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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Security Issues" > Contents of Issue № 06/2016
Contents of Issue № 06/2016
Technologies and methodology of security systems
Sobolev V.E. - Military cybernetic systems with the high-frequency perception of information pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21467

Abstract: The article considers the physical principles, underlying the perception of visual information by the human sensory system, in relation to the problem of the speed of perception and interpretation of this information by the brain. The author shows that the physiological peculiarities of the human sensory system restrict the ability of a person to observe the high-speed physical processes. The author notes the dependence between the frequency of interpretation of external information by the brain and the subjective perception of time by the person. The article shows that the intensification of the frequency of processing the incoming information leads to the actual slowdown of all observed processes. The author considers the examples of the subjective perception of the passing of time by a person. This problem is considered from the position of physics and the information theory. The article considers the philosophical aspect of this problem in the context of the constructivist concept and the problem of the observer’s role in quantum mechanics. The author demonstrates the potential possibility to create military cybernetic systems able to perform the high-frequency perception and interpretation of visual and other types of external information. The article shows that the advantage of such cybernetic systems over a human will be especially significant in observing high-speed physical processes and detecting attacks of high-speed weapons. 
Strategy of national security
Litvinov I.M. - The concepts of security protection in the French Republic pp. 7-14

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21005

Abstract: Since the late 20th century the views of the political leadership of France on the problems of defense and security have been formulated in the “White Papers” (Livre Blanc). There have been issued four White Papers on Defense and National Security (1972, 1994, 2008, 2013) and one White Paper on Domestic Security against Terrorism in 2006.The research subject includes the views of the political leadership of France on the key issues of the national security protection. The chronological framework of the study covers the period from 1972 till the present time. The research methodology is based on the dialectical method of cognition, the concrete historical approach, the system analysis, the formal-legal and comparative-legal methods. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the consistent exposition of the key provisions of the fundamental documents of the French Republic on the issues of the national security and defense, the analysis of the causes and consequences of their transformation and the formulation of the possible prospects of their development. The author concludes that the representatives of French political elite are under a serious influence of American political thought. This dependence manifests itself both in the closeness of the ideas, set forth in the fundamental documents, and in the use of the experience of organization and activities of intelligence agencies. 
Globalization and national security
Surma I.V. - The philosophy of security in the current geopolitical context pp. 15-23

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21061

Abstract: The research object is the “philosophy of security”, which has recently shifted from a merely theoretical discourse to a more practical sphere. The author considers the neoconservatism ideology in the context of the modern geopolitics and the challenges of international terrorism. At the present time this ideology is espoused in the U.S. by both the Democrats and the Republicans. The author notes that the unprecedented growth of terrorist threat in the world has raised the significance of the discussion about the correlation and symmetry of such categories as “personal freedom”, “state”, “private rights” and “security”. The study is based on the comparative analysis of the political and philosophical ideology of the “global mission” of neocons, using the example of the homeland security protection in the U.S. and the New Left in France. The author notes that the frequency of terrorist acts in Europe and the apparent unpreparedness of European special services to counteract them prove the fact that it is impossible to reverse this terrible trend without the revision of the fundamental social guidelines and ideologies of the ruling elites, the more so because the situation in the world is developing in such a way that “security” becomes a determinant concept, thus making the delegation of powers to the abstract supranational structures undesirable for the population of most countries-members of various international associations. 
Informational support of national security
Baltaev R.Kh., Lunegov I.V. - The algorithm of data embedding and retrieving from stationary digital images, resistant to passive steganoanalytic attacks pp. 24-35

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21252

Abstract: The research subject is the steganographic methods of information protection. There are two key ways to protect information – cryptographic and steganographic. Cryptographic methods conceal only the contents of the transmitted information. At that, the fact of transmission of the codified data can draw the attention of an intruder who can use the successful cryptographic attacks, aimed at the loss of confidentiality. Steganographic methods hide not only the contents of the information sent, but also the very fact of sending. Steganography and cryptography are complementary methods, which, used together, can significantly increase the safety of the transmitted data. Therefore, it is necessary to develop not only cryptographic, but also steganographic methods of data protection, which should be resistant to the detection of the process of sending. The research methodology contains the passive methods of analysis of detection of the information, embedded in the image, including statistical and visual methods. The novelty of the study consists in the development of the steganographic system of data protection on the base of the proposed original algorithm of embedding the information by the coverage of the image block in lines and columns. The authors demonstrate that this steganographic system maintains its resistance to passive steganoanalytic attacks when the blocks up to 24x24 pixels are covered, and with this coverage degree it is more resistant than the standard and the advanced steganographic methods based on the direct spectrum broadening. 
Reliability factor in security systems
Penchuchenko V.V., Kharitonov V.V., Sheshegov P.M., Zinkin V.N., Abashev V.Yu. - The system analysis of acoustic safety of aviation specialists’ professional activities pp. 36-51

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21292

Abstract: The research subject is acoustic safety of aviation specialists’ activities, including the analysis of the peculiarities of use of the audio channel of the aviation ergatic system management, the functional reliability of the operator of the aviation ergatic system, the sources of aviation noise, the ways of modeling of the noise impact on the reliability of the operator, the crews of modern aircrafts and the physiological mechanisms of impact of aviation noise on the operator of the aviation ergatic system. The novelty of the study is determined by its system character and orientation on the detection of the problems of safety of professional activities of aviation specialists, conditioned by the impact of aviation noise. The research methodology combines the methods of the reliability theory, hygienic studies, occupational medicine, evidentiary medicine, mathematical statistics and engineering acoustics. The authors formulate the particular problems of safety of professional activities of aviation specialists, determined by the impact of aviation noise. The study shows that aviation noise is the source of potential danger, causing the higher risk of misactions of aviation specialists and the danger of occupation diseases, causing the early professional disqualification. The research results show the urgent necessity to develop and implement special means and methods of improvement of acoustic safety of aviation specialists’ professional activities as an integral element of the safe operation of air transport. 
Scientific and engineering support of national security
Baltaev R.Kh., Lunegov I.V. - The method of increase of the transmitted information secrecy using the minimal possible change of the image pixels with its maximal filling with information pp. 52-59

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21337

Abstract: The research subject is the steganographic methods of data protection, able to hide not only the contents of the transmitted information, but also the very fact of transmission. The authors consider an important problem of creation of steganographic systems of information protection – the high secrecy of information transmission, which is the most important characteristic of such systems. The secrecy is understood not only as a visual or sound indistinguishability of a digital media file from the media file with embedded information, but also the statistical indistinguishability. The research methodology is based on the objective metric of image distortion, including the generally accepted figure – peak signal to noise ratio. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the proposed method of increase of the hidden transmission of information using the minimal possible image distortion with its maximal filling with embedded data. The authors analyze the most widely used steganographic systems of information protection. The authors ascertain that the most promising method of steganography is the method of direct spectrum broadening, since it has particular advantages compared with other methods. The problem of a high level of secrecy of information transmission, connected with the unacceptably high level of a container distortion upon the hidden data embedding is solved using this method. Based on the peak signal to noise ratio, the authors study the distortion of digital images with hidden information, embedded using different methods. The proposed method demonstrates the best results. 
Technologies and methodology of security systems
Shumov V.V. - Analysis of integration and disintegration processes in the European Union pp. 60-76

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21499

Abstract: The insufficient economic growth, the security problems and the UK expected leaving of the EU incline to the continuation of the analysis of integration and disintegration processes in the European Union. The research subject is the assessment of the security level of the European Union. Through the dichotomy of the values of development and preservation, the author defines the function of the security of the state and the union of states. Based on the statistical data, the author assesses the security of the Union according to several scenarios. To analyze integration and disintegration processes in the EU, the author uses the system approach, historical and statistical data and mathematic modeling. On the base of the assessment of Russia’s security over the past 200 years, the author assumes that the decrease of the value of the preservation function below 0,5 – 0,6 creates the prerequisites for the possible dissolution or transformation of the state. The author formulates the formal tasks of the search for the optimal composition and structure of the European Union and gives the examples of the calculation of the rational composition of its member-states. 
Reliability factor in security systems
Toropov B.A., Tagirov Z.I. - Terrorist networks models and the game-theoretic approach to the assessment of the centrality of their members pp. 77-89

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21436

Abstract: The paper reveals the prerequisites to the network modeling of terrorist structures, connected with the modern political, organizational and legal conditions of the struggle against terrorism. The authors consider the potential directions of terrorist networks modeling and formulate the approach to their modeling, that is at the interface of two scientific approaches: game theory and social network analysis. Using the example of the terrorist group, that had organized the unprecedented terrorist act in the USA on September 11, 2001, the authors demonstrate the results of the calculation of the terrorist network model, which help assess the role of each of its members in the context of different primary data about the prepared terrorist act. The research methodology is based on the elements of social network analysis, graph theory and game theory. In particular, the authors consider the algorithm of calculation of the network members’ centrality using the Shapley value. The calculation results take into account the ability of the network’s members to cooperate in order to achieve the desired goals. Besides, the algorithm is quite flexible and allows assessing the role of each of the members on the base of the combination of its qualitative and quantitative characteristics. It forms the key difference of the game-theory centrality metrics from the “classical” degree, closeness and betweenness, thus determining the novelty of the obtained results. 
Doctrine
Butova E.V. - Ecological safety within the national security system: problems of the modern interpretation pp. 90-100

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7543.2016.6.21573

Abstract: Based on the systematization of the preexisting approaches to the problem, the article attempts to modernize the concept and the essence of ecological safety as a form of the national security. The author sets forth the existing general theoretical and branch approaches of jurisprudence to the definition of the concepts “security”, “national security” and “ecological safety”, which help develop the concept of ecological safety, conforming to both the new social realia and the recently adopted strategical legal documents of the Russian Federation, determining the state policy in different spheres of social relations. The author applies various general scientific approaches and methods of logical cognition: analysis, synthesis, abstraction, modeling, the system-structural, functional and formal-logical approaches. The study is of a general theoretical and branch character. It is aimed at the modernization of the ecological safety concept in the context of the modern views on the national security in general. The author carries out the comparative analysis of scientific approaches to the understanding of the essence and the content of the “national security” and “ecological safety” concepts. 
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