Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 06/2017
Contents of Issue № 06/2017
Value and truth
Klimkov O.S. - The theory of double truth and the problem of impassivity in the Hesychast discussion pp. 1-18


Abstract: The object of this research is the conceptually important questions of Hesychast discussion that took place in Byzantine Empire of the XIV century, such as status and meaning of philosophy in general and theory of double truth in particular, as well as the essence and role of impassivity in achieving the highest knowledge. The subject of this research is the material of polemics of Gregory Palamas with Barlaam, during the course of which have formed his views upon the role and place of philosophical knowledge in the spiritual teaching of Hesychasm. Applying the phenomenological-analytical method, the author examines the problem of correlation between mind and body in the process of spiritual improvement, which results in conclusion about the two opposing approaches towards understanding of the connection between psychic and physical in human nature. The article also analyzes the crucial for Palamas distinction between the essence and energy of mind and his doctrine about theosis. The author underlines a tight link of gnoseological and anthropological problematic due to the facts that the ability of cognition of God directly depends on the way of human existence that includes not just his emotional and intellectual spheres, but also bodily practices. The article notes the elements of spiritual succession between the Byzantic Hesychasm and Russian religious philosophy, which develop on the basis of the universal Eastern Christian tradition.  
Methodology of philosophical learning
Gizha A.V. - Assumption of latent parameters and conceptual completeness of humanitarian knowledge: to the methodology of cognition of social processes pp. 19-28


Abstract:  This article examines the issues of formation of the methodology of humanitarian knowledge. A number of substantive aspect can be properly described leaning on the argumentative scientific practice of the era of non-classical research, first and foremost, in theoretical physics. Some of the proliferated stable general views in this field, associated with the names of Karl Popper and Paul Feyerabend, require a crucial critical reframing, due to generating an overall improper image of a scientific research.This, in turn, leads to the inability of efficiently using the methodological achievements of science in humanitarian research. It appears that the corresponding translation of methodological approaches and principles takes place by the virtue of their coherent conceptual expansion. The preliminary analysis is conducted within the framework of determining the situation of using the views on “latent parameters” on socio-humanitarian studies. The author generalizes Bohr’s complementarity principle towards its ontological expansion, as well as provides interpretation of the conceptual completeness of humanitarian knowledge. The latter is realizes from the perspective of interpretation of the theoretical situation of latent parameters in the context of philosophical knowledge. The corresponding ambivalence of philosophical interpretations is being demonstrated. At the same tie, one party supports the general physical conclusion on the improper introduction of latent parameters into the theory, while the other party demonstrates the historically stable and constructive variant of their implementation.  
Philosophy of knowledge
Pris' I.E. - Knowledge as the most common factive mental state pp. 29-35


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the arguments of Mark Schroeder claiming that the perceptual mental state “seeing that”, as a matter of fact, is not knowledge, and thus, knowledge is not the most common factive mental state. This conclusion contradicts the position of Timothy Williamson. The article particularly analyzes the Schroeder’s positions that the existence of knowledge necessitates the existence of opinion, and knowledge is the norm for an opinion, which he shares with Williamson. Methods of this research consist in the knowledge-first epistemology of Timothy Williamson, and Wittgensteinian in spirit therapeutical method of the analysis of notion of perceptual experience, suggested in the works of Jocelyn Benoist. It is established that Schroeder’s arguments are based on the false prerequisite that the perceptual experience itself can have a representational content. “Seeing that” is not a pure perception, but a conceptualized perceptual experience suggesting knowledge. The author expresses preference towards the position of Williamson. The scientific novelty of this work consists in combination of the analytical and therapeutical methods.   
Philosophy of language and communication
Kryuchkova S.E., Khrapov S.A. - Argumentative discourse in communication space of modern culture: problems of theory pp. 36-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern state of foreign and Russian scholars in the area of argumentation theory (AT), considering the specificity of communication field of modern culture. The author assess the methodological potential of cognitive approach that centers around the argumentative discourse, as well as reveal the heuristic potential of Husserl’s phenomenology for understanding of the modelling mechanism by the recipient. The subject of this work is specified in the following chapters of the article: “addressing an issue”; “argumentation theory of reasoning of consciousness: main approaches”; “subject of argumentation: phenomenological approach”. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the subsequent conclusions: Despite the prolonged research tradition, an extensive area of scientific research, generally called the “argumentation theory”, continues to remain the field of tense discussions regarding the advantages and flaws of the existing models, as well as creation of the universal AT that testifies to the need for further scientific research, the results of which will eventually conduce the mutual enrichment of methodological means developed by various disciplines dedicated to the argumentative discourse;Phenomenological approach, due to the presence of intersubjective component, can be accepted as one of the methodological foundations in establishing of the AT. But at the same time, such approach cannon be the basis in searching for the universal normativity of AT because of its dependence.Problem of formation of AT is a multifaceted problem, and thus, it requires more than a single phenomenological response to it. In addition, phenomenological analysis used for representation of argumentative interaction between the subjects, brings us back to the tradition of cognitive approach in the broadest sense of the word. Cognitivism as an optimist theoretical model of interdisciplinary nature, sets new prospects on the path for creation of AT.Impact of culture upon the character of space of the submerged into it argumentative discourse, manifests as a systemic, prevalent, and constant. Each argumentative act is aimed at comprehension of the semantic component of the substantiated point of view, as well as its inscription into culture, which defines not only the personal meanings, but also the normative schemes. 
History of ideas and teachings
Gorokhov P.A. - N. M. Karamzin’s philosophy and modernity pp. 51-61


Abstract: The subject of this research is the most relevant to modern era aspects of the views of N. M. Karamzin upon the philosophy of history: the relation between people and state authority, politics and ethics, role of personality in historical process. Examination of the heritage of the accomplished historian, who expressed the patriotic ideology in his works, represents a relevant task in the era of globalization. The author analyzes the role of historiosophical views within the structure of Karamzin’s worldview. Special attention is given to the role of Karamzin in establishment of the historical self-consciousness and sociocultural self-identification of a citizen. Karamzin’s patriotic conservatism have become demanded yet again due to the fact that his works encouraged the emergence of the theory of “official nationalism”, which experiences the second birth. N. M. Karamzin can be considered a founder of the Russian historical and historiosophical comparativism, because in “History of the Russian State” he constantly compares the historical figures, their actions, and the sociocultural heritage they left behind.
Social philosophy
Kanarsh G.Yu. - Soviet society as a modernization project pp. 62-100


Abstract: This article is based on the project “Modernization as a Megatrend. Vectors of Russian Modernization in the XIX – XXI centuries” within the framework of the target topic “Socio-Philosophical Analysis of Histories and Theories of Modernization” of the sector of social philosophy of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The object of this research is the Soviet Society, while subject is the peculiarities of modernization of the Soviet society at various stages of its evolution. The article analyzes the causes and prerequisites for the Russian revolution (including February of 1905 and October of 1917), historical alternatives of the post-revolutionary development (New Economic Policy, and Stalin’s “revolution from above”), specificities of modernization of the late Soviet society (1950’s – 1970’s). During the course of the research, the author refers to the following approaches and concepts: concept of socialism as a way to industrial development (along with the other option – capitalism); socialism as a “second world” in the context of unified industrial civilization; concept of the Russian revolution as a universal phenomenon, which includes a number of milestones (bourgeois revolutions of 1905 and February of 1917; social revolution in October of 1917);  concept of world systems analysis that considers the Russian events through the prism of economic relations of Russian with the West in terms of the concept “capitalist center – periphery”; concept of the catching up modernization of the overcoming limitations of the latter concept of the “national model of modernization”; concept of “Characterological Creatology” that allows analyzing the peculiarities of social and political life based on the natural characters of people (including characters of the political leaders and heads of states). The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to examine the evolution of Soviet society since its origins (Russian revolution) until the crisis of Soviet system in 1970’s – 1980’s from the perspective of specificities of its modernization. The main conclusion lies in the thesis that the notion of “Soviet project” is conditional. In reality, it is necessary to consider not a single, but certain multiplicity of the modernization projects, which existed at various stages of development of the Soviet society and competed against each other. This implies the two different projects of the Russian revolution (Lenin’s and Plekhanov’s); two development projects in the post-revolutionary era (Lenin’s and Stalin’s); various development projects that existed in the late Soviet period (neo-market and target). In the author’s opinion, the main problem regarding the reforming of Soviet society consisted in the choice of the optimal combination of the target and market starts, which eventually has not been realizes in terms of the “Soviet project”. Although, separate projects development at various stages of the establishment of Soviet society, such as the New Economic Policy, remain relevant at present stage.
Kasatkina S.S. - Semiotic approach towards examination of city as a system pp. 101-110


Abstract:  This article presents the principles of semiotic approach towards examination of the space of a city. The goal of this research implies semiotic analysis of city as a system, which consists in establishment of its conceptual meanings and essences. The characteristic of certain parameters of a city is realized in the context of semiosis of sign system of the urbosphere. Semiotic features of a city, identified sue to determination of the parameters of its concept, structure, and substrate, allowed depicting city as a system with inherent qualities of an open, dialogical, functional and mobile space, autonomous existence, holistic perception of the internal and external purposes, structural conglomerate of environmental components, sustainable development, temporal definition of the existence of a city. Systemic analysis reveals the relevant trends of philosophical cognition of a city in the questions of social relations in city environment, as well as the multiplicity of elements of the substrate state of a city.  
Philosophical anthropology
Testov D.F. - G. Bateson’s concept of the sacred pp. 111-127


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of concept of the sacred in works of Gregory Bateson. First and foremost, the author examines the developed within the anthropological tradition, forms of correlation of the categories of sacred and profane, clarifying the specificity of Bateson’s position. The main accent is made on the role of divisionary line between the sacred and profane that is interpreted as limitation of communication through prohibiting the inverse relationship. The function of divisionary line is revealed using the examples of exegetical tradition, relations between consciousness and unconscious, Weismann barrier, systemic family psychotherapy, etc. The article examines both, the favorable and disastrous aspects of communicative restriction. The conclusive part of the work concerns the theme of pathology of the sacred and the possible strategies of correction. Methodology of the research involves the analysis of the analogies and illustrations that Bateson uses for explanation of systemic traits of the sacred. Systems interpretation of mythological and dramatic motives of desecration and retribution allow reconstructing Bateson’s concept of the sacred as a shared term for different directions of his interdisciplinary project, which impugns the attempts to interpret Bateson’s “sacred” in mystical and theological sense, leaning on the anthropological illustrations.  
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