Philosophical Thought - rubric Tradition and innovation
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Tradition and innovation"
Tradition and innovation
Prokhorov M.M. - Ontology, gnoseology and ontognoseology pp. 22-36


Abstract: The subject of analysis is the relationship between ontology and gnoseology. The purpose of the study is to discover the unity, their mutual influence as the fundamental for the philosophical worldview. In the first chapter, the origins and development of philosophy are studied taking into account its interrelations with mythology and religion, which makes it possible to detect a trend towards ontognoseology as a unity of ontology and epistemology, which becomes fundamental precisely in philosophy. The second chapter reveals their relationship in the form of the basic question of philosophy. The third chapter describes the relationship between ontology and epistemology as a problem of modern domestic philosophy, in which the reduction of philosophy to ontology or to epistemology is preserved. Recently emerged, shown in the fourth chapter, the concept of existential materialism, reanimating, the author shows, the mythological worldview. The fifth chapter explores dualism, reductionism and dialectical models (abstractions) of the relationship of ontology and gnoseology, which are empirically (factually) supplemented by the restoration of mythological syncretism.As a basic method of research, the principle of objectivity and the unity of the historical and logical are used.
Rostovtseva M.V. - Theoretical aspects of the phenomena of tolerance and sociocultural adaptation pp. 24-36


Abstract: This article examines the problems of intolerance, nationalism, xenophobia, disadaptation, which require the development of special mechanism aimed at struggle against them. Tolerant relations alongside the process of sociocultural adaptation are presented as mutually conditioned phenomena, each of which determines the other, but has its own specificity. It is underlines that tolerance, comprehended in majority of scientific sources as an acceptance of otherness – is the adjustment to that other and its peculiarities, including the sociocultural norms, values, traditions, etc. Sociocultural adaptation suggests not just the passive acceptance and adjustment, but also the reciprocal activeness of the adaptable subject. Tolerance, in turn, defines the right of each individual to an equally full-fledged member of the cultural society to which he belongs to. The article proposes a mechanism for formation of tolerance and successful adaptation. The author determines the deep psychological causes of intolerance associated with the imperfections of cognizing by an individual of his distinctness as a person with certain flaws in upbringing, conservativeness of cultural norms, lack of understanding and miscommunication due to underdevelopment of intellect, and distorted perception of patriotism. The article also introduces the definition of tolerance and sociocultural adaptation, which implies the relation of two or more diverse cultures and their representatives, aimed at resolution of contradictions that emerged as a result of the clash of various cultural norms, and led to establishment of a new one – common to the conflicting parties. Tolerance is and adaptive attitude, associated with acknowledgement of the rights of other people despite their physical, physiological, and social differences.  
Kolesova O.V. - The legacy of P. Feyerabend: a look from the digital realities of the XXI century pp. 38-53



Abstract: The article analyzes the ways of expressing the methodological message of P. Feyerabend, implemented by modern digital reality. The object of the study is the specifics of digital reality, and the subject is the forms of implementation of P. Feyerabend's methodological message in it. Using hypothetical-deductive and hermeneutic approaches, the author correlates the positions of P. Feyerabend's epistemological anarchism with the features of modern cyberphysical reality. The comparison of the first "counter-rule" Ц the principle of proliferation is carried out in relation to the understanding of hybrid society and the metaverse. The principle of incommensurability, understood by Feyerabend as a condition for the absence of criteria for assessing the truth of the theory, is compared with the heterogeneity of the digital environment. The main conclusions of the study are the highlighted parallels between the principle of proliferation and the constant transformation of the actors of the digital society, evaluated from the standpoint of expanding the possibilities of creativity. The principle of incommensurability is compared with the constant generation of new conventions by the digital environment, the presence of heterogeneous modalities. The modern way of thinking is positioned in the discourse of the given "counter-rules" as the implementation of complex network thinking. Feyerabend's premise for the perception of archaic man correlates with the idea of cybernetic animism. The scientific novelty of the work consists in fixing the parallels of Feyerabend's theoretical premises and the reality of the modern hybrid world with its ways of thinking, revealing the internal contradiction of Feyerabend's position and the ambiguity of the embodiment of his methodological guidelines in a modern hybrid society.
Kleschev D.S. - Key of David (on Solution of David Hilbert's Second Problem pp. 44-118
Abstract: Intuitionism school of thought helped to reconstruct the three crises lying in the basis of mathematic. The author of the article has discovered the facts of rude falsification of the genesis of the theory of incommensurable segments and modern theory of irrational numbers which are traditionally related to establishment of the multiple-theory paradigm at the end of XIX century. Based on the results of researches conducted by a Dutch mathematician Luitzen Brouwer in 1911 and a Soviet mathematician Andrey Kolmogorov in 1925, the author suggests the negative solution of David Hilbert's second problem. 
Vorobev D.N. - Socrates as a prophet. Archaic features of the Xenophon-Plato image of Socrates pp. 47-58


Abstract: The object of this work is the traditional image of the philosopher Socrates, created by Plato and Xenophon. The author changes the research context, proceeding from the idea that philosophy in the Ancient Greece during the time of Socrates have not yet separated from the religion. Special place within the Greek religion holds the mantic – the ritual art of interpreting symbols, sent by the supernatural forces. An expert in the field of mantic were called mantis or prophet; they featured the prophet abilities, inspired trance, magic skills, and non-literate character of teaching. Expanding the context alongside examining the image of Socrates in terms of the ideas and practices of the traditional Greek religion, allow interpreting the key aspects of the image of Socrates (daemon of Socrates, falling into trance, predicting the future, etc.) from a new angle. The research shows that the Socrates’ contemporaries could perceive him as a religious expert, inspired prophet, mantis, who understands and realizes a specific religious mission. Such interpretation of the image of Socrates contributes into the solution of the problem of Plato and have access to the platform of Plato’s knowledge, as well as allows expanding the grounds of Plato’s comparison of the philosopher and the Sophists.
Gryaznova E.V. - A philosophical analysis of the concept of virtual reality pp. 53-82


Abstract: This article provides a critical generalised analysis of modern concepts of virtual reality. The need for this research has come about due to the absence of a common understanding of the concept of virtual reality in modern scientific and philosophical literature. This has led not only to various misunderstandings, but has also distorted the meaning of many existing and well-established definitions in philosophy. For example, the most common concept of virtual reality today - psychological - has been reduced to the identification of the concept of "virtual" with the notion of "subjective", while the sociological concepts of virtual reality have replaced "virtual" with the term "social", and so on. As a result, the New Philosophical Encyclopedia now lacks one of the basic philosophical defintions ("perfection"), but instead includes "virtual reality" as a term from the field of psychology. The article presents the author's informational conception of virtual reality, highlighting generic characteristics of virtual phenomena of abiotic, biotic, psychological, social and technical worlds.
Inyushina I.A. - The formation of culture of philosophical thinking: M. K. Mamardashvili's ideas in the context of contemporary philosophical praxis pp. 62-67


Abstract: The goal of this article is the identification within the modern philosophical praxis of the most efficient concepts of formation of culture of philosophical thinking that refer to the archetypal nature of philosophical knowledge. The article substantiates the need for formation of culture of philosophical thinking by means of the philosophy itself. Therefore, the author emphasizes the importance of M. K. Mamardashvili's ideas in the context of philosophical praxis. Analysis of the state of modern philosophical thought, which is characterized by the distribution of non-academic forms of philosophizing, has determined the controversy in the structure of philosophical praxis of the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI centuries. The majority of forms of practical philosophy represent the synthesis with psychotherapy, and their essence are aimed at resolution of the private existential questions, rather than establishment of culture of the philosophical thinking. Similar controversy in views upon philosophy is absent in the works of M. K. Mamardashvili, which clearly define its practical function.
Karpov S. - Concept, family likeness, prototype: on the way towards adequate classification of philosophical concepts pp. 103-116


Abstract: This article analyzes the correlation between three approaches to categorization: classical (coming from Aristotle), based on the concept of family likeness (L. Wittgenstein), and prototypical (E. Rosh). It is demonstrated that these approaches can be differentiated by the specifics of relation established between the members of the category. The acquired result allows observing that prototypical categorization brings the gap with the classical categorization to the conceptual limit (while Wittgenstein’s only outlines it). The example of classification, associated with the “fundamental question” of philosophy, demonstrates the difficulties face by the classifiers using the classical approach for classifying the philosophical concepts. In particular, it is underlined that I. Kant’s philosophy can be referred to all of the three types of classification (idealism, dualism, materialism). From the standpoint of classical approach, such result can testify to “eclecticism” of the concept or limitation of the scope of classification itself (capable to realistically classify not nearly every concept). Nevertheless, both, classical and prototypical approaches allow avoiding such dilemma (classical – through various grounds for division into three initial types; while prototypical – via adding new elements into the category). However, if the classification is challenged with a uniform task (which historically was allotted for the political purposes, but also can serve, for example, in pedagogical), and moreover, the task of minimizing the hermeneutic “violence” (in arranging the concepts by types), the prototypical approach, as demonstrated in the article, solves these issues in a more adequate and explicit manner.
Shchuplenkov O.V. - Moral Imperatives of Russian History pp. 241-286


Abstract: Russia is the conglomerate of demographic potentials, i.e. people who follow common civilizational principles. Russian civilizaton is primarily associated with Orthodoxy. The second element of Russian civilization is the sobornost. Sobornost is quite close to the modern meaning of democracy. The third element of our civilization is the peacefulness as an external expression of the moral element of Russian civilization. The key to success of any development is the proper combination of traditions and innovations. Noteworthy that any political, economic and social transformations must not interrupt the successive bond of the Russian society and Russian civilization with its national, spiritual and moral traditions for the sake of establishment and development of new foreign orders.
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