Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 11/2017
Contents of Issue № 11/2017
Religions and religious renaissance
Donets A.M. - The "Cover" Concept as an Obstacle to the Liberation of Personology in the Gelug Tradition pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this research is the adopted in the Buddhist philosophy concept of “interceession” – the factors that impede the attainment of Buddhahood, the "negation" of which leads a person to enlightenment through the Buddhist practice. The article explicates the classification of "intersession", accepted in the Mahayana tradition that determines the two main types: "cover of kleshas" and the "cover of the knowable." The innate "cover of the kleshas" is defined as "coming from the eternal" view, recognizing the "truth of self-existence." This is accompanied by a set of kleshas and associated factors generated on its basis, as well as their seeds and the "cover of kleshas" acquired in life – in other words, false representations acquired in life with kleshas and other factors generated by them. "The cover of the knowable" is defined as a complex formation, consisting of the imprints of kleshas, certain types of obscuration and sinfulness. The work analyzes in detail their composition and describes the methods of practice assigned for their elimination.
Philosophy of science
Maximov L.V. - Cognitive science: new life of the old paradigms pp. 11-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interrelated reductionist trends that are presents in the modern cognitive science (namely in branches of the philosophy of mind and psychology that are part of the interdisciplinary complex). These are the radical cognitivism – reduction of mental to cognitive (not considering the specificity of emotional-conative components of psyche); and physicalism – reduction of cognitive (interpreted as a synonym of mental) to neurophysiological processes, which in turn are assimilated to the information-calculating operation in computer. Cognitivism and physicalism are very old methodological paradigm (although received their names fairly recently); as a part of cognitive science they appeared in a somewhat new, modified form, not losing the reductionist orientation. Methodology of this work is the anti-reductionism, in other words, criticism of reductionism not as a supplementary (and fully justified in this function) method of scientific propaedeutics, but rather as inappropriate conceptual approach, fraught with grave mistakes in theory and its practical application. As demonstrated in the article, the initially established problematic of cognitive science alongside the formulated by it conceptual and terminological apparatus significantly contributed into the entrenchment of the indicated reductionist approaches it its research programs. Both of the paradigms have formed a unified, solid methodological cluster due to the common concept of “cognitive” interpreted in the cybernetic (theoretical-information) sense. If overcoming of the aforementioned types of reductionism was possible, it would require the substantial changes in the subject and methods of cognitive science.  
History of ideas and teachings
Dzhokhadze I.D. - Linguistic pragmatism and its Kantian implications pp. 25-39


Abstract: American pragmatist R. Rorty is widely recognized as one of the most radical antirepresentationalists due to his criticism of the traditional Cartesian-Kantian epistemology. Rorty believes it is possible to scrutinize all human practice through the prism of linguistic (discursive) activity. Any pre-discursive dimension of life experience is straightforwardly ignored by him. An epistemic subject, in Rortyan version of pragmatism, is wholly deprived of a non-linguistic access to the outer or inner world; “language goes all the way down”, as he bluntly puts it. In spite of his verbal rejection of Kantian epistemology Rorty de-facto brings linguistic transcendentalism to its highest perfection: even the domain of our direct interaction with nonhuman reality turns out to be a subject to “the categories of language”. The analysis in this paper is based on the critical reading of Rorty’s later works (published from 1979 to 2007), including his enduring debates with “realist” opponents. The research applies the following methods: historical-descriptive method (in explicating Rorty’s philosophical views), rational reconstruction (in clarifying the theoretical assumptions that underlie the linguistic pragmatism), comparative analysis (in juxtaposing antirepresentationalism with other philosophical theories relevant to the subject matter)
Ontology: being and nihility
Gonotskaya N., Garadzha N.V. - “Fundamental ontology”: language, word, name pp. 40-46


Abstract: This article analyzes some approaches towards comprehension of language in the West and Russian philosophy of the XX century. In particular, the authors compare the linguistic and philosophical approaches to the examination of language; highlight the characteristic features of philosophical method; and demonstrate the implementation process of the ontology of language in the Western European philosophy and the Russian philosophy of name. Special attention is given to the peculiarity of philosophical symbolism of S. Bulgakov, not only as one of the components of the Russian tradition of onomatodoxy (Imiaslavie), but also in the extensive context – with reference to the Western concepts of language. The comparative analysis of “fundamental ontology” (M. Heidegger and S. Bulgakov) allowed revealing their common grounds and demonstrate the drastic distinction. It consists in the fact that the “fundamental ontologies” have different foundations. Unlike the Heidegger’s ontology, penetrated with the “tragic godforsakeness”, the ontology of onomatodoxy (Imiaslavie) finds its grounds in the God-Absolute, who endows with meaning the reality represented through the name-symbol. The absolute ground, symbolically reflected in the name of God, is the existential support for a human inquiring about life. The name acquires a special ontological status: it is not just a symbol that represents reality, but the reality itself that comes to existence through the process of philosophical cognition. Thus, philosophical cognition is simultaneously an instrument, which helps to comprehend the truth of existence, and the condition of possibility of its origination.
Tradition and innovation
Vorobyev D.N. - Socrates as a prophet. Archaic features of the Xenophon-Plato image of Socrates pp. 47-58


Abstract: The object of this work is the traditional image of the philosopher Socrates, created by Plato and Xenophon. The author changes the research context, proceeding from the idea that philosophy in the Ancient Greece during the time of Socrates have not yet separated from the religion. Special place within the Greek religion holds the mantic – the ritual art of interpreting symbols, sent by the supernatural forces. An expert in the field of mantic were called mantis or prophet; they featured the prophet abilities, inspired trance, magic skills, and non-literate character of teaching. Expanding the context alongside examining the image of Socrates in terms of the ideas and practices of the traditional Greek religion, allow interpreting the key aspects of the image of Socrates (daemon of Socrates, falling into trance, predicting the future, etc.) from a new angle. The research shows that the Socrates’ contemporaries could perceive him as a religious expert, inspired prophet, mantis, who understands and realizes a specific religious mission. Such interpretation of the image of Socrates contributes into the solution of the problem of Plato and have access to the platform of Plato’s knowledge, as well as allows expanding the grounds of Plato’s comparison of the philosopher and the Sophists.
Social philosophy
Mokrousova E.A. - The problem of metaphorical description of memory in history of philosophical thought pp. 59-66


Abstract: This article examines the problem of metaphorical description of memory in history of philosophical thought in the context of a general discussion about the purposefulness of using the metaphors in scientific and philosophical texts. Metaphors of memory are described and interpreted from the perspective of their ability to represent the essence of the mechanisms and processes of memory. As a generalization of metaphor, the author considers the "archive metaphor", which depicts the phenomenon of memory as a catalogue or reservoirs of recollections that, in turn, are the exact copies of the original experiences. The study emphasizes the need for overcoming the metaphorical description of memory, which should be considered a dynamic, creative process. The analysis of extensive philosophical literature, dedicated to the problem of memory, as well as reference to the interdisciplinary context, allow forming an integral representation of the phenomenon of memory and determine the strong and weak sides of the indicated metaphors. This article describes the phenomenon of memory as a dynamic process of continuous renewing and processing of recollections that cannot be presented as complete, isolated from each other fragments of the past similar to the books in the archive. In the course of analysis, the author acknowledges that metaphors of memory are not sufficient for construing the phenomenon of memory, which misinterpret the nature and essence of the recollections.
Social dynamics
Bagrova E.V. - Critical analysis of implementation of post-industrialism in modern society pp. 67-76


Abstract: This article meticulously examines the concepts of post-industrialism alongside its key subject in the associated corporation, as well as development of the transnational corporations and labor relations between them and the employees. The subject of this research is the implementation of post-industrialism in modern society, which affects the public interests at the scale of national state, as well as private interests of the people living in modern society. The goal of the work lies in the analysis of specificity of implementing post-industrialism in modern society. The author analyzes the works of Bell and Toffler, who considers the post-industrial society in a positive way; introduces the views of Sorokin and Zuckerman, who give negative assessment to the ongoing transformations. In conclusion, the author demonstrates that the declared principles and values of post-industrial society are being realized differently in practice. Particularly, post-industrialization is implemented not as the increase of post-industrial production, but rather deindustrialization. At the same time, post-industrial society, in an attempt to the supremacy of technical knowledge, does not succeed.
Philosophy of liberty
KOZHUKHOVSKIY P.S. - Recognition and cultural deformation of personality in Nancy Fraser’s philosophy pp. 77-82


Abstract: The subject of this research is such aspect of social philosophy as the philosophy of recognition. Over the two recent decades, a growing number of the philosophers and political scientists started considering the recognition of personality a promising basis for participation in the moral criticism of social life. Nancy Fraser utters strong doubts regarding the critical potential of the personality recognition theories due to the fact that they encourage the simplification of personal identity to cultural identity. The article attempts to demonstrate the drastic distinction between Nancy Fraser’s philosophy and philosophy of other representatives of the problematic of recognition. The study applies the hermeneutic methodology; problem-thematic analysis and interpretation of material; structural-functional, historical, and comparative-historical methods. The main conclusion of the conducted research consists in the relevance of problematic set by Nancy Fraser. Unfortunately, the modern Russian philosophical thought does not give proper attention to the problem of recognition, although in the West, such problematic is quite popular and one of the most discussed.
National character and mentality
Shakir R.A. - Ethnographic reality of small nations of the Russian north in the context of typological interaction of cultural systems pp. 83-97


Abstract: The object of this research is the phenomenon of ethnographic reality viewed as a multiculturological and national environment, which produces and forms the separate, small and large ethnoses that existing in close and multifaceted cooperation with each other, within the limits of a specific geographical space (Taymyr Peninsula and Krasnoyarsk Region). The subject area is defined by the historical stages of development of the ethnographic reality of the indigenous people of Taymyr, analyzed in terms of the typological interaction of various cultural systems. Special attention is given to the natural and climatic factors of the establishment of relevant situation of ethnographic reality, as well as such historical phenomenon as the Russian colonization of Siberia in the XVI-XIX centuries, which greatly affected the examined processes. In the course of this work, the author applied the general philosophical methods based on the dialectical principles of unity and struggle, development factors of ethnographic reality of the indigenous people of Taymyr, as well as transition of the quantitative changes into qualitative transformation that led to determination of the presented development stages. Highly demanded became the conceptual apparatus of climatological sphere of research regarding the description of primary factors of development of the relevant situation of ethnographic reality and synthetic analysis of the socio-historical factors. The main conclusion consists in representation of the working model of structuring the mechanisms of ethnic self-identification, indicated within the framework of the phenomenon of ethnographic reality alongside the periodization of its current situation. The scientific novelty is underlined by the circle of topical questions, formulated around the problem of interaction of the small ethnic groups of Taymyr Peninsula and the prevailing Russian cultural system. Author’s special contribution into the research is the intend for further discussion of the various aspects of life of the indigenous population of Taymyr and Siberia in the context of realization of the government program “Social and Economic Development of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation until the Year 2020”.
Philosophical anthropology
Shchelokov K.S. - The phenomenon of bureaucratic individual pp. 98-106


Abstract: The object of this research is the bureaucratization of human and society, while the subject of the nature of a bureaucratic individual. Having originated in classical form in the era of modernism, the bureaucratic system of managements was solving the essential tasks: orderliness in managing the society, increase in labor productivity, overcoming the inequality and social class remains. As a result of evolutionary development and dysfunctional changes, the bureaucratization process affected all spheres of social life. The author questions what happened to a human and human nature in consequence such transformation. The article leans on the methods of philosophical-anthropological thinking and historical-philosophical reconstruction, formal-logical and conceptual analysis. The scientific novelty lies in determination of a number of key characteristics of the phenomenon of bureaucratic individual: 1) alienation – as a process of separation from others and human nature itself; 2) depersonalization – a subject becomes individually insignificant and indiscernible; 3) idolization and fetishizing – the attributes of bureaucratic reality acquire sacral character; 4) simulation and hyperreality – reproduction by the bureaucratic form of the personal ontological reality.
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