International Law
Journal Menu
> Issues > Rubrics > About journal > Authors > About the Journal > Requirements for publication > Editorial collegium > Peer-review process > Policy of publication. Aims & Scope. > Article retraction > Ethics > Online First Pre-Publication > Copyright & Licensing Policy > Digital archiving policy > Open Access Policy > Article Processing Charge > Article Identification Policy > Plagiarism check policy
Journals in science databases
About the Journal

MAIN PAGE > Journal "International Law" > Contents of Issue № 04/2022
Contents of Issue № 04/2022
International law and national law
Malkhanova E.V., Ditsevich Y.B. - Problems of Legal Support for the Protection of World Natural Heritage Sites pp. 1-11



Abstract: The article is devoted to the relevance of improving the legal foundations of conservation and the need to popularize World Natural Heritage sites. The key problems of legislative regulation of their protection are analyzed in a comparative context with the legal model of protection of cultural heritage objects. Based on an analytical study of legislation on environmental protection and cultural heritage objects, conclusions are drawn about the impossibility of classifying Lake Baikal and its tributaries as specially protected water bodies and especially valuable cultural heritage objects. This puts the unique ecological value of the lake included in the World Natural Heritage list in an unequal position with other, including less valuable introductory objects located in specially protected natural areas. The described situation in the field of protection of Lake Baikal is typical for the vast majority of all natural objects included in the World Natural Heritage List. The absence of a separate legal regulation of this sphere indicates the insufficiency of a purposeful domestic policy regarding the preservation of World Natural Heritage sites. The author substantiates the need for an in-depth analysis of legal models that contribute to strengthening the protection of these objects in order to create a special legal regulation of their protection activities. In addition, the author notes the importance of conducting further research on the issues discussed in this article, and also expresses the opinion that it is necessary to continue the study.
Theory and philosophy of international law
Svetskiy A.V. - Ensuring Safety and Environmental Protection During International Sea Transportation of Hydrocarbons pp. 12-22



Abstract: The subject of the study is the norms of international law regulating the activities to ensure safety during the transportation of oil and petroleum products. Special attention is paid to the protection of the marine environment from pollution. The author analyzes the international legal documents regulating the protection of the marine environment during the transportation of oil and petroleum products by sea, the existing mechanisms to prevent the occurrence of possible accidents. Recommendations are given to improve the level of marine environment protection during the extraction and transportation of hydrocarbons. It is shown that liquefied natural gas has a number of environmental, commercial and energy advantages over other types of fossil fuels.   Since a common cause of accidents that entail oil and petroleum product spills is the wear and tear of the equipment used in various cycles of production and transportation of both oil and LNG, it is concluded that proper monitoring of the technical condition of the equipment in operation, improvement of the legal framework in this area, as well as compliance with the requirements of legislation in order to identification of objects whose condition poses a threat to the environment. It is noted that a special role in preventing the negative impact on the state of the environment during the transportation of petroleum products belongs to regional agreements on the protection of the marine environment, since in this case the issue has a more substantive character for each region. The article discusses various directions of using artificial intelligence to increase the level of safety of international sea transportation of hydrocarbons.
Development of separate branches of international public law
Gibadullin T.D. - Features of the conventional protection of cultural heritage at the level of the Council of Europe pp. 23-41



Abstract: The aim of the work is to identify and disclose the distinctive features of the regulation of the protection of cultural heritage in accordance with the main conventions of the Council of Europe in this area, which are the subject of the study. The methodological basis of the article is the methods of deduction, induction, analysis, synthesis, formal-logical, descriptive, system-structural, historical, comparative, formal-legal methods. The paper identifies problems related to the protection of cultural heritage that exist on a global scale and at the level of Russia, describes the efforts of the international community to solve such problems. The definition of cultural heritage is given. The list of all international treaties adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe, which in one way or another affect the issues of cultural heritage, is given, the greatest importance of five of these conventions is argued. The features of the conventional protection of cultural heritage at the level of this international organization, highlighted on the basis of the study of these international treaties, are considered. The author points out such features as paying special attention to human rights; attaching great importance to the participation of civil society and the public in activities related to cultural heritage; the frequent absence of its explicit division into tangible and intangible heritage, etc. Taking into account the highlighted characteristic features of the States parties to the most significant international treaties mentioned above can contribute to improving the effectiveness of their application of these conventions - not only individually, but also in a complex. This also applies to Russia. The author identifies areas related to the features of the convention protection of cultural heritage at the level of the Council of Europe, on which it may be advisable for Russia to intensify its activities. The scientific novelty of the article is determined by the above-mentioned conclusions and recommendations of the author. It is also expressed in the disclosure of some of the above-mentioned features of the regime of the main conventions of the Council of Europe in the field of protection of cultural heritage, for example, paying special attention to human rights.
Theory and philosophy of international law
Novikov O.A., Nadtochii I.O. - Metaconfederation as a Subject of Global Law of the Future pp. 42-48



Abstract: The subject of the study of the article presented by the authors are the subjects of that system of global regulatory regulation, which historically is called international law. The object of the study is a variety of connections that develop between the subjects of global relations, regulated on the basis of the principles and norms of the system of international law. The authors propose a gradual departure from the usual names adopted in the modern theory of international law, and, in particular, propose new definitions: "global law" and "metaconfederation". The definitions proposed by the authors are a reflection of the ongoing deep evolution of global relations and the process of the emergence of new subjects of these relations. The novelty of the study lies in the authors' proposal of a new definition for the theory of international law: "metaconfederation". The study of the phenomenon of metaconfederations is, according to the authors, a promising vector for future scientific research. Global metaconfederations are the prototype of the main, if, in principle, not the only subject of the global law of the future. The root "meta-" is a marker of the complexity of the internal structure of the subject of global law under study and its extraterritoriality. For its part, the use of the term "confederation" emphasizes the maximum freedom of the internal organization of the subjects of the global law of the future.
International law and national law
Gazina N.I. - International and National Legal Approaches to the Protection of Genetic Information pp. 49-59



Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the main approaches to the problem of protecting genetic information at the international and national levels. The author presented an overview of international acts on genetic information protection, as well as an overview of the positions of the ECtHR on the issue under consideration, author also conducted a comparative analysis of national approaches to the legal regulation of this area on the example of different countries (USA, France, Israel, Russia). There are two main forms of genetic data protection. The first is the protection of genetic data through medical data, biometric data, personal data in general, through the right to privacy. The second is the protection of genetic data through specialized rules on the confidentiality of genetic information. It is concluded that at the international level the protection of genetic information is carried out more effectively by general human rights protection treaties (in particular, the ECHR) through a broad interpretation of the right to privacy and some other rights. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights of 1997 and the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data of 2003 do not ensure the execution of their provisions and do not establish a control mechanism due to their recommendatory nature, but perform an important "guiding" function. They reveal possible methods of regulation and protection of genetic data by states, establish standards, following which states can effectively organize legal regulation in this area. At the national level establishment of special legal norms for genetic data seems to be appropriate and more effective, because allow to refer directly on the violation of the regimes for the use of genetic data in the courts. In this case, there is no need to prove genetic information as biometric, also unlike the legal regimes where genetic information protects through the rules on medical secrecy, a situation of medical treatment is not necessary.
Development of separate branches of international public law
Gorelik I.B. - Formation of an International Legal System for Countering Cybercrime: from Terminology to the Draft Universal Convention pp. 60-71



Abstract: The subject of the study is the process of formation of modern global international legal mechanisms for combating crime in the field of information and communication technologies. The purpose of the study is to systematize information about the main stages of the formation of these international legal mechanisms, to assess the current state of the international legal system for countering cybercrime and the prospects for its further development. The main research methods used are a systematic and formal legal approach, linguistic and comparative legal method. As a result of the study, the main problems that the international community has faced and continues to face on the way to forming a global system to combat cybercrime have been identified. In particular, the problem of terminology was examined, as a result of which it was concluded that there is still no universal definition for cybercrime in the international legal field at the moment, which significantly complicates the process of clear legal qualification of such criminal acts. Also, in chronological order, some stages of the formation of the modern international legal system for countering cybercrime were considered. Thus, a description was presented: the Council of Europe Convention on Computer Crimes, the Tallinn Guidelines on the Application of International Legal Norms in the Case of Cyber Warfare developed by NATO, and the Draft UN Convention on Countering the Use of Information and Communication Technologies for Criminal Purposes developed by Russia. The main conclusion of the study is the conclusion that today the global international system for combating cybercrime is still in the early stages of formation. It is noted that one of the factors hindering the further development of this system is the position of many States that consider the Budapest Convention as an effective international legal instrument that does not require conceptual improvements. There is also a lack of global coherence of states in the process of creating international legal acts in the field of cybercrime regulation.
International civil law/private law
Kurochkina E.M. - Legal Regulation of Cross-Border Movement of Arbitral Awards pp. 72-79



Abstract: Enforcement of arbitral awards in foreign countries is carried out on the basis of the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards of June 10, 1958 (the 1958 New York Convention). Provisions of the New-York Convention of 1958 are rather laconic and some of them cause difficulties in enforcement. Such a provision is subparagraph (e) of Article 1 of the 1958 New York Convention. «е» of paragraph 1 of article V, which provides for the possibility to execute an arbitral award annulled at the place where it was rendered. Similar norms are provided for in the Russian legislation. Using general scientific methods of knowledge (analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, generalization) and special scientific methods (formal-logical, formal-legal and method of legal forecasting) the analysis of execution of annulled arbitral awards in foreign countries was carried out. Scientific novelty of the present research consists in substantiation of the fact that the arbitral award and the acts adopted in respect of this award form a single totality, each element of which should be taken into account in the enforcement of the arbitral award. It is found that the enforcement of the annulled arbitral awards is contrary to the purpose of the 1958 New York Convention and the logic of its provisions. The enforcement of such decisions also violates the rights and interests of the parties to the arbitral proceedings. It is proposed to amend the current legal regulation and to provide for a clear provision prescribing the refusal to recognize and enforce a foreign arbitral award that has been set aside by a State court in the place where it was made.
Other our sites:
Official Website of NOTA BENE / Aurora Group s.r.o.