separated from the Sakha Yakuts that resides in Yakutia; due to their remoteness and the established outlook, they preserved the authentic culture of Sakha. Thus in the current situation it is necessary to contribute into the restoration of the cultural and social connection with the Sakha Republic.
Tinyakova E.A. - National policy cannot be successful with elimination of national identity pp. 30-36


Abstract: The object of this research is the demand of the new national policy in Russia after the detachment from the Soviet Union and obtaining its new government status. The goal of this work is to discover the resources for a deeper demonstration of Russian national mentality. The basis of this subject is the renewing Russian history, and more specifically, the historical potential of Russian national traditional culture. The subject of this research is the accentuation of the origins of the Russian national mentality in the national traditional cultural. The political culture is also linked with the orientation towards the new national policy. The new goals of the research of the national mentality are centered first and foremost on the mass consciousness of the people. The choice of referring to the content of Russian national traditional culture is distinguished by its novelty, as the author proposes not a surface aesthetic attitude towards national culture, but the revelation of its value depth. The article also presents the social cooperation between the Russian national traditional culture and the Orthodoxy. Heroism and wisdom are the key values that lie at the source of the Russian national culture.
Pimenova N.N. - Mechanism of sociocultural changes of the indigenous people of Siberia and North: concept of cultural trauma by Piotr Sztompka pp. 37-45


Abstract: The subject of this research is the processes that are currently taking place among the indigenous people of the North, Siberia, and Far East. The article explores the prospects of the Piotr Sztompka’s concept for the purpose of analyzing the modern ethnogenesis and culturogenesis of the indigenous people of the North and Siberia. From the position of this concept, the author analyzes various forms of reaction of the indigenous people of the North to the cultural traumas including: innovation, protest, ritualism, and reatreatism. A claim is made that these mechanisms are able to produce two possible scenarios of further development: aggravation of the traumatic situation or its effective overcoming. Based on the conducted research, a conclusion can be made that the diversity of ethnic communities that are referred to as indigenous, testifies to the complex unity of not only the society, but also the ethnoculture within these internal social groups, prolonged cultural trauma experienced by these people, and application of various methods in an attempt to cope with it.
Degtyarenko K.A. - Current status of indigenous peoples pp. 39-57


Abstract: The subject of the study is historiography, reflecting the logic of scientific research indigenous peoples living in the territory of the Russian Federation. It is expected that in the future this study will be concretized for ethnocultural groups Ents, compactly living in what is now Krasnoyarsk Krai. Over the last 100-120 years it has accumulated a sufficient number of studies of various aspects of the social dynamics of indigenous peoples. This investigation aims to systematize these studies reveal the most interesting areas of contemporary Native Studies and Northern Studies
Bukova M.I. - Peculiarities of the ethnocultural self-conscience of Chulym ethnic group, living in the Pasechnoe village Pasechnoe of Tyukhetsky district of Krasnoyarsk Krai (Central Siberia) pp. 41-51


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ethnocultural group of indigenous people of Krasnoyarsk Krai – the Chulym people. Their total number accounts to nearly 200 people according to the data from the Russian Census of 2010. However, Chulyms were able to preserve their ethnic and cultural identity and attempt to restore the national language and culture. They qualify for certain government support being a relatively insignificant indigenous population. The processes of social identification that currently take place among Chulyms, are characteristic to many indigenous communities in Central Siberia. The author conducted field researches in the place of living of these people, as well as applied surveys and the analysis of statistical data. The processes of the modern ethnic identification of Chulym people are affected by the political, economic, and psychological factors. Thanks to the government and municipal support, the Chulym people continue to refer themselves to the ethnic group, although the language, culture, and history of this indigenous community fade away from social memory.
Luzan V.S. - Mechanisms of Interactions Between Government, Business and Small Ethnic Communities of the North, Siberia and Far East in the Age of Global Transformations pp. 50-66


Abstract: Object of research is the dynamics and a current state of public legal status of the indigenous small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East. Modern research literature on this problem is analyzed, current trends are allocated, prospects of interaction of authorities and representatives of large financial and industrial groups with tribal communities of the indigenous small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East are built. Special value is given to world experience and a perspective of the international legislation in this sphere. The comparative analysis of the foreign and Russian legislation allows to make a number of recommendations for regulatory authorities of of the Russian Federation consituents. Research method is the critical analysis of scientific and legal sources. The method of allocation of ideal types (according to M. Weber) was applied. The author took part in field researches of the indigenous small people of Krasnoyarsk Krai, developed the questionnaire for deep expert interviews in the field of strategy of development of data of ethnocultural groups. Scientific novelty of work consists in recommendations for bodies of legislative and executive power of subjects of the Russian Federation in which territory compactly live the indigenous small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East. The comparative analysis of the Russian and foreign legislation in the field of protection of the rights of KMNS allows to draw a conclusion on transition to a new stage of development in the relations between tribal communities, government bodies of the power and large FPG in the conditions of reindustrialization of northern and Arctic territories of the Russian Federation.
Tsydypova L.S. - Ethno-economic aspects of the activity of Chinese migrants in Barguzinsky District pp. 77-85


Abstract: This article provides the results of filed research of ethno-economic relations between the local communities of Barguzinsky Districts and Chinese migrants in the early XX century. The study focuses on the integration of Chinese community, sociocultural practices of its interaction with the local population. It is based on the secondary sources, qualitative data, fragments of personal memory, as well statistical indexes of the rural household register from the district archive. Spatial localization of the majority of Chinese migrants is associated with the northeastern part of the territory of research. The author determines the ethno-territorial areal of the community of local level, as well as the factors substantiating its boundaries. The role of the sociocultural factors and natural environment in the maintenance of life and the mechanism of self-structuring of the ethnic group is underlined. A conclusion is made on sustainability of perceptions of the local population about their territorial integrity and ethnical tolerance of the Barguzin community. The inclusion of qualitative methods of cultural geography allowed restoring the facts of cooperation of the communities, record the level of neighborship and closeness of relations, as well as determine the changes in ethnic and territorial identification, economic borrowings and economic practices of the local community.
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