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MAIN PAGE > Journal "International Law" > Contents of Issue 02/2021
Contents of Issue 02/2021
International courts
Gatina D.R. - Prudential exception in the case Argentina-Financial Services pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article discusses the conclusions of the World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Body (WTO DSB) on the case “Argentina – Financial Services” pertaining to interpretation of the Paragraph 2 (a) of the Annex on Financial Services to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which contains a prudential exception that allows the countries, regardless of their obligations in accordance with GATS, taking measures on the national level that are aimed at maintaining stability in the domestic financial market. The need for studying the approaches applied due to interpretation of this norm, is substantiated by the ambiguous wording of the Paragraph 2 (a) of the Annex on Financial Services, which raises questions on its proper application. The author attempts to give assessment to the decisions of the Arbitration Group on the interpretation of prudential exception, as well as shed light on the instances of its application. This article is the first work within the Russian legal science dedicated to examination of the peculiarities of application of prudential exception. Having analyzed the corresponding provision of GATS, as well as the decisions of the Arbitration Group on the case “Argentina – Financial Services”, the author concludes that virtually any measure introduced by the government on the national level, which serves the purpose of risk prevention that may create a threat to the stability and integrity of the financial market of the country and normal activity of the participant of the financial services market, can fall under Paragraph 2 (a). At the same time, the key and practically the only obstacle for abuse such norm consists in the need to adhere to the principle of good faith in the context of implementation of the corresponding prudential measures.
Integrational law and supernational associations
Abdullayev N.N. - Legal framework of Azerbaijan's foreign policy with the CIS countries pp. 12-24


Abstract: This article explores the legal framework of the foreign policy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the post-Soviet space. This topic gains special relevance on the background of changes in the regional distribution of potentials after the Second Karabakh War. The subject of this research is the main agreements signed by Azerbaijan with the CIS countries in a bilateral format, as well as within the organization. Emphasis is placed on the normative legal documents that form the foundation of foreign policy relations in the military-political, economic, energy, and transport sectors as the highest priority for the country. Special attention is given to the analysis of legal institutionalization of Azerbaijan's foreign policy in the post-Soviet space in conjunction with the evolution of foreign policy concept of the country. The article employs general dialectical, logical, historical and formal-legal methods for determining the key trends and characteristics of the legal framework of Azerbaijan's foreign policy. The scientific novelty consists in periodization of the development of legal framework of Azerbaijan’s foreign policy: the first period was under the Presidency of Ayaz Mutalibov and Abulfaz Elchibey, the third covers the period from the autumn of 1993 to the late 1990s, and the fourth is since 2000. The first period marks sporadic nature of Azerbaijan's relations with the CIS countries. During the second period, the country joined multilateral institutions that emerged in the post-Soviet space. The third stage is characterized by transition towards the development of bilateral relations with the CIS countries, and shifting away from multilateral approach. It is worth noting, that this research is focused namely on examination of the legal framework Azerbaijan's foreign policy, rather than the generally accepted in the Russian scientific literature political-legal approach, which considers the normative documents in the context of political processes.
Development of separate branches of international public law
Shinkaretskaya G.G. - Analogies in International law and problems of the development of space law pp. 25-36


Abstract: This article indicates that the existing international space law fails to regulate the dynamically developing space activity. The International policy-making in this sphere has established when the applied space activity virtually did not exist. Currently, the actively developing and very profitable space activity, for the most part involves the economic entities. The author notes that a range of means, such as contracts, recommendation documents, and national legislation are employed in the development of space law. The question raised whether the analogy can be applied for the development of international space law. This method of filling the gaps is widespread and largely used in private international law; however, its value for the public international law has not been determined. An essential issue is the ratio between the formalized sources of law and analogies; methodology for determining the existence of deficiencies of law; criteria for similarity and difference of the situations that imply the use of analogy. For solving the set tasks, the author uses the formal-logical, systemic, comparative, and other research methods. The author believes that it is possible to trace several factors that allow using analogies in the international law. The analogy should be substantiated for each individual case; it is necessary to draw comparison between regulated and unregulated cases; determine the identity of the elements that are relevant for application of analogy.
Moroz E.N. - Legal issues and prospects for delimitation of continental shelf in the Arctic pp. 37-48


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the relevant problem of delimitation of the Arctic territories. There are currently several different approaches towards this question, but the effective one is the mechanism proposed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The absence of consensus on delimitation of continental shelf is substantiated by the intersection of interests of the countries in the Arctic region and strategically crucial consequences of dividing the Arctic: this is the matter of national security, geopolitical supremacy, increase of economic potential, energy and environmental security. The goal of this research consists in the analysis of recent achievements and prospects for delimitation of continental shelf. The subject of this article is the problems of delimitation of the jurisdiction of countries in the Arctic region. Methodological framework is comprised of the chronological method and method of analysis. The conclusion is made that the definition of state boundaries in the Arctic is a long process; since the decisions of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf is of advisory nature, it may lead to the disputes between the countries over the rendered decisions. It should be noted that international law has the essential mechanisms and means for the peaceful delimitation of maritime boundaries in Arctic waters. The author believes that the final definition of boundaries in the Arctic would be achieved through the compromise between the polar countries, and thus signing bilateral agreements without relying on recommendations of the Commission. It is underlined that the conventional principle of delimitation of boundaries in the Arctic Ocean does not meet the national interests of the Arctic Five, and requires a different approach due to the peculiarities of the ocean. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of existing principles, instruments and problems of delimitation of boundaries in the Arctic, as well as in conclusions formulated by the author. The solution to the outlined problems can become the preservation of the international seabed within the framework of the concept common heritage of mankind in the area of the Gakkel Ridge, and in the area of Lomonosov Ridge delineation by the sectoral principle.
Monograph peer reviews
Bezborodov Y. - Rein Müllerson in the international law: retrospectives and prospects pp. 49-60


Abstract: This article is dedicated to reconsideration of the ideas of the prominent Soviet, Russian, Estonian and international legal expert Rein Müllerson, which he introduced to the theory and practice of international law. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the contribution made by Professor Rein Müllerson to the Soviet system, as well as the contribution he continues to make to the modern domestic, foreign, and universal doctrine of international law. In 201, the author of multiple articles and monographs that are published in different languages and countries, Professor Rein Müllerson released his summarizing work – the autobiography “Living In Interesting Times: Curse or Chance?”, which in reality is not an autobiography. This monograph, which determines the topic of this research, is dedicated to the most relevant issues of international law and international relations, which underlie the scientific reflections in the latest published work of Professor Müllerson. The goal of this article lies in the analysis of manifestation of subjective realism and new philosophy of modern international law declared in the 2021 monograph. Using such instruments of the modern researcher of international relations as liberalism and democratization, globalization and regionalization, correlating the theory built in the Soviet scientific paradigm with the practice tested in the UN structures, he brought the international law to a higher level of comprehension, as a complex system of regulators of multinational behavior. The neutral and non-politicized views of Professor Müllerso answers on the majority of modern international problems, along with his vast experience in practical implementation of legal norms, should be duly appreciated by present and future generations of researchers interested in building a new world – free from warfare and confrontations. The article employs historical analysis, comparative method, methods of legal research and interpretation.
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