Philosophical Thought - rubric Man and mankind
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Man and mankind
Alenevskiy K.A. - Hypothesis of a communist subject in the philosophy of Alain Badiou pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of subject in the philosophy of Alain Badiou. The author reveals the thesis on the subject of truth, different from human as an animal; as well as examines the modern ideology of humanism and human rights that support the existing anthropological trend of dehumanization, turning of human into an animal, driven by the principle of enjoyment foredooming humanity to death. Such state of things is a consequence of annihilation of the subject-object division and Cartesian philosophy of mind. The so-called “hypothesis of Communism” is viewed as an alternative, which describes Communism as an eternal idea, capable of realizing in the new historical circumstances. The author establishes a link between the theory of the subject of truth and the “Communist hypothesis” in the works of Alain Badiou. The research methodology contains the reconstruction of key positions of the concept of subject in the philosophy of Alain Badiou, and the analytics of the main development stages and criticism of the concept of subject in modern works dedicated to the anthropological dynamics of current civilization. The conclusion is made that the cognizing subject or the subject of truth has a hypothetical or unstable character of existence; turning of human into an animal annuls the figure of the rational and reformative in accordance with the truth of subject’s world. The thesis on elimination of division into the subject and object leads to a gradual animalization of a human. The criticism of such elimination is the consideration of subject as a result of the event-driven origination of truths in science, politics and art. The subject is viewed as possessing a character of exclusion from the sphere of bare life. Such approach advances a thought asserting the return of Communism.
Balanovskii V.V. - The role of mass psychology of B. P. Vysheslavtsev in development of analytical psychology pp. 1-13


Abstract: The subject of the article is a mass psychology of B.P. Vysheslavtsev. This is a socio-philosophical conception, which created by Vysheslavtsev through the synthesizing of German classical philosophy, neo-Kantianism, Russian religious philosophy and analytical psychology. He developed the mass psychology in close collaboration with C.G. Jung by his direct order. The mass psychology, despite the heterogeneity of its foundations, became an organic continuation of analytical psychology. Moreover, there is reason to suppose that Vysheslavtsev's socio-philosophical and religious ideas influenced all of Jungs later work. The main method used was a comparative analysis of the ideas of Vysheslavtsev and Jung, as well as a critical interpretation of the original sources, including unpublished archival materials letters and manuscripts. The novelty lies in the fact that previously the mass psychology of Vysheslavtsev eluded the attention of researchers. This is primarily due to the inaccessibility of sources on this issue, since some of them are either not published and stored in archives, including the Bakhmeteff Archive (Columbia University in the City of New York) and C.G. Jung Papers Collection (ETH Zurich University Archive), or was published in rare foreign journals and not translated into Russian. At the same time, without these sources it is difficult to understand not only the evolution of Vysheslavtsevs views, but also the logic and reasons for the development of Jungs ideas from the 1940s to his death. Thus, this article is intended to partially replenish these gaps in the history of Russian and European philosophy and psychology.
Smirnov M.V. - Representation of socio-historical alienation in the discourse of Neo-Hegelianism pp. 8-17


Abstract: The object of this research is the views and representations of the philosophers Neo-Hegelians that advance the idea of socio-historical alienation. The subjects is the common discursive foundation of these representations and the analysis of its appropriateness and wholeness with regards to modern intellectual reality. The author generalizes the advancement of representations, tracing the historical evolution of Neo-Hegelian thought – from the philosophy of V. Kozhev and J. Hyppolite to J. Lacan and S. Žižek. Special accent is made on the distinction between anthropological objectification of social alienation and its subjective beginning, which forms in the course of historical movement of self-consciousness. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that as a result of monopolization by the Neo-Marxist discourse of the problem of alienation in the XX century, the Neo-Hegelian reflection over the indicated issue was not as much noticeable, but rather deformalized and disorganized. The author reconstructs the general, formalized image of the socio-historical alienation within the realm of Neo-Hegelian discourse. The research demonstrated that despite the development of Marxist theory of alienation, the authentic approach of Hegelian philosophy (“The Phenomenology of Spirit”, interpreted in dialectical-existential sense) in the area of social theory, remains relevant. The analyzed system of representations indeed can become the foundation for establishment of the full-fledged social theory of alienation.
Kozlova T.A. - Psychological intention in European theism of the XIX century pp. 14-23


Abstract: The subject of this research is the psychological intention in the European theism of the XIX century in the context of anthropological turn. The author examines such trends of European theism of the XIX century as German post-Hegelian theism, French and Italian spiritualism, Russian spiritual-academic theism. It is demonstrated the European theism of the XIX century as a philosophy of that time of anthropological pivot mats psychologism as a transition towards individual-substantial (psychological) Self with dialogical intention, and establishment of philosophy on the psychological foundation. Particular attention is given to the essence of anthropological turn and psychologism in its context. Anthropological turn is interpreted as a transition of metaphysical into anthropology in the vein of Heidegger’s philosophy. This transition means that philosophy is structured upon the basis of natural sciences and psychology, human Self and its reflection lose the ontological character, but it becomes individually-substantial and obtains dialogical intention. The philosophy of European theism of the XIX century is viewed in this context; however, special attention is dedicated to the establishment of philosophy on psychological foundation, transition from the individually-substantial Self and problem of its reflection. The novelty consists in examination of psychological intention of European theism of the XIX century within the framework of anthropological turn, as well as substantiation of presence of the psychologically oriented trend in terms of this philosophy. To the representatives of psychological oriented direction of European theism of the XIX century can be attributed such French spiritualists as Maine de Biran, Cousin, Jouffroy, Ravaisson-Mollien, whose works resemble the psychological method of the similar to their views Italian spiritualist Galupppi, French neo-spiritualist Bergson, German post-Hegelian theist Fechner, whose doctrine was structures on psychophysical foundation.
Markhinin V. - Ancient Greece: the idea of gender equality pp. 23-48


Abstract: This article poses the problem of establishment of the prerequisites for future female emancipation in Ancient Greece. The author examines the status of a woman formed by the classical period of Ancient Greece, which in essence was close to the status of a household slave. Nevertheless, we can observe that the woman’s position in Sparta was a lot better than in other poleis. It is explained by the high level of archaism of the Spartan social order and lower level of development of the commodity-financial relations; as well as a certain type of slave ownership, which required a strong consolidation of free citizens in face of danger of the Helots uprising. This work demonstrates that the comparison of women’s status in Sparta and Athens becomes one of the two foundations for the two contradictory solutions of a “women’s issue” by Plato on one hand, and Aristotle on the other. The author analyzes Aristotle’s justification of the class and gender slavery, as well as interprets Plato’s argumentation of the idea of equality between a man and a woman by their nature and his project of liberation of women in the utopian fair state. The historical-genetic and sociocultural origins of gender equality are being determined. The role of Plutarch as a theoretician-“feminist” and a successor of Plato’s idea of gender equality is being demonstrated. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the fact that unlike the ideology of the modern feminist authors, which mainly includes the unmasking of the “patriarchy” of the ancient culture, it reflects the emergence and gradual progress of the idea of gender equality within the patriarchal and overall antiquated culture.
Koptelova T.I. - The phenomenon of the uncertainty of existence of a modern human within the paradigm of organic philosophy: comprehension and overcoming pp. 25-36


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the problem of the uncertainty of existence of a modern human viewed within a paradigm of organic philosophy that overcomes contradictions emerging in mechanistic and dialectical comprehension of a human, nature and technology. Organic philosophy allows reconstructing various intellectual traditions in understanding of uncertainty of human existence as a loss of ability to adjust to the changing natural and cultural conditions. Restoration of the sustainable spiritual values and understanding of the meaning of human existence is essential for the future generations. The solution of the problem ontological, moral and natural uncertainty in the existence of modern human requires integration of the achievements of different sciences, unity of human reason, imagination and experience (organic combination of the various forms of cognition: science, art, and religion). Organic philosophy possesses a rich capability and experience of knowledge integration. The scientific novelty consists in examination of the problem of the uncertainty of human existence from the perspective of organic philosophy. Although the paradigm of organic philosophy helps overcoming contradictions between the material and spiritual components of nature and technology; combines the static language of classical science with the dynamic language of art; as well as integrates the religious Christian tradition with the intellectual achievements of materialistic worldview.  
Smirnov M., Trofimov M. - Alienation of a man in the context of the universal pp. 36-46


Abstract: The goal of this research is the examination of the phenomenon of alienation of a man in the context of the universal. The subject of this research is the main conditions of alienation of human essence from the human. The article also reviews the conditions for overcoming such alienation. At the same time, human essence is defined as the universal, which in turn, is considered as the absolute haecceity that within it eliminates all of the global controversies. Thus, the object of this research is the human existence, and the subject – the conditions of alienation of the universal from the human in this existence. The main conclusions of the conducted research consist in the following: 1) One of the important signs of alienation is human’s realization of the loss of control over himself and his activity; 2) The cause of the loss of control is the deprivation of sensibility towards the universal; 3) Such sensibility is numbed as the result of a constant preference of the singular; 4) Overcoming of alienation suggests a spiritual practice, during the course of which takes place the “second birth” of the human, his conscious inclusion towards the universal; 5) Actualization by a human of the potentially presence universal in the world is namely the unalienated human activity. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the authors examine the phenomenon of human alienation through the prism of the category of the “universal”.
Horlynskyi V. - Phenomenological explication of existential security pp. 45-61


Abstract: The subject of this study is the constitution of phenomenological existential security structure adopted as a phenomenon of consciousness. The object of analysis is the cognitive paradigm of existential security. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of existential security of basic meanings.We use a phenomenological approach, with its inherent methods intentional, semantic and etymological analysis. The novelty of the research lies in the fundamental features of the new cognitive paradigms. It is aimed at identifying the ontological basis of the preservation of human existence as the limit values of human existence; appeals to the inner world of man; access to the vital foundations of semantic value as key regulative focus of human activity. It was concluded that the process of constitution of existential security is an actualization of existential "apprehensions" caused by an existential threat to the life of the world. This phenomenon is generating a pulse of human activity that occurs under the influence of existential threat, it is a semantic unit, primary meaning lying at the base of the constitution of existential security. The semantic component of this structure is formed in the process of unfolding and enrichment of meanings in its movement from primary meaning to ultimate meaning, where the latter is represented as a transcendent horizon of unfolding all the possible meanings of the security as intersubjective reality and the phenomenon of the collective consciousness, inherently carries a cultural codes of human existence. Axiological component of existential security structure is represented as an aggregate of universal transcendental values, expressing the ultimate meaning of human existence, playing the role of the cultural codes of human life, the core of which acts as a human life.
Babich V.V. - Homo loquens: values in the structure of narrative identity pp. 55-67



Abstract: The relationship between narrative identity and values is considered. It is argued that the problem of the relationship and balance between the experience of experiencing: values, a multidirectional spectrum of desires, emotions and actions, is inseparable from the issue of self-determination of the subject. The presented analysis is based on the concept of the dynamics of narrative changes by Ch.M. Taylor "the best possible articulation of experience" (Best Account) and the concept of M.M. Bakhtin. Building a narrative identity is impossible without reference to values that serve as the foundations of intentional states, orientations and motives that determine behavior. The necessity of values for our self-description reveals their reality. Reflection is a necessary condition for the ontologization of values, defining the difference between "values" and "norms", "desires" and "preferences". In the structure of narrative identity, value is not any desire or preference, but only one that needs justification (rational articulation). The empirical consequence of rational articulation is the formation of a common narrative or the formation of a common language that facilitates the justification of values, which is a condition for the emergence of solidarity. The hermeneutic circle is considered as a model for the formation and transformation of narrative identity. The presented model describes the interaction between the subject's articulations and his pre-reflexive experience of the emotional experience of values, correlating these elements with the existing spectrum of axiological interpretations. The hermeneutic circle reveals the possibility of coordinating in the subject different levels of existence of values, from the point of view of overcoming the contradictions between the individual and the collective: desires, emotions, values and actions. It is concluded that values are embedded in the structure of narrative identity in several ways: they form the content of the narrative, reinforce ideas about ideals through narrative, and form intentions.
Suslov A.V. - Russian cosmism and transhumanism in the polemic between anthropological voluntarism and providentialism pp. 65-77


Abstract: Comprehension of the finitude of individual existence entails the need to find the answer to question of overcoming death, a salvation path that would allow pass through the abyss of nonexistence. Solution to this question implies various forms of immortality: naturalistic, theological, technocratic, creative, sensually-transcendental, etc. Prolongation of life and gaining immortality has become a central problem of such philosophical movements as Russian cosmism and modern transhumanism, which view the victory over death as the project and purpose of mankind. The object of this research is the ethical content and key ideas of the philosophy of Russian cosmism and modern transhumanism. The subject is the origins and evolution of transhumanist worldview in its genetic link with the ideas of cosmic philosophy. This article aims to analyze the methods and means of how a human can improve and obtain immortality, which are advanced by transhumanists, and juxtapose them with the ideas of Russian cosmist philosophers. The conclusion is made that the central idea of cosmism and transhumanism, which lies in overcoming the finitude of human existence, does not find its global humanistic realization: both concepts offer partial and unnatural solutions (autotrophy, resurrection, cyborgization). Emphasis is placed on solution of the problem of immortality in the Christian anthropology in spiritual-moral ethical-philosophical context
Los' V.A. - Environmental Results of Civilization Development at the Turn of XX - XXX Centuries (Preliminary Analysis) pp. 121-141


Abstract: The author of the article attempts a conceptual analysis of the global socio-economic situation during the XX century and outlines tendencies in the global economic development. The author offers an interpretation of historical dynamics of the 'human-society-biosphere' system. It is shown that the pressure on biosphere has been growing throghout the process of anthropogenesis starting from Neolithic Revolution, in particular, during technological revolution in mid XX's. On one hand, there is a growing deman in natural resources as the world population and their needs increase. On the other hand, growing demands of the society exacerbate the tendency towards unstability of global ecosystems. In fact, the theoretical analysis of the socio-economic situation did not lead to any pratical results in modern science. Threfore, the author of the author of the article is offering his own answer to the question whether the modern civilization would survive in the XXI century. We plan it as the introductory article for the special rubric 'Environmental Strategy XXI' (the name of the rubric may be changed).
Rozin V.M. - Future in the Age of Changing and Uncertain Reality pp. 248-294


Abstract: The author of the article describes the crisis of the definition 'future' in the age of transition from one reality to another (still undiscovered and uncertain). The author analyzes how the definition of future has been evolving in the history of philosophy. In particular, the author shows that the clear image of the future started to develop in the Middle Ages but the final image was created only in the Modern Times due to the development of natural sciences. At the present time the image of the future is being deconstructed because the globalization and transitional processes make it almost impossible to image what the future will be like. Nevertheless, the author states that we can construct the universal future by building our personal future. Another variant is to completely restructure our image of time so that the past, present and future have a totally different meaning. In conclusion, the author shares two fantasies about possible future. The purpose of these fantasies is to show that the future will be any way uncertain and closely connected with the practical experience and creativity of human. 
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