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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Semantics"
Preobrazhenskaya A. - 'Not by Bread Alone': the Metaphor of 'Tasting the Book' in the Baroque Preaching pp. 36-43


Abstract: The article is devoted to the metaphor of 'tasting the book' based on the example of two compilations of selected preaching works written by the first poet laureate Simeon of Polotsk, 'Spiritual supper' (1681) and 'Spiritual dinner' (1683). The author defines specifics of the metaphor in old Russian religious literature and baroque literature of the second half of the XVIIth century. She also traces back the development of the metaphor and its use in the headings based on the Ukranian-Polish homiletic tradition as well as its lexical interpretation. The author analyzes the successive development of the metaphor's semantic components in poetic and prosaic prefaces to the aforesaid compilations. The research methods used by the authors include hermeneutical, cultural-historical, contextual, comparative-historical and comparative analysis. The main results of the research include description of the metaphor of tasting the book in Russian baroque literature of the pre-Peter period based on the example of preaching works written by the first poet laureate Simeon of Polotsk. The authors also offer a detailed analysis of the metaphor's semantic components and lexical meaning of these components in terms of the Russian literary process during the second half of the XVIIth century. 
Pris F. - Does the classical principle of bivalence hold? (Charles Travis versus Timothy Williamson) pp. 60-128


Abstract: In this paper I seek to find a middle way pragmatic solution to Williamson-Travis’s controversy about the principle of bivalence within a Wittgensteinian pragmatism. It seems to me that Travis does not distinguish between the new applications of one and the same concept and the applications of a similar, but different concept (for example, a more general concept). And his examples do not support his thesis about the violation of the principle of bivalence. On the contrary, Williamson, I think, does not take into account the pragmatic “open texture” phenomenon. I partly agree with Williamson that Travis’s examples look like those in which in different contexts words refer to different properties. Unlike Williamson, who operates with the notions of a character (linguistic meaning) and content, and unlike Travis who operates with the notions of a semantic meaning and understanding, I introduce tree levels of meaningfulness: the linguistic, the semantic (or the level of a rule/concept), and the pragmatic one (the level of the use of a rule/concept, or the meaning-use level). I agree with Williamson that the classical principle of bivalence holds. It is “violated” only in a domain of potential new utterances, whose truth-conditions are not pre-determined (such utterances are not fully meaningful). This is the phenomenon of the conceptual (hence, I think, also ontological) under-determination of the world. Travis’s «Aristotle condition» is equivalent to the condition that the gap between thought, language and the world is closed.
Shvetc E., Sokolova G. - Particularities of the Symbolic Nature of Phraseological Units in Terms of Creating the Phraseological Meaning (the Case Study of Phraseological Units of the French Language with an Ethnonym Component) pp. 98-105


Abstract: The object of the research is the phraseological units with an ethnonym component. The subject of the research is the lexical and semantic particularities of the aforesaid units. The present article is devoted to particular features of the symbolic nature of phraseological units which is conditioned by the fact that there is a certain symbolic connection between the form and content. Analysis of phraseological units' semantic structure particularities allows to view the process of phraseological meaning formation in terms of the reflection of stereotyped images of various nations in the sphere of French phraseology. The authors of the article analyze the three-level organisation of the phraseological unit semantic complex that consists of various kinds of information structures creating the cognitive environment, however, the main and the leading element that participates in the development of the phraseological meaning is the semantics of a culturally marked enthonym that reflects the sphere of social relations and points out at certain features of ethnic communities. The research methods used by the authors in their research include the method of semantic analysis, partial selection method, description, cultural-historical method and comparison. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors describe the phraseological fund of stereotyped images reflected in the structure of studied phraseological units that are some kind of a condensate of cultural memory allowing to trace back the process of phraseological semiosis.   
Silkina I. - The Meaning of the TERRA Noun (Based on the Analysis of the Corpus of Modern Portuguese Newspapers) pp. 162-172


Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of the nouns terra in Portuguese newspapers of the end of the 20th – beginning of the 21st centuries. Information about the meanings of a word is also contained in explanatory dictionaries, however they contain the lexical norm of a literary language, in contrast to written and oral texts created by native speakers and reflecting the usual usage. Due to the fact that the purpose of this study is to analyze usage rather than norms, we used the texts of modern Portuguese newspapers contained in the corpus O Corpus de Referência do Portuguê Contemporâneo (CRPC) as the material. We have analyzed more than a thousand contexts from the newspaper subcorpus corresponding to the terra request, and the revealed values are structured in accordance with their meaning and modern ideas about the Earth and its structure, as well as taking into account the given explanatory dictionaries. The scientific novelty of the article is related to the use of data and the functionality of the CRPC corpus for the analysis of the noun terra, which was not previously considered by domestic researchers. As a result of the analysis of contexts, eight broad meanings were identified, in six of which several somewhat narrower ones were identified, and many of them reflected the peculiarities of terra perception by modern native speakers.
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