Philosophical Thought - rubric The rational and the irrational
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "The rational and the irrational"
The rational and the irrational
Vetushinskiy A.S. - Anti-spiritualism, anti-idealism, anti-obscurantism: three periods in development of the Western materialism pp. 16-31


Abstract: In this article the author problematizes the history of materialism and the way it has established within the tradition of dialectical materialism. Referring to the works of the materialists from La Mettrie, d'Holbach, Engels to Žižek and Meillassouxm, the author detects that not nearly all of the materialists argued and continue to argue against the idealism. In addition to that, the author believes that we should not forget that explicitly materialism has opposed idealism just in the XIX century; and materialism in its clear form has been existing since the XVIII century. Thus, the question arises: with whom in this case the materialism has struggled against the entire century. Moreover, does the taking place in the XIX-XX centuries fight between the materialism and idealism guarantee that the modern materialism in reality struggles namely against the idealism? Analyzing the texts by the materialists of the XVIII-XXI centuries, the author suggest the question: whom in reality the materialists of the past and the present argue against? The conclusion made by the author consists in the fact that the history of materialism should not be viewed as homogeneous and not containing the gaps; but on the contrary, it should be viewed through the prism of the series of changing each other conflicts. The first conflict is materialism vs spiritualism. The second is materialism vs idealism. The third is materialism vs obscurantism. At the same time, the author believes that namely the third conflict and peculiar attention towards it can allow us to understand and realize the specificities of the modern Western materialism.
Tarkhanov Y.N. - Transrationality as a Methodological Principle of Cognition
in the Philosophy of S. L. Frank and N. O. Lossky
pp. 25-35



Abstract: The article is devoted to transrationality as a methodological principle of cognition associated with the study of the issues of metaphysics and the irrational in the philosophical concepts of Russian thinkers S. L. Frank and N. O. Lossky. The author turns to the study of ideas related to the theory of being and the theory of knowledge of thinkers, divine and human existence, namely, the essence of man and his significance in social and internal existence. In the proposed article, the author explores the religious views of thinkers within the framework of the metaphysical tradition, in which philosophers built their worldview through the prism of transrationality and metalogicality as principles of cognition, construction and formation of nature, both Absolute Being in general and its aspects in particular. The essence of the Supercosmic principle and the Incomprehensible, shown by N. O. Lossky and S. L. Frank in the framework of their worldview systems, is also considered, attempts to overcome the objective world and comprehend the super-logical, super-rational through rationality are considered. Along with this, the author touches upon the issues of faith and its role and significance in the comprehension of the Incomprehensible and Supercosmic principles, and also pays attention to antinomian cognition as the principle of cognition of the mysterious - hidden and experienced - reality. By means of which both thinkers build complex philosophical and theological systems that are significant for the entire philosophy of Russia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. And also refers to the unity and interconnection of the philosophical concepts of thinkers to religious beliefs within the framework of Holy Scripture.
Katunin A.V. - The Role of the Rational Logic and Intuition in Scientific Work pp. 26-47


Abstract: For all years of judgment of a problem of creativity of people faces a number of problems: who acts as the subject of creativity, is creativity conscious process, or originates in the unconscious; from where the person scoops resources for creativity; what criteria of an assessment of creative process, whether creativity and if it is possible how is possible to measure? In article it is about a role of logical and intuitive aspects in the course of creating scientific work on the example of classical science. In this article the author uses the following methods of research: comparative and historical analysis, analogy, classification, generalization, synthesis. In article it is shown that in the course of scientific creativity logiko-rational and intuitive aspects mutually supplementing each other form uniform harmonous system. And if by means of logical tools the scientist accumulates and develops knowledge that allows to make continuous and uniform motion to certain results, thanks to intuition and the intellectual sensitivity accompanying it there is a transfer of information in area realized, the interpretation of images promoting specification and justification of the theory in general; break as a result of the saved-up experience/knowledge.
Stavitskiy A.V. - Epistemological approaches of nonclassical science and the general theory of myth pp. 33-42


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of epistemological approaches offered by nonclassical science towards the ontology of myth in the context of nonclassical mythology. Myth is viewed as a basic cultural universal, responsible for the semantic field of culture; while mythopoeia is perceived as a characteristic and important function of consciousness. The goal of this article lie in outlining the opportunities opened to the researchers of myth in the context of shift of the scientific paradigm. It is namely thanks to the scientific paradigm that mythological space of culture is no longer perceived as the antagonist of science, but as the essential aspect of its effective functionality. Methodological framework is comprised of the approaches developed and accepted in nonclassical science. Examination of myth through the prism of nonclassical science reveals new perspectives that allow studying myth as an integral whole, without separating into scientific disciplines. It should be taken into account that myth plays a significant, although not always positive role in science and society, interacting with science upon the principle of mutual complementarity. In particular, myth helps to advance and substantiate the scientific hypotheses, form scientific worldviews and images of the future. The approaches of nonclassical mythology, in turn, reveal that in the modern conditions, myth becomes the instrument of politics and the method for solving social issues, manifesting as a factor of national security and mechanism for manipulation. However, its further study requires the development of the universal theory of myth, the basic prerequisites of which have already been created.
Iashin B.L. - Rationality and logical thinking pp. 75-87


Abstract: AnnotationThe subject of investigation is the problem of rationality, attention to which today is associated with a certain distrust of classical rationality and the emergence of a new rationality that goes beyond scientific rationality and includes all kinds of cognitive practices. This new rationality goes beyond narrow for her scientific knowledge and incorporates all that "makes possible the existence of man in the modern world," it "more and more drawn into the myth and other traditional forms of knowledge, which equalized the rights of science"The main methods of research used by the author, is a logical method and the method of comparative analysis, you always get the tentative conclusions.The novelty of the work is connected with the idea of the author of that "new rationality" in which thinking manifests a kind of "flexibility" that extends to the rejection of the laws of traditional logic, to the assumptions in the thinking of contradictions, taking them as a fully legitimate, it is the result of the evolution of "pre-logical" or as it is called L. Levy-Bruhl "prelogicheskogo" thinking. In other words, modern rationality contains all the currently existing rationality, and thus permits and contradictory thinking, and others, in terms of traditional logic incongruities.The article tentative conclusion is that the development of rationality takes place by moving from the rationality of "primitive" thinking and rationality myth, then - to the rationality of religious, then - classical scientific thinking, and from there to the "new rationality", which is a synthesis of rationality existed in ancient times and exist today.
Shadur I. - On the Empirical Interpretation of Rationality of Thinking pp. 80-128
Abstract: The author of the article raises a question about the evidence of actual proximity between creativity of a philosopher and rationalism. To answer this question, it is suggested that we should be guided by the same gnoseological and methodological values that were followed by the founders of the classical philosophical rationalism. The author keeps to the idea that the object of thought is the experience as understood in the broad sense of the word , therefore it is the empirical projection of thought that undertakes an effort to find the criteria of correspondence of thought to these values. Based on that, the author offers a definition of experience and describes the main values of rationalism. The results of the research establish the relationship between the structure of thought and the structure of experience. These provisions are the criteria of rationalistic thought we have been searching for.
Balagushkin E.G. - Scientific and analytical evaluation of mysticism. pp. 422-474


Abstract: Putting aside semantic analysis of mystic ideas and connections, the author analyzes structural and functional element of mysticism, considering its criterion to be the direct connection between the subject and the sacral priorities. The author refutes ten popular misconceptions towards the nature of mysticism: equaling it with ecstatic state, with irrational matters, etc.  The authors shows the limitations of descriptive religious studies and the benefits of analytical approach towards understanding mysticism.  It allows to establish that the mysticism belongs to a specific modus (type) of sacral belief, together with magic, mantics, religion and man other phenomena of spiritual and practical activities serving as cultural mechanisms for the regulation of human life. The thesis on the homogenous nature of mysticism ignores its manifestations typical of paganism, its polymorphism in developed religions. While being united in its nature, the mysticism has many forms of manifestation and structural types.  Two key elements of the phenomenon of mysticism - its morphology and discourse are related like basis and superstructure, that is as a carrying construction of spiritual and practical activity and its conceptual interpretation.   The author follow the three-level structure of morphology of sacral phenomena: material resource, meaning formed based on the phenomenon of faith, and the role value of the system as a whole.  Any object may serve as a resource of faith, but it should have a significant nature, it should have certain properties, which could be regarded from magical, mystical, or religious standpoints.  While joining a religion equals change of identity of a person, mysticism means its radical change, that is the true rebirth of a personality.  The mystic way presupposes formation of a new personality, new spirituality, new life of feelings and conscience.  Today many think (and with some basis at that) that some mysticism tendencies are justified by the current social and cultural situation, the search for the spiritual renewal.
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