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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 01/2020
Contents of Issue № 01/2020
Social philosophy
Kuchukov M.M. - Polysubject ethnicity as a phenomenon of civilizational specificity of the Russian society pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.1.31726

Abstract: The interest to this topic is sparked by transformation of the role of ethnicity in modern world; ambiguity in interpretation of its content and transformation prospects; interest to the phenomenon of civilizational-imperial practices of structuring the ethnicity that allowed crisis-free coexistence of ethnoses for multiple centuries (Russian civilization); need for creation of a holistic picture of existence of the Russian ethnic space, coming to determination of the local peculiarities (North Caucasus). The research is focused on the problem of formation of tolerant ethnicity; the subject of analysis is the civilizational-imperial sociality that established conditions for the formation of consensual system for coexistence of ethnoses. This solves the problem of conceptualization of the possible social-historical subjectivity based on the ethnic phenomena and processes. The scientific novelty consists in the content and distinctness of the reviewed problems and acquired results: analysis of civilizational methods and tradition of coexistence of ethnoses in the conditions of uniform territorial organization of society; creation of the model of sociality when the ethnic phenomena exist being functional; acquired results in analysis of the system of coexistence of ethnoses emerged within the framework of civilizational-imperial paradigm of the organization of social life.
Ontology: being and nihility
Dorozhkin E.L. - To the definition of poetic ontologies pp. 13-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.1.32088

Abstract: This article examines the main vector of development of ontologies in European philosophy of the XX century. The subject of this research is the concept of “poetic ontologies”, proposed by Alan Badiou applicable to fundamental in their essence projects of Martin Heidegger and Gilles Deleuze, An attempt is made to explicate the specific conceptual meaning of the poetic in the referred projects by revealing its differences from poetry in a narrow sense of versification, and its correspondence with the fact that in Deleuze’s texts it received a name of schizophrenic language. Alongside the general scientific methods of description, analysis and synthesis, the author also used the hermeneutic method and comparative analysis. Application of the concept of “poetic ontologies” in respect to the projects of M. Heidegger and G. Deleuze, found its substantiation and legitimacy in the course of this research. The main conclusion consists in elucidation of the constructive link of the poetic with the certain interpretation of existence, known as nature and opening a prospect for the nonclassical forms of reasoning.
History of ideas and teachings
Saimiddinov A.K. - Scientific organization of labor in post-revolutionary Russia: role and specificity pp. 22-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.1.32087

Abstract: This article carries out an analysis of the national tradition of scientific organization of labor due to the established epistemic situation in post-revolutionary Russia of the 1920’s – 1930’s. Based on clarification of Bolsheviks’ views on labor and its organization, an idea is formulated that the Soviet model of labor rationality was characterized by the unique sociocultural meaning, as it acquired rather uncommon features for the history of organizational thought. It is demonstrated that in many instances it was substantiated not only by the political agenda. In the conducted society the author refers to the concept of “repair society” applicable to post-revolutionary Russia, as well as pitches an idea that the proposed by the Bolsheviks goals and objectives on scientific organization of labor, unlike such in the Western scientific management, carried a reconstructive character. In this sense, labor and its organization in eyes of the Soviet society were associated primarily with the repair or restoration of either things, technology, household or social ties. The reconstructive meaning of the Soviet model of labor rationality is clarified through explication of the content of fundamental ideas and experiments of the Bolsheviks pertaining to organization of social life, working process, industry and individual traits of a person.
Philosophy of science
Gusev D.A., Potaturov V.A. - Scientism and anti-scientism as two images of the philosophy of science, two worldviews, and two systems of life guidance of a person (historical-philosophical and general theoretical aspects) pp. 32-51

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.1.31925

Abstract: The question on the polemics between scientism and anti-scientism being different sociocultural orientations and opposite worldview poles remains insufficiently covered within the modern philosophy of science. The object of this research is the controversy of scientism and anti-scientism as the two images and concepts of the philosophy of science. The subject is the worldview companions of scientism and anti-scientism, as well as the two systems of ideological, ontological and practical orientations of human and social existence built upon them. The goal of the article consists in identification of the two possible and opposite images of the philosophy of science, suggested by the concept itself, their interrelation, and establishment of worldview chain links beginning with scientism and anti-scientism, and clarification of opposing systems of life orientation of a person. One of the results of the conducted research consists in determination of two images of the philosophy of science and related to them scientism and anti-scientism, which are not only and not much different and in a worldview sense “neutral” sociocultural orientations, as the other way around, “loaded” from a worldview perspective intellectual positions, fairly conforming with the certain ideological paradigms, which in entirety and complementarity, form the two opposing worldviews and two systems of life guidance of a person.
Philosophy of technology
Dushkin R. - To the question on identification and differentiation of a philosophical zombie pp. 52-66

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.1.32079

Abstract: This article examines the task of identification and differentiation of a so-called “philosophical zombie” in order to form a set of operational criteria for determining the agency of artificial intelligence systems. This task can be viewed as one of the possible ways towards solution of a “hard problem of consciousness”. Despite the fact that the proposed approach alone does not solve the “hard problem”, it reveals certain aspects of neurophysiology, cybernetics and information theory towards its solution. The relevance of this task results from the more extensive implementation of artificial cognitive agents in human life – the boundary that distinguishes an intelligent creature from an artificial cognitive agent, endows an object with agency. Therefore, the development of more complicated artificial cognitive agents (artificial intelligence systems) would ultimately lead to a contentious debate on the topic. The author attempts to introduce the procedure of identification of a philosophical zombie and its restrictions, as well as explores the idea whether or not the artificial cognitive agents would obtain qualia. The article is valuable of those interested in artificial intelligence in all of its aspects, as well as in the philosophy of consciousness.
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