Agriculture - rubric Regional agricultural peculiarities
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Regional agricultural peculiarities
Yushchenko M.S., Visloguzova I.V. - Legal peculiarities of agricultural activity in the Baikal natural area and the prospects for organic products manufacturing pp. 24-32


Abstract: Agriculture in the Central ecological zone (CEZ) of the Baikal natural area is not a leading economic sector, but at the same time plays an important role in the economic life of the local population.The Baikal natural area has a special legal regime of environmental management and environmental protection, and there are significant restrictions on the development of agriculture hindering the development of the Baikal macroregion. The use of plant protection products and mineral fertilizers is prohibited, and restrictions are imposed on the placement of agricultural objects. It is also necessary to observe environmental technologies of land cultivation. One of the ways out of this situation can be the development of organic agriculture in the Baikal natural area, which implies responsible agriculture helping to avoid negative processes leading to soil and ecosystem degradation (the tilling of minor soils, the use of moldboard plowing of hillside landscapes, deforestation, the lack of wood lines, inconsistent use and overuse of grazing areas, fires on agricultural lands, etc.).  At the same time, the transition from conventional agriculture to the organic one takes several years and is expensive. As a transitional period, the authors suggest manufacturing green brands on the territory of the Baikal natural area, which are subject to less strict requirements than the organic products.   
Ivanova E.V. - Formation and development of agrarian consulting in the Northern region pp. 30-43


Abstract: The research subject is socio-economic relations characterizing the process of formation and functioning of the agrarian consulting system. The research object is agrarian consulting in the Republic of Komi. The author elaborates on such aspects of the topic as the essence, specific features and directions of activity of agrarian consulting. Special attention is given to the necessity to realize agrarian consulting in the Northern region and to study regional peculiarities of its formation. The author analyzes the current state of the consulting service and detects the factors hampering its development. To extend the consulting coverage of agricultural producers and promote innovations among small and medium businesses in agricultural sector, the author offers the directions of agricultural consulting development. Theoretical and methodological basis of the research contains the works of the leading Russian and foreign scholars, dealing with the organization of agrarian consulting, and legislative and normative documents defining agrarian and rural development. The author concludes that the formation and functioning of consulting services in the agricultural sector in the territories with severe environmental conditions and agricultural peculiarities is specific; it is determined by the underdevelopment of agricultural sector, current types of agrarian structures, availability of human and educational resources, innovation activities of agricultural organizations and farms. The analysis of the agrarian consulting service’s activities helps detect the reasons hindering its development: underdevelopment of the agrarian consulting system on the municipal level; unavailability of qualified consulting specialists; insufficient financial support; the absence of legislative base regulating their activities; weak links of the regional consulting service with scientific and educational institutions. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the clarification of the essence, specificity of formation and functioning of the agrarian consulting system in the northern conditions; the detection of its shortcomings and the development of the model of agrarian consulting for the Republic of Komi. 
Koptelova T.I. - Organic paradigm of development of higher agricultural education in Russia (the case of Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy) pp. 34-47


Abstract: The paper analyzes the organic paradigm of development of higher agricultural education in Russia, which includes ethnic models of organization of agricultural sector, and the transnational abstractions of the mechanical way of thinking replacement with the logic of organic thinking, which is Russian intellectual tradition and a special methodology. The organic paradigm includes modern scientific achievements in the sphere of the study of biological and geographical, and cultural and historical factors of development of society. It always requires for the space-time, regional context. The organic paradigm of development of higher agricultural education in Russia promotes effective solving of such tasks of the agricultural science as the provision of food and environmental safety, the increase of the quality of agricultural products, the formation of appropriate ecological worldview of the next generations. The problem of training of highly professional specialists in agricultural sphere can’t be solved without taking into account regional specificity: the peculiarities of geography, history and culture, the condition of socio-economic relations. At the same time, the organic paradigm promotes effective solving of the problem of “settlement” of agricultural specialists in rural areas. The implementation of the organic paradigm is demonstrated using the example of Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy. This analysis helps reveal the potential of Russian science, which is necessary for the solution of everyday problems of the agricultural sphere of the certain region and for the formation of the general strategy of agricultural specialists training in our country. The article demonstrates the experience of innovations and traditions of Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy and the approaches of agricultural science, alternative to the western studies, to the solution of topical issues of development of the agricultural and industrial complex and higher agricultural education in Russia. The organic paradigm as a basis of the development strategy for higher agricultural education in Russia allows promoting the principle of diversity and regional reasonability of activities of educational institutions, and promotes the preservation and development of the priceless experience of agricultural specialist training. Therefore, the author applies not only the general methods of scientific research (topological and comparative, analysis, synthesis and the method of historical and philosophical reconstruction), but also the fundamental principles of co-evolution. Estimating the necessity to use innovations and traditions in educational and practical activity of agricultural institutions in Russia, it is necessary to solve the range of inconsistencies, appearing in the result of launching new technologies in the agricultural sector of the economy, and the necessity to preserve national traditions of economic activity – the cultural and historical background of rural settlements. It should be taken into account, that the economic activity models are as various, as are the unique national cultures. The organic paradigm of higher agricultural education development helps solve this inconsistency. And the solution lies not in the area of theoretical projects or the western models of transnational agricultural corporations, but in the specific scientific and practical and educational experience of particular agricultural institutions of Russia, which, preserving the specificity if their region, always can offer “innovative and traditional” solutions for the variety of problems of the modern agricultural sector. 
Savin I. - Change of winter crops sown area in the zone of the special military operation of Russia (February 2022-present), as revealed by satellite data pp. 40-48



Abstract: Russia's special military operation against Ukraine (SVO) has a significant impact on the socio-economic situation in the area of operation and adjacent regions. The impact on agricultural production is expressed in many cases in its complete cessation, but the exact extent of this is unknown. Based on the archive of Landsat, Sentinel-2 and MODIS satellite data, contained on the VEGA Internet service of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the dynamics of winter crops acreage in the area of the operation was analyzed. For this purpose, winter crop masks for the period 2018-2023, compiled on the basis of MODIS data, were used. Additionally, the delineation of zones with winter crops was carried out visually based on Landsat, Sentinel-2 satellite data obtained in late fall and early spring. It was found that in the 2022/2023 season, winter crops decreased significantly. Compared to the season before the SVO, winter cropping areas decreased in the Luhansk People's Republic and Donetsk People's Republic by 30%, in Kherson and Zaporizhzhya oblasts almost unchanged, in Kharkiv oblast of Ukraine decreased by 50%, and in Dnipropetrovsk oblast - by 20%. The area of winter crops in the Republic of Crimea increased by 40%. The territory of area reduction is clearly confined to the zone of confrontation between Russian and Ukrainian troops. The winter crops in other regions of Ukraine and Russia have not been significantly affected by the SVO at the moment.
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