Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 07/2019
Contents of Issue 07/2019
Evolution, reform, revolution
Butovskiy A.Y. - City self-defense of the Crimean Peninsula during the first and second Crimean Regional Governments (June 1918 April 1919) pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.7.30243

Abstract: The object of this research is the organization of security of Taurida Governorate during the difficult time of severe military and political crises. The subject of this research is the nonprofit organizations of city self-defense created by the local self-governing bodies, as well as the professional unions in the Crimean territory at the time Civil War in Russia, during the “first” and “second” Crimean Regional Governments. The author meticulously examines such aspect of the topic as the organization of the pubic security and self-defense bodies in the various Crimean cities under the conditions of heavy German and domestic censorship existing on the Peninsula. Special attention is given to the history of creation of the Flying (Reserved) Squad, which later became a part of the Simferopol City Police and partially Simferopol City Guard of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Using the method of source analysis, the author carefully processes information from the previously undiscovered materials from the State Archive of the Republic of Crimea, as well as recollections of eyewitnesses of the events and periodicals of revolutionary time. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the first time, based on the extensive biographical material, the author was able to determine the peculiarities of organization and activity of subdivisions as a phenomenon in the history of security forces of the Crimean Regional Government and Armed Forced of the South of Russia. The author believes that the creation of city self-defense organizations allowed consolidating professional and semi-professional servicemen into the single militarized structures, as well as shifted the expenses for police operations from the government onto the local self-governing bodies and population.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Frenk G.Y. - Cultural genocide of the indigenous people of Canada: from negation to reconciliation pp. 10-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.7.30295

Abstract: The object of this research is the phenomenon of cultural genocide of the indigenous people of Canada –  Indians, Inuits, and Métis. Since the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867 and until 1970’s, the government policy was aimed at eradication of ethnocultural specificities of the indigenous people, which irrevocably damaged their cultural and historical heritage, language and art. Special role was assigned to the network of boarding schools, which activity became one of the most tragic moments in the history of Canada. Research methodology contains the works of foreign and Russian authors dedicated to examination of the concepts of cultural genocide and cultural assimilation. The scientific novelty consists in the historical-culturological analysis of the concepts of cultural genocide on the example of the indigenous population of Canada. The following conclusions were made: since the middle of the XIX century, Canada conducts the policy aimed at disruption of the cultural, language, religious, and economic foundations of the indigenous community. The main instrument of cultural genocide became the system of education oriented towards the upbringing of a “new person”, who has forgotten all his aboriginal background, including native culture. Reconciliation with the indigenous people and the revival of their national identity is one of the priority objectives facing Canada in the conditions of the modern multicultural society.
History of science and technology
Konov A.A. - Railway transport of Urals and Siberia in the 1956-1991: modernization of diesel locomotive traction pp. 14-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.7.30275

Abstract: The subject of this research is the modernization of diesel locomotive traction in the railway transport of Urals and Siberia, its technical-economic effects in transportation process and development of logistics of the railway transport. The author sets a goal to unlock the technical and economic potential of diesel locomotive traction, and determine the causes of its gradual replacement with the electric traction. An attempt is made to analyzes the results of using diesel locomotive traction in the railways of Urals and Siberia, as well as objectively assess its implication for modernization of railway transport. The research is conducted within the framework of modernization theory. The modernization of diesel locomotive traction is a transitional state in the development of railway transport from steam locomotive traction towards the electric traction, aimed at increasing the cargo and passenger flows on railways along with estimated capacity of railway yards, and exploitation of new railway lines. The scientific novelty lies in studying the modernization processes on the materials of railway transport of Urals and Siberia. Within a decade, diesel locomotives displaces the steam locomotive traction from the main railroads, increased the estimated capacity of railway yards, enabled the formation and maintenance of the new railway network in the area of the West Siberian oil and gas complex. Moreover, the technical capabilities of diesel locomotive traction with regards on increased cargo traffic were limited; thus, it could not become an alternative direction in modernization of railway transport of Urals and Western Siberia. The priority vector in the development of railway transport became the electrification.
History of law and state
Ryzhkova E.A. - Genesis of the concept of budget in the countries of the Arab East pp. 30-39

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.7.30301

Abstract: Budget is the key concept of financial system of any country and reflects its socioeconomic policy. The absence of the uniform understanding of budget as a phenomenon necessitates to trace the process of its legislative establishment and adaptation, particularly in the countries of the Arab East, which have walked a centuries-long path towards regulation of budget relations that has a number of striking features. The goal of this work is to determine the importance of reception of the concept of “budget” in the Arab countries. Determine its consequences for the development of budget relations in the countries of the region. This study is first to explore the institution of budget in the countries of the Arab East in a historical retrospective. The conducted analysis allows concluding that the reception of the concept of “budget” did not lead to modification of the content of budget relations, but rather consolidated the achievements of the countries of the Arab region with regards to their regulation.
History of regions of Russia
Bezai O.V. - Participation of aviation in combating the uprising in Tambov Governorate (January August 1921) pp. 40-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.7.30237

Abstract: This article examines the role of aviation of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in the course of suppression of the Tambov uprising in 1920-1921. The subject of this research is the participation of aircraft of Air Defense Forces in military operations against the peasant rebel. The authors explores such aspects of the topic as the usage of aircraft for aerial reconnaissance, as well as use of military airplanes for destruction of the enemy through ground attacks and bombing. Special attention is turned to the actions of the flight crews aimed at displacement of the rebels from the town of Rasskazovo captured by the detachments of guerilla army of the Tambov region on April 11, 1921. Based on the pilot reports, the author determines the content of military missions, as well as establishes the causes and consequences of emergency landings. The newly introduced into the scientific discourse archival documents allow detecting the character and effectiveness of combat missions, as well as rebels’ response to the actions of “Red” aviation. The conclusion is made that the military aircraft was used for locating and destructing the guerilla forces through bombardment and machine-gun firing. Military pilots collected information on dislocation and size of the rebel forces, as well as dropped propaganda materials over the “rebel” villages. The examined materials demonstrate that the air attacks did not inflict significant damage to the enemy, but rather produced a strong psychological effect on guerillas and local population.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Natalevich S.I. - The specificities of administrative governance of insular territories of the British Raj in the late XIX early XX century pp. 49-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.7.30180

Abstract: The author examines the basic principles of functioning of administrative structure of the main territories of the British Raj in the late XIX – early XX century. This period marks the finalization of bureaucratic system in the hard-to-reach and underdeveloped regions, such as Andaman, Nicobar and Laccadive archipelagos in the Indian Ocean. Due to significant remoteness from the continental India, the islands have formed the unique administrative systems. Therefore, studying the peculiarities of formation and functioning of the colonial bureaucracy of the British Raj in the insular territories appears to be relevant. The attention is focused on the comparative analysis and processes of the establishment of administrative systems of the Andaman, Nicobar and Laccadive Islands. These territories had special status and were under special control of the colonial government. The development of local administrations depended on the strategic importance and resource availability.
History of public institutions
Pestova O. - Peculiarities of record keeping at the beginning stages of the formation of Soviet Militsiya pp. 57-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.7.28302

Abstract: The subject of this article is the legal and theoretical-practical basis of the organization of record keeping in police forces of the Soviet Union during the 1917-1920. The article examines the existing in theoretical research classification of documentation, which correspond with the types of the titled documents reflected in the acts of establishment of the Soviet Militsiya, and the acts regarding the order of implementation of record keeping at the stage of formation of the Soviet police forces for the purpose of determination of the principal classifications of record keeping documents in the Soviet police forces, which allow grouping any types of documentation. Methodology is based on the historical-legal analysis of regulatory acts, as well as comparative method with regards to classification of documentation. The scientific novelty consists in the legal assessment of historical acts on organization of the Soviet Militsiya alongside the record keeping acts, namely in determination of the mechanism of entrenchment of rules of record keeping, order of allocation of authorities in accordance with the territorial principle, which formed the range of record keeping documents within the framework of the separate branch of the Soviet Militsiya.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Bocharova M.Y. - Mythological motifs in visual ornamentation of orders and medals of the Meiji era in Japan pp. 65-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.7.30125

Abstract: The Meiji era (1868-1912), since 1875, marks the establishment of the modern award system of orders and medals following the European example. Orders and medals become the method of representation of the power of new elites and a new cultural phenomenon. For ornamentation of the awards are used the symbols and images known from the religious plots, mythological legends, literature and painting. Particular emphasis is put on the imperial symbolism, through which were translated the ideas of military might and advanced country.  The conducted research is structured on the theoretical methods: culturological analysis, and comparison of themes based on the acquired information. The following conclusions were made: orders and medals became one of the forms of representation of the new Japanese elite; the old-time religious and mythological plots were realized through visual ornamentations of the awards; main attention was dedicated to symbols associated with imperial power; this became the new cultural element of social life.
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