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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Space Research" > Contents of Issue № 02/2017
Contents of Issue № 02/2017
Tao Y., Muller J. - A novel method for surface exploration: Super-resolution restoration of Mars repeat-pass orbital imagery


Abstract: Higher resolution imaging data of planetary surfaces is considered desirable by the international community of planetary scientists interested in improving understanding of surface formation processes. However, given various physical constraints from the imaging instruments through to limited bandwidth of transmission one needs to trade-off spatial resolution against bandwidth. Even given optical communications, future imaging systems are unlikely to be able to resolve features smaller than 25 cm on most planetary bodies, such as Mars. In this paper, we propose a novel super-resolution restoration technique, called Gotcha-PDE-TV (GPT), taking advantage of the non-redundant sub-pixel information contained in multiple raw orbital images in order to restore higher resolution imagery. We demonstrate optimality of this technique in planetary image super-resolution restoration with example processing of 8 repeat-pass 25 cm HiRISE images covering the MER-A Spirit rover traverse in Gusev crater to resolve a 5 cm resolution of the area. We assess the “true” resolution of the 5 cm super-resolution restored images using contemporaneous rover Navcam imagery on the surface and an inter-comparison of landmarks in the two sets of imagery.
Keywords: Planetology, Gusev crater, Space Science, Rover, Super-resolution, HiRISE, Repeat-pass, Orbital images, Mars, Planetary Surface
Serga E.V. - Physical vacuum as a form of matter: a new perspective on its structure and properties


Abstract: The research subject is the physical (space) vacuum as a matter. In modern science there is no common understanding of the nature of the physical vacuum. The Quantum Field Theory knows some vacuum effects that characterize vacuum as a matter. The Condensed Matter Physics considers vacuum as a quantum liquid that is characterized by superfluidity. The Celestial Mechanics, Cosmology, and Space Exploration consider vacuum as empty space. The objectives of this study are 1) compilation and systematization of data on the structure, properties and the vacuum effects observed in the microcosm and the Space, and conceptual approaches to their interpretation; 2) analysis of emerging contradictions and the search for theoretical models consistently explaining the existing data on the physical vacuum; 3) substantiation of the method of validation of the presented solution. The key prerequisites for this study are the ideas about gravitational interactions symmetry as a physical reality, about the unity of the vacuum theory both in microphysics and cosmophysics. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific methods and research techniques (generalization, analysis, synthesis), the methods of formal logic, the hypothetico-deductive method, and modeling. The author designs a theoretical model, which consistently explains the combination of qualities of physical vacuum as empty space and condensed elastic medium. Based on the proposed model, the author studies the impact of vacuum on the movement of celestial bodies and explains the range of vacuum effects in microcosm and the space, including the emergence of inertia in vacuum. The author offers the experiment scheme, based on the use of artificial Earth satellites, for defining the impact of vacuum on the movement of celestial bodies. 
Keywords: Speed of gravity, Anti-gravity, Inertia, Vacuum polarization, Mercury's Perihelion Shift, Space wind, Vacuum effects, Physical vacuum, Quantum fluid, Redshift
Life Sciences in Space
Suedfeld P., Rank D., Halliwell J., Buckley N.D. - Psycho-social aspects of spaceflight and aging


Abstract: Many places on Earth have been used as analogs of space vehicles, with the goal of understanding the pressures and stresses of a long-duration spaceflight such as a round-trip voyage to Mars. One of these is the situation common to many of the aged, especially those who live in group housing: planned communities, assisted living centers, or nursing homes. This paper looks at the lessons that space psychology and geriatric psychology can teach each other. Traditionally, both the literature on aging and that on spaceflight have focused on the problems that their population of interest experiences, and on what can be done to alleviate the negative effects of those problems – or, more familiarly, on countermeasures. The problems are due to or mediated by, stress, which is a common factor in both literatures.There are many common factors related to successful aging and successful spaceflight. Increased cross-flow of ideas between the two research communities would be fruitful.
Keywords: Isolated Environment, Geriatric psychology, Long-duration spaceflight, Psychological reaction, Aging, Space psychology, Stressors, ISS, Sleep deprivation, Depression
Science, Engineering and Design of Spaceflight
Gladkov I.A. - Application of trajectory analysis to design a system of safe take-off and landing of aircraft


Abstract: The subject of this article is the application of some techniques of high-precision trajectory analysis for the improvement of safety of takeoff and landing of aircraft. This issue critically important for airports with the high density air traffic, where the air traffic service (ATS) is responsible for the safety of takeoffs and landings. Nowadays the Instrument Landing System (ILS) is the primary system for these purposes, but all categories of the ILS equipment are sensitive to interferences/obstructions and depend on meteorological conditions. The use of the Satellite Navigation System (SNS) smooths over the deficiencies of the ILS, but without additional components, it does not ensure accuracy comparable at least with the ILS CAT I.The study aims at finding the approaches for obtaining accurate, reliable and credible navigation data directly on board of the aircraft, regardless of weather conditions. The proposed approach is based on the mathematical model of the system of trajectory measurements, defining the flight parameters of an aircraft in a non-query mode.In order to achieve the research goals, the author uses the methods of linear algebra, mathematical modeling of stochastic processes, and computer methods of measurement data processing.The mathematical model and the results of the simulation demonstrate the possibility of high-precision measurement, on board of a plane in a non-query mode, of six current navigation parameters: distance; radial velocity; azimuth; elevation and the rate of change of azimuth and elevation. The proposed method allows increasing the safety of takeoff and landing of an aircraft in the most adverse weather conditions (Сategory IIIс ICAO).
Keywords: Navigation data, Aviation Safety, Takeoff and Landing, Signal reflection, Landing trajectory, Satellite Navigation System, Instrument Landing System, Trajectory analysis, Mathematical model, GLONASS
Space Economics and Business
Yanik A.A. - Peculiarities of commercialization of the results of private research and development for NASA: the experience of the Small Business Innovation Research Program


Abstract: The research subject is the analysis of the specificity of NASA’s interrelation with small and medium businesses in the sphere of scientific research and development. The research is based on the results of NASA’s public-private partnership programs in the sphere of space activities, primarily the long-term Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Special attention is given to the methods used for the evaluation of the progress of commercialization of the results of small businesses’ R&D for the aerospace agency. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific research methods – formal-logical, comparative, transition from concrete to abstract, analysis, synthesis and others. Based on the results of the regular effectiveness audit of the SBIR program, conducted by national academies of sciences of the USA, the author concludes that the development of NASA’s management systems, including the level of its adaptability, ability to transform, and transparency, is a necessary condition, but it is not enough for the improvement of the research intensity of the related economic sector. The author concludes that within NASA’s area of responsibility, including its key state partners, general contractors, the academic community and other participants of scientific and innovation activities, the models of evaluation of the level of commercialization in terms of common economic activities (for example, the volume of sales or gross proceeds) have limited applicability. The main criteria are the broadening of the total volume of technological knowledge in space and missile sector, and the potential commercial value of R&D results, even if they haven’t entered the market yet. Another criterion is the development level of the information infrastructure of the sector, which is also the key instrument of functioning of the modern system of space activities. 
Keywords: Research and Development, Innovation, Space Policy, Science Policy, Small Business, economics of space activities, Public-Private Partnership, Space Activity, Commercialization, NASA
Space Law
Volynskaya O.A. - The Concept of Long-term Sustainability of Space Activities from the Standpoint of International and National Space Law


Abstract: The research object is legal relations in the area of ensuring long-term sustainability of space activities. The research subject is the range of international and domestic political and legal instruments regulating the issues of long-term sustainability of space activities.Based on the analysis, the author concludes that the adoption of universal international principles of long-term sustainability of space activities is the key to safety, stability and progressive development of world space activities, which is the ultimate goal of the international space community. The author shows that in different jurisdictions (Russia, the USA, European Union) long-term sustainability of space activities is not understood uniformly, and that the respective domestic political and legal conditions for its provision vary significantly. The author further concludes that there is a necessity to harmonize the existing and the future national legal regimes to ensure safety and long-term sustainability of space activities on the basis of the uniform international principles, which are being developed by the United Nations Organization.To achieve the research tasks, the author applies the dialectical, logical, system and structural, functional, comparative-legal and other research methods. In the research process, the comprehensive approach is used to analyze and elaborate on the research problems.
Keywords: USA, Russia, Space Activities, Long-term Sustainability, Safety of Space Activities, Space Policy, Space Law, European Union, United Nations, International Law
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