Philosophical Thought - rubric Philosophy of language and communication
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Philosophy of language and communication"
Philosophy of language and communication
Saenko A.V. - Specificity of the notions of the language of philosophy according to G. Deleuze, F. Guattari and M. K. Mamardashvili pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article examines the views of G. Deleuze, F. Guattari and M. K. Mamardashvili upon philosophical language and its components. The author analyzes the classification of texts into direct (analytical) and indirect (predicatory) proposed by the Soviet thinker. The famous philosophical works of various stylistics are brought as an example. Special attention is given to the views of Mamardashvili ipin the philosophical notions that he calls “marginal subjects” or “marginal representations”, as well as the views of Deleuze and Guattari upon the philosophical concepts that they call the “concepts”. The article establishes connection between the diverse classifications and opinions upon the specificity of philosophical notions and texts, and ascertains the importance of contribution made by Mamardashvili, Deleuze and Guattari to methodology of the study of philosophical language. Leaning on the material of Mamardashvili’s lecture on the modern European philosophy, the author underlines the specificity of contribution of the Soviet thinker to the development of methodology of the analysis of philosophical language.
Silinskaya A.S. - Musical communication and its specificities from the perspective of semiotics pp. 25-30


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the musical activity as the specific means of human communication, ways of organization of sense-making process, as well dissimilarity of music from the verbal language from the position of semiotic concept. The object of this research is the phenomenon of intersubjective communication, combination of the means for expressing information, methods of its perception, accumulation, and transmission. Special attention is given to the questions of determination of the language and structure of communicative act from the perspective of semiotics, distinction of verbal language from the languages of art; the accent is also made on the non-symbolic nature of music. The scientific novelty consists in making changes in prerequisites of the semiotic approach towards the study of music art as method of intersubjective communication. This allowed understanding music as the language untranslatable into the verbal natural language, which expresses and transmits specific information by means of non-symbolic tools. The author also   recreated the process of sense-making and representation in the music art.  
Nedorezov V.G., Pisarchik L.Y. - The development of the analytical philosophy of language from the problem of meaning to the theory of speech acts pp. 26-41



Abstract: The subject of the study is the development of the analytical philosophy of language in the twentieth century from the problem of meaning, which was central to the logic of G. Frege, in logical positivism and in the philosophy of B. Russell, to the theory of speech acts, that is, the development from semantics to pragmatics. The main attention is focused on such problems as the problem of the essence of language, the problem of meaning and reference, the nature of communication, and the theory of speech acts. The purpose of the study is to identify the features of the concepts of meaning in different representatives of analytical philosophy. A special place is given in this context to the ideas of L. Wittgenstein and H. Putnam's. It is also important to find out the reasons for the transition of analytical philosophy to communication problems. The specific features of the concepts of speech acts by such thinkers as D. Austin and D. Searle are also considered.The article uses such research methods as historical and philosophical analysis, socio-critical, as well as comparative methods. The novelty of the research lies in identifying how philosophers followed the path of updating and deepening the problem of meaning and reference, as well as what the specifics of each solution are. The changes that took place in the philosophy of language in the twentieth century, introduced, first of all, by L. Wittgenstein during the "linguistic turn", are considered. Significant innovations introduced into the descriptive-analytical linguistic theory of speech acts related to the names of D. Austin and D. Searle are also shown. Austin's characterized and classified speech acts, D. Searle's combined the problem of speech communication with the problem of intentionality, as a fundamental ability of human consciousness. A critical flaw in the theory of speech acts is pointed out: in fact, it does not explain the nature of dialogue, since it presents a variety of monologues.
Kryuchkova S.E., Khrapov S.A. - Argumentative discourse in communication space of modern culture: problems of theory pp. 36-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern state of foreign and Russian scholars in the area of argumentation theory (AT), considering the specificity of communication field of modern culture. The author assess the methodological potential of cognitive approach that centers around the argumentative discourse, as well as reveal the heuristic potential of Husserl’s phenomenology for understanding of the modelling mechanism by the recipient. The subject of this work is specified in the following chapters of the article: “addressing an issue”; “argumentation theory of reasoning of consciousness: main approaches”; “subject of argumentation: phenomenological approach”. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the subsequent conclusions:   Despite the prolonged research tradition, an extensive area of scientific research, generally called the “argumentation theory”, continues to remain the field of tense discussions regarding the advantages and flaws of the existing models, as well as creation of the universal AT that testifies to the need for further scientific research, the results of which will eventually conduce the mutual enrichment of methodological means developed by various disciplines dedicated to the argumentative discourse; Phenomenological approach, due to the presence of intersubjective component, can be accepted as one of the methodological foundations in establishing of the AT. But at the same time, such approach cannon be the basis in searching for the universal normativity of AT because of its dependence. Problem of formation of AT is a multifaceted problem, and thus, it requires more than a single phenomenological response to it. In addition, phenomenological analysis used for representation of argumentative interaction between the subjects, brings us back to the tradition of cognitive approach in the broadest sense of the word. Cognitivism as an optimist theoretical model of interdisciplinary nature, sets new prospects on the path for creation of AT. Impact of culture upon the character of space of the submerged into it argumentative discourse, manifests as a systemic, prevalent, and constant. Each argumentative act is aimed at comprehension of the semantic component of the substantiated point of view, as well as its inscription into culture, which defines not only the personal meanings, but also the normative schemes.  
Sanochkin V.V. - Objective approach towards the concept of sign pp. 36-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the focal concept of semiotics – the sign. Traditionally, this concept is viewed from the standpoint of perceiving subject. Such approach untenably complicated and confuses the picture, as well as leads to the emergence of logical contradictions and ambiguities. A number of authors, giving characteristics to the current state of the science of signs, claim that the goal of building an adequate concept of sign is yet to be achieved. If an a century-old work over the concept of “sign” led to such result, it is reasonable to change the approach to the problem. Therefore, the author substitutes the traditional subjective approach with the objective approach, previously unused for the description of signs. Based on the new approach, it is established that the object becomes a sign thanks to the link with meaning, which may be objective. The author suggest a nee w objectivizes definition of sign without a mention of the perceiving subject; reveals how the presented sign substitutes its meaning; develops the idea on the origin, existence and application of the natural and conventional signs. The article also reviews the peculiarities of creation and distribution of conventional signs, creation and juxtaposition of the supposed meanings. The author formulates a hypothesis on evolution of signs from the natural to conventional, as well as presents a new scheme of the links between sign and meaning. The scheme demonstrates that the subject may be used as a sign only if it possesses a mental link between the images of sign and meaning. The approached used in the article allowed eliminating internal conflicts of semiotics, get a new perspective on the essence of sign, clarify the dialectics of signs and meanings, as well as provide a broader and more logical description of a sign.
Guseva A.A. - Protolanguage in the context of historical consciousness pp. 37-65


Abstract: This article examines the capabilities of protolanguage as the object of philosophy. The subject of this research is the protolanguage viewed from different perspectives: as the ideal construct, as retrotopic plot, as key to the golden age, etc. Within the framework of the philosophy of language, protolanguage largely correlates with the Adamic language, which can be considered as disappeared or subtly preserved in national languages. The search for protolanguage in the Middle Ages (and later period) requires the method of philosophical etymology that proves the closeness of the selected language to the historical primary source - the point of the origin of history. The context of protolanguage intersects not only with linguo-philosophical problematic, but also with the problem of historical consciousness. Protolanguage can be perceived as a type of internal language, or inner form of language; therefore the theme of internal form becomes the plotline for searching the language that encompasses antiquity as the criterion of truth and the ideal comprehension, when the disappearing language remains in silence, indicating the very things. The article advances an idea that the genealogical classification of languages, which includes one protolanguage underlying the linguistic family, may have such classification, which is founded not only on the comparative-historical method, but also the peculiarities of historical consciousness suggesting, for example, that for philhellene culture such protolanguage would be considered the Greek language. The question of protolanguage is attributed to not only the sphere of comparative-historical linguistics, but virtually being the question of the origin of history and human, lies in the realm of the philosophy of history, ontology, and gnoseology.
Pris F. - Wittgensteins problem of following the rule: McDowell vs Robert Brandom pp. 42-53


Abstract: The article narrates the approach of John McDowell towards the Wittgenstein’s problem of rule-following and proposes comments on the McDowell’s criticism of Robert Brandom’s approach towards this problem. The author compares points of view of the two philosophers upon the Wittgenstein’s notion of interpretation, concept of the implicit normalization, and the problem of regulism and regularism. Focus is made on the fact that the rule is followed in practice, in action, that is primal and where is no “gap” between the rule and its use from the very beginning. The approaches of McDowell and Brandom are compared with each other, as well as with the position of Wittgenstein within his “second philosophy”. It is stated that the theoretical approach of Brandom in its major features is compatible with the therapeutic approach of Wittgenstein and the therapeutic interpretation of the problem of rule-following proposed by McDowell. At the same time, Brandom’s approach gives grounds for criticism, including the facts related to the existence of two levels of normalization.
Martynov M. - Peculiarities of the Russian anarchic discourse in post-Soviet era pp. 43-51


Abstract: This article analyzes the peculiarities of the Russian anarchic discourse of post-Soviet era in correlation with the key attributes of the Soviet political discourse. Soviet government viewed anarchists as the antagonistic political power; therefore, the activity of anarchistic organizations in the Soviet Union was prohibited. Russian anarchism started to reappear only in the late 1980’s, when the declining Soviet state was losing control over the political situation. The main attention is given to the analysis of peculiarities attained by the Russian anarchic discourse during this period in the context of confrontation with Soviet ideology. The article uses the methodology of the French school of discourse analysis that is oriented towards the study of political texts and considers discourse as the product of ideology. The anarchic discourse implies such language activity of the anarchists that features the values of the anarchic worldview. The author notes the anti-Soviet tune of the anarchists in the end of the XX century, demonstrating that the establishment of key parameters closely relates to the criticism of Soviet worldview and Soviet ideological language. For example, the parameters of the Soviet political discourse “nominalization” and related to it process of depersonalization are opposed to the attention to real subject of speech and polysemicity. The refusal from the Soviet ideological language also manifested in the anarchists’ use of the letters from Russian alphabet (i, and others), which were excluded after the spelling reform of 1917-1918, i.e. already during the Soviet time. The pre-reform elements can be seen in the various anarchistic texts and make an overal  impression of non-Sovietness.
Nilogov A.S. - Library of philosophy of the anti-language: definition of anti-language in interpretation of H. Wirth and A. G. Dugin pp. 50-62


Abstract:     This article examines the traditionalistic interpretation of the notion of “anti-language” in the Nordic esotericism of Herman Wirth and Aleksandt Gelievich Dugin. In the process of critical deconstruction of the Wirth-Dugin text, the author determines not only discriminative character of the concepts of the preached and racial dualism, but also dispute the very principle of linguistic competence of the American linguist Noam Chomsky, simultaneously using the alternative interpretations, namely the philosophy of the anti-language that studies the grounds and limits of the semiotic nomination on the language and dependence of the cognitive process from the anti-language. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the example of the Wirth-Dugin racial understanding of the anti-language, again confirms the Heidegger’s funded ontological and ontical diversification of the essence of the natural human language, lending to non-consumer (occasional) and consumer (usual) manifestation. In addition to that, the author introduces the “principle of linguistic incompetence” into the philosophical-linguistic discourse.    
Pris F. - Phenomenological Concepts are Compatible with Wittgenstein's Private Language Argument pp. 64-98


Abstract: Recently David Papineau reasoned that phenomenal concepts are incompatible with Wittgenstein's private language argument and that it is Wittgenstein's argument but not phenomenal concepts that is problematic. The author of the present article analyzes Papineau's argument. In particular, Pris analyzes and criticizes  some of his interpretations related to a well-known mental experiment of Jackson and Mary and its modification, "zombie" argument and Wittgenstein's private language argument. At the end of article the concept of psychophysical identity from the point of view of the analytic pragmatism of Robert Brendom is offered. We combine an analytical method of modern philosophy of consciousness with a pragmatism and late Wittgenstein'snaturalism as well as some elements of "continental" realistic philosophy of Jocelyn Benoist. We conclude that phenomenal concepts are compatible with private language argument. Incompatibility can arise at limited or wrong understanding of Wittgenstein's argument or phenomenal concepts. In particular, Papineau's statement about possibility of direct identification of a new type of phenomenal experience due to a drain of available potential phenomenal concepts doesn't contradict Wittgenstein's philosophy. 
Pris F. - About Kripkes Skeptical Paradox and Wittgenstein Problem pp. 65-112


Abstract: The article analyzes Kripke’s skeptical paradox, that is the interpretation of the Kripke-Wittgenstein problem of following the rule applied to the addition operation. The paradox states that it is impossible to naturalize the sense and the problem of following a rule in the networks of a classical (non-normative) naturalism. It is suggested to view the problem from the point of view of Wittgenstein’s normative naturalism. The notion of a normative disposition is introduced. The article criticizes the solution of the paradox recently suggested by Ginzborg, particularly her naturalistic “middle way” between the dispositionalism and mentalism. Kripke’s paradox and Ginzborg’s approach are analyzed within the networks of the interpretation of Wittgenstein’s second philosophy which is understood as a normative naturalism of language games that are natural and spontaneous at the same time. It is also found that the paradox appears as a result of neglecting of pragmatics and normative measurements of the operations. Ginzborg’s approach is close to Wittgenstein’s normative naturalism but the notion of primitive normalization which she introduces is not satisfying. It is more correct to speak not about the naturalism with the minimum of normalization added (as Ginzborg does) but about the normative naturalism.
Leushkin R.V. - Transhumanism dimension of social communication pp. 75-87


Abstract: This article presents the results of examination of the transgressive mode of existence of social communication. Socio-ontological properties of the virtual forms of social communication, which are not characteristic for its traditional forms are subject to analysis. The author poses a problem of explication and study of the conditions for realization of the virtual social communication. Consecutive text manifests as a continuation of previous works and is dedicated to the development of the following questions: does the virtual social communication represent an ordinary form of social communication;  is there is a possibility for semantic communication in the context of social and ontological incompleteness of the existence of communicants; and whether or not is possible the existence of transhumanistic forms of semantic communication? The work applies the socio-constructivist approach, principles of systematicity, evolutionism, and polyontism (multiplicity of ontological horizons). The study is based on the theory of social-communicative systems of N. Luhmann and periodization of the development of communicative forms of M. McLuhan. The author formulates a theoretical foundation for further introduction of the development of social and communication systems outside the framework of evolution of the human species. The article depicts the impae of social and communication systems as not dependent on the human will, but self-developing formations. A corresponding definition is given to the communication subject along with the characteristic of its key features that also spread onto an artificial actor.
Kutyrev V.A. - Human Language: After Triumph, on the Road of Death... pp. 86-133


Abstract: Researchers debate over the paradigmal role of language in exlaining the reality. Why and where they lead to? In order to answer this question, we need to take a different look at the history of language.  Phenomenologically people differed from other living creatires by appearance and their ability to speak. At meetings with savages speech was the first determinant of their human status. The author of the article describes stages of the development of language from speech and writing to printed text and 'calculation' writing as the death of language or/and human. The latter is the structural and linguistic catastrophe. It is when we refuse from language as a carrier of sense and digital ontology. Grammatology and numerical rhetoric are messengers of human consciousness turning to artificial intellect.The world is entering the age of Trans-Modernism where matrix or commutation become the prospect of development. In order to preserve our human reality, we need the For preservation of human reality we need to take care of the language and return to the traditional approach to philosophy. 
Breskin V. - Triad: Method for Studying the Core of the Semiotic Parity of Language and Art pp. 119-159
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present and describe a new method for studying the pre-speech language. The suggested approach allows to relate epistemology of linguistics to ideological traditions of other scientific disciplines. The method is based on three linguistic categories – nouns, verbs, and interjections in their motor and expressive qualities – and their relation to the three basic forms of art – graphics (visual art), movement (dance), and sound (music). The study considers this correlation as caused by the nature of the human receptor system. This method explains the nature of art and the phenomenon of aesthetics and allows for the chronological arrangement of important cultural processes; it identifies the fundamental unanimity of the semiotic nature of language and art.
Grebenshchikova E.G. - Risk communication in bioethics pp. 124-137
Abstract: This article describes the main theoretical approaches to risk communication and considers the characteristics of the relationship between society and experts in the context of three models of communication. It reveals the heuristic potential of the communicative approach in the explanation of the riskogenic potential of technoscience and the formation of transdisciplinary strategies for overcoming communication gaps that arise during discussions of complex modern issues. The article confirms the relevance of dialogical approaches to the transdisciplinary mode of knowledge-production, which is directed toward a regimen of intensive feedback, contextualization, and the formation of consultative mechanisms for public participation and responsible management. It reveals the particulars of risk communication in bioethics and particulars of contemporary debates related to not only existing but also future innovations. It outlines the two competing positions (that of bioconservationists and that of transhumanists) in the treatment of threats/risks and advantages/benefits of using the latest achievements of biomedicine to change human functionalit, and ultimately, human nature. It clarifies the need for "preventive care" in handling risk-causing innovations.
Rozin V.M. - Reconstruction of L. Wittgenstein's "Logical and philosophical treatise" pp. 287-425


Abstract: The author analyzes the logical and philosophical treatise of Ludwig Wittgenstein, basing his view not only on the study of the Treatise by Vladimir Babihin and other philosophers and logicians, but on his own reconstruction of the genesis of logic and science, as well. Rosin demonstrates that the first signs of division of the three philosophical disciplines - formal logic, substantive logic and methodology, became evident as early as Aristotle's works. The author scrutinizes G. Leibniz's logic reformation program, as well as logic substantification program in the spirit of D. Hilbert, which, according to the author, defined the modern state, and, partially, the crisis of symbolic logic. Drawing from the analysis, Rosin reconstructs the fundamental pattern of logical and philosophical treatise. The author demonstrates that Wittgenstein does not work with definitions - like Plato, he uses diagrams and outlines to construct his world view and ontology of symbolic logic and justifies the autonomy of its thesis. The author analyzes both, the background and structure of the Treatise, as well as the conditions of conceivability of its main ideas.
Ursul A.D. - Culture as an Information Phenomenon pp. 295-355


Abstract: The author dwells on that aspect of the information of Cultural Studies, which is associated with the interpretation and study of the phenomenon of culture based on the concept of information and the information approach. Culture as an informational phenomenon occurs as a natural continuation of the information vector of the global (universal) evolution as anti-entropy mechanism for continuing the process of accumulation of information in the social stage of development. The relation of information and culture, with special attention to the information aspect of culture as extracorporeal information process, characterize the social stage of evolution. It is shown that in contrast to the previous step in the development of mankind, through a process of accumulation of exogenous information begins to expand the scope of its distribution both on Earth and in space, not only for the natural resources, but above all for negative entropy from the environment, continuing their cultural and informational processes.It is noted that if the concept of civilization "tends" to the material and the economic, technical and technological treatment, at the same time presenting a coherent social stage of evolution, the concept of culture – to its spiritual and informational component, expressing the deep essence of the civilization process. We discuss the development of the information criterion in nature and society, and its application to evolutionary processes in culture. The author also dwells on the problem of finding pieces of cultural information, such as memes and gives his opinion on these studies. In considering the prospects for the evolution of culture focuses on the forms of its becoming a culture of sustainable development and a noosphere culture.
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