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Onuchina O.L., Korneva I.A. - Red clover varieties resistance to the stress factors of acid thatch-podzolic soil pp. 1-8


Abstract: The research was held in 2014 - 2017 on the experimental field of the Falyon plant-breeding station (Falyonki village, Kirov region). The research subject is the recognized and appreciable varieties of red clover. The nursery-garden for ecological variety testing was founded in 2014 on strongly acid thatch-mesopodzol soil (pH 3.92, the content of mobile aluminium ions - 27.48mg per 100 g of soil). The purpose of the research is to evaluate the varieties of red clover according to their economic features on a natural acid field; to detect the varieties resistant to stress factors of acid soil. Red clover varieties have been tested on the base of the first, second and third year grass in terms of double-cutting regime. The registration field plot is 5 square meters, fourfold tier. Registration, evaluation and observation are based on the methodology of the National Research Institution of Forage Crops (2002). The varieties of red clover, resistant to soil stress factors, have been selected. The late-ripening varieties: Vityaz, Kirovskij 159, Falyonskij 1. The middle-late varieties: Orpheus, P-1/09 and Tryphon. The early-ripening varieties: Kudesnik, P-15 and Green, which are notable for frost-resistance (94.0...98.7%) and ability to produce 16.1...20.5 tons of dry basis and 1.91...2..57 tons of crude protein per hectare in sum for three years without agnonomical amelioration.  
Suchkova A.A., Granitsa Y.V. - Use of weed plants in landscape gardening pp. 1-9


Abstract: The research subject is weed plants which are usually eradicated in vegetable gardens, but few people think about the possibility to use them in landscape gardening and agriculture. Nowadays unusual forms and varieties of plants which used to be considered as weed are becoming popular among the customers. Weed plants increase soil fertility and enlarge its active layer; they decorate gardens because of their wide range  of colours. Due to their tolerance to ecological factors, weed plants can be used in any part of the garden. The purpose of this research is the analysis of decorative value and ecological properties of 27 species of weed plants which can be used in landscaping, and the development of a project of an exhibition garden with them. The article represents the project of the “Second chance” garden which takes into account the combination of colours, the correlation of heights and the duration of decorative properties of plants. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that at the moment, the use of weed plants as decorative elements in landscape gardening and agriculture is becoming a trend of landscaping. The exhibition garden with a total area of 426.6 square meters is designed in a landscape style. It is planned to set out plants on seed tapes and in containers which ensure the best visibility and are suitable for transportation. The authors suggest using red arches with local lighting which give the garden an aesthetic appearance. To contemplate such plants, foreign and Russian plant breeders breed new varieties. The article also contains the blooming schedule for weed plants and the summary of their ecological properties.   
Okach M.A., Mukhametova S.V., Kharisova K.V., Polkanova A.S., Yakupova G.I. - Medium-grown daylily flowering in the Republic of Mari El
pp. 1-6


Abstract: Daylily (Hemerocallis) is a perennial herbaceous plant widely used in landscape gardening. Daylilies are prized for their long term flowering mainly in late summer and low maintenance cultivation. According to flower spike height, the varieties are divided into runt, medium-growing and tall. The article contains the results of the study of 21 medium-growing daylily varieties’ terms of flowering in the botanic garden of the Volga region State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola, the Republic of Mari El). The research was conducted in 2015 - 2017. The calendar dates were converted into a continuous series. All varieties were classified as early, medium or late according to the terms of the beginning and the end of flowering and its duration. During three years of research, the earliest beginning of the phenological phase was registered in 2016, and the latest one  - in 2017. The early beginning and ending of flowering were typical for the varieties “Dr Regel” and “Royal Sovereign”. The late beginning of flowering was registered for the “Country Club” variety, and the late ending - for “Sandalwood”. Other varieties were classified as medium-term. The varieties “Royal Sovereign”, “Tejas”, and “Sugar Candy” are characterized by a short flowering period, while “Sandalwood” and “Derby Bound” - with a long one. It was established that the late-flowering varieties are characterized with a longer flowering period.
Mukhametova S.V., Veselova K.A., Sukhareva L.V. - Deutzia in the Mari El Republic pp. 1-11


Abstract: Deutzia is an ornamental flowering shrub valued for its abundant long-term flowering and the elegance of flowers shape. The research objects are the plants of 3 species and 1 variety of Deutzia in the Botanic Garden-Institute of VSUT (Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic). Plants aged from 38 to 45 years grow in the exhibition “Fruticetum”. The study was conducted in 2015-2019. The height and diameter of plants crowns, their winter hardiness for the period from 1981 to 2019, the morphometric indicators of leaves and inflorescences, the possibility of vegetative propagation by herbaceous cuttings, and the size of annual plants were studied. According to the study results, the most hardy is Deutzia of Amur, which forms the highest shrubs. The long-leaved Deutzia has the longest leaf blades, Deutzia scabra ‘Plena’ has the smallest leaves. The long-leaved Deutzia has the largest inflorescences, Deutzia of Amur and Deutzia scabra ‘Plena’ have the smallest ones. Deutzia magnifica and Deutzia scabra ‘Plena’ have ornamentality advantage over other species due to the double flowers. For the maximum display of ornamental qualities, the plants need a successful overwintering. The greatest ability to reproduce by herbaceous cuttings is noted for Deutzia scabra ‘Plena’. The results of this study are important for the Deutzia application in the garden and park construction. In the landscaping of the republic settlements Deutzia is recommended for the target assortment.
Anisimova M.A. - Analysis of landscape areas on the territory of secondary school #19 of the city of Yoshkar-Ola pp. 1-10


Abstract: The research object is the territory of the secondary school #19 of the city of Yoshkar-Ola. The topicality of the research is determined by the necessity to reconstruct the existing landscape areas on this territory. For the project “The reconstruction of landscaped areas and improvements on the territory of the secondary school #19”, the authors have reviewed the landscaped areas. The analysis uses complete enumeration based on mensurational description. During the analysis, the authors defined species, taxonomic characteristics, sanitary and hygienic and esthetic values of each taxon. 290 woody plants were examined. Based on the acquired data, the authors analyzed the current landscaped areas on the territory and formulated the following conclusions: the density of plantations is much lower than the recommended values; the authors noticed only the traces of a green fence. However, the average values of the sanitary condition are 2 and 1, which means that the landscaped areas are in a good condition, and the species composition is in line with recommendations. Due to the fact that the school territory radius is 2 km, the condition of landscaped areas requires special attention. The scientific novelty of the research is determined by the fact that the landscaped areas on territory in question need to be reconstructed.   
Golomidova T.M., Mukhametova S.V., Kurnenkova I.P., Sukhareva L.V. - Diseases and pests of clematis from the collection of the Botanical Garden-Institute of VSUT (Yoshkar-Ola) pp. 1-19



Abstract: Clematis is one of the highly ornamental plants used in landscaping, but they are often susceptible to diseases as a result of abiotic and biotic factors action. The article presents an overview of diseases and pests of clematis. Among them, wilt is especially dangerous, which leads to a sharp withering of plants. Also, clematis can be affected by rust, powdery mildew, gray rot, various types of spotting, etc., as well as pests nematode, worm, aphids, spider mite, slugs, etc. Information on pest control and diseases of clematis is presented. Possible signs of weakening of non-infectious plants are indicated. The diseases identified during the visual examination of clematis in the Botanical Garden-Institute of VSUT (Yoshkar-Ola) are given. The plants grow on the lianas site of the Fruticetum exposition. Wilting was observed in plants older than 20 years: symptoms were detected in 1/3 of plants. Most of the collection plants showed signs of spotting. In some varietal clematis, small-leaved was observed. Damage by leaf-eating insects and mice, as well as mechanical damage from hail and rain were revealed. Agrotechnical measures carried out for the prevention of diseases are presented. The obtained data can be used in the practice of growing clematis at the landscaping facilities of settlements in the region.
Rednikova T.V. - Plant genetic resources in agriculture: problems of legal regulation pp. 7-14


Abstract: Conservation of plant genetic resources is an important component in addressing the challenges of ensuring food security in each state. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the use of banks of plant genetic resources as one of the effective methods of preserving the genetic diversity of both cultivated and wild plants. Traditionally existing institutions such as Botanic gardens and specially protected areas play a role in the conservation of plant genetic resources in situ. The author uses general scientific and special methods of jurisprudence including the formal-legal and comparative-legal methods, to analyze the state of legal regulation of the treatment of plant genetic resources both at the international and national level. Scientific achievements in the field of genetic research are developing at a rapid pace. Legal regulation in the field of handling plant genetic resources needs to be significantly improved. When developing legislation in this area, it is necessary to take into account its interdisciplinary nature and draw on the experience of scientists and practitioners involved in the management of plant genetic resources.Legislation in the field of handling genetic resources, including the creation of genetically modified organisms with specified properties, should be as comprehensive as possible, as well as provide a comprehensive assessment of possible risks to the environment and human health, as well as unified approaches to the organization of scientific research in this area.
Okach M.A., Egoshina E.A. - The growth and development dynamics of small fraction bulbs of Hyacinthus orientalis pp. 10-16


Abstract: Hyacinthus orientalis is a valuable decorative bulbous plant. One of the main limitations of its widespread use in landscaping is the low coefficient of vegetative reproduction and the high cost of planting material. Hyacinths are usually grown with the annual digging of bulbs in summer and planting them in autumn. The article presents the results of experience in growing bulbs of small hyacinth fraction with various agricultural techniques. The experiment was carried out in the period 2016-2018 in the open ground in the Botanical Garden-Institute of VSUT (the Mari El Republic). The dynamics of growth and development of 6 hyacinth varieties bulbs was studied during two-year cultivation with annual digging and without digging. It was found that the weight of bulbs of all studied hyacinths varieties increased intensively during two-year cultivation without annual digging. In the experiment variant with annual digging of bulbs weighing 7.3-8.5 g (first size), the formation of baby bulbs was noted only in the varieties Eros and Lady Derby, without annual digging in the varieties Carnegie, Lady Derby', Madame Sophie'. The weight of the bulbs of the second size (from 3.8 to 4.5 g) for 1 year of cultivation increased by an average of 1.6 times. Bulbs weighing up to 2 g (third size) for 2 years of cultivation are able to increase their weight by 3 times. Bulbs of terry varieties Rosette and Madame Sophie weighing up to 2 g grew better during two-year cultivation without annual digging. The data obtained can be used in the cultivation of hyacinths in decorative nurseries.
Nikitina A.D., Mukhametova S.V., Okach M.A. - Dahlias collection in the Botanical garden-institute of VSUT (Yoshkar-Ola) pp. 14-21



Abstract: Dahlia Cav. is a beautifully flowering perennial plant from the family Asteraceae Dum. It has storing root tubers that do not survive during the winter in the open ground of central Russia. This crop is characterized by a high variety of colors, shapes and sizes of inflorescences, different plant heights, long-term stable decorative effect from the beginning to the end of the growing season. The purpose of the study is to analyze the Dahlia × cultorum collection in the Botanical Garden-Institute of the Volga State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic). As of 2021, plants of 32 cultivars were grown in the exposition Ornamental Herbaceous Plants, each cultivar is represented by 1-5 plants. It is established that the available cultivars belong to 6 classes according to the structure of inflorescences, the largest number of them belong to the class of Decorative and Semi-Cactus (12 and 8 names, respectively). According to the color of the inflorescences, the largest number of cultivars has bicolor inflorescences. The small-flowered cultivars dominated according to the inflorescences size. In general, most cultivars with large and medium-sized inflorescences have a decrease in their size. We can replenish the collection with varieties from the smallest represented classes, as well as the missing 6 classes. The results can be used in the practice of settlements landscaping of the Mari El Republic and nearby regions.
Botova A.V., Mukhametova S.V. - Dynamics of gladiolus leaves growth pp. 17-26


Abstract: Gladiolus L. are beautifully flowering perennials that do not overwinter in the open ground in the conditions of central Russia. Its varieties are characterized by a huge variety in the height of the peduncle, the color scheme and the corrugation degree of the flowers. The disadvantage of this crop is the complexity of the annual digging and planting of corms. The purpose of the article is to study the growth dynamics of real gladiolus leaves in the open ground. Leaf height measurements were carried out after 15 days in the process of growing plants on ridges. The objects of the study were 9 varieties: 'Aurora', 'Granatovyj braslet', 'Grad Kitezh', 'Devichi tajny', 'Dolgozhdannyj debyut', 'Majya Plisetskaya', 'Tanyusha', 'Shapka Monomaha', 'Noon Moon'. The study showed that the most intensive growth of gladiolus leaves occurred after the emergence of sprouts. On the 20th day after planting, the plants reached about 1/3 of their final height, and on the 35th day 50%, after 2 months the height was almost 90%. Most varieties were characterized by the greatest increase in the first accounting period, in the future its value decreased, reaching a minimum in the last accounting period. In the process of growth, the taller varieties remained tall, the shorter ones remained stunted. At each date of the study, 'Devichi tajny' had the highest height, 'Grad Kitezh' had the lowest height. The obtained data can be used in the cultivation of gladioli in nurseries and landscaping location.
Okach M.A., Mukhametova S.V., Egoshina E.A. - Phenology of Daffodils varieties in the Mari El Republic conditions pp. 32-43



Abstract: Daffodils are decorative spring-flowering bulbous plants characterized by unpretentiousness to growing conditions, abundant flowering and variety of flower shapes. The timing of their flowering depends on varietal characteristics, weather conditions and climatic conditions of the growing point. The purpose of this article was to study the seasonal development of 6 Daffodils varieties in the Mari El Republic. Observations were carried out in the Botanical Garden-Institute of the Volga State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola). The objects of the study were varieties: small-cupped 'Carnmoon' and 'White Lady', large-cupped 'Duke of Windsor' and 'Odense', double 'Texas' and 'Yellow Cheerfulness'. Observations were carried out in 2014-2019 according to the methodology of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was found that the varieties starting vegetation later had a longer vegetation period. The dates of the beginning and mass flowering correlated with the dates of complete leaf death. The variety 'Yellow Cheerfulness' had the late passage of all studied phenophases, as well as the shortest duration of vegetation and growth. The variety 'Odense' was characterized by the early end of leaf growth, budding and flowering. The variety 'White Lady' had a long vegetation period and the leaf growth period, a late flowering end and a long flowering duration. The short duration of flowering is established in the variety 'Carnmoon'. The data obtained are of interest in the practice of daffodils growing in the settlements of the Mari El Republic.
Pashchenko V.F., Syromyatnikov Y.N., Khramov N.S. - Physics of the Process of a Work Tool with a Flexible Element Getting into Contact with the Soil pp. 33-42


Abstract: The object of the research is the process of a work tool of a tillage machine with a flexible element getting into contact with the soil. The subject of the research is a physical model that allows to analyze the process of a work tool with a flexible element getting into contact with the soil and mechanical and technological methods of improving the process of soil cultivation. The cable with a cross section area in a form of a circle is viewed as a wedge with a dull edge. The authors of the article pay special attention to the theory of granular medium statics. The extreme limit state at which even the slightest change in the volume and surface forces distorts the balance of the granular medium is especially interesting and useful for composing mathematical models of a work tool getting into contact with theh soil because pressure forces reach the highest point at such moments. The authors carried out their theoretical research using the method of the mathematical mechanical modelling of work tools getting into contact with the soil. The authors discover the dependence of the wedge cutting pressure on the cutting angle and depth. They prove that when the cutting angle is reduced, the cutting pressure of the soil goes down to the minimum at first but grows endlessly afterwards. The soil cutting effort is composed of two elements, the soil destruction effort and the effort to overcome the frictional force of the soil against the wedge. When the cutting angle is reduced, the soil destruction effort decreases while the effort to overcome the frictional force of the soil against the wedge increases. The sum of these two elements is equal to the minimal effort of the wedge cutting the soil. 
Stepanova A.A. - Features of the legal regulation of harvesting wild plants as a type of entrepreneurial activity pp. 33-41


Abstract: In addition to timber harvesting, Russian laws also provide for other types of forest management that have a less harmful impact on forest ecosystems. The forests of our country have a high potential for wild forest resources. The demand for this type of product is growing every year. Berries and nuts exported from Russia have gained popularity in foreign markets. This industry is economically and socially significant, and its development will contribute to employment and income growth, regional development, and the creation of an organic market in our country. The legislator considers it necessary to develop and support entrepreneurs engaged in harvesting wild plants. But, to date, this industry is still poorly developed. This is facilitated by an insufficiently developed legislative framework that does not take into account the nuances of this industry, confusion in the powers of state authorities that are responsible for this area of business, the unavailability of state support measures for people engaged in harvesting non-wood forest resources, the complexity of assessing the potential of wild forest food and medicinal resources in the forest area, the complexity of legalizing activities for harvesting and processing wild plants, the lack of funds for deep processing of wild plants, as well as a number of environmental issues, economic and social factors. The article analyzes the problems that are an obstacle to the development of this branch of business in the harvesting of forest food resources and medicinal plants and suggests possible ways to solve them.
Serebriakova N., Surova E. - Classification of arboreal taxa for landscaping in Central Russia based on leaf coloristics pp. 50-58


Abstract: Color affects the psychological and physiological state of a person and is one of the powerful factors that form a comfortable visual environment. Currently, color-leaved taxa are actively offered by nurseries and are used in landscaping. At the same time, the color characteristics of taxa are very diverse, are quite subjective, which makes their selection and application difficult. The purpose of the work is to analyze and classify the modern varietal variety of the wood assortment for the middle part of Russia by the color of ripened leaf blades. The analysis was carried out according to descriptions and photographs presented in information sources and catalogues of nurseries. It has been established that the modern coloristic diversity of arboreal taxa is great, there are discrepancies in the description of foliage color, there is no classification. The classification of the colorist of taxa by visual perception, convenient from a practical point of view, has been developed, reduced to the main color groups: green, blue (silver), whitish, whitish-pink, yellow, purple. The peculiarity is that variegated taxa are included in these groups in accordance with their color perception: yellow-mottled and yellow–bordered taxa are classified as yellow, taxa with white inclusions and fringing are whitish, and so on. It can be recommended to nursery farms to apply the developed classification when selling planting material, landscape firms and gardeners when selecting and composing plant compositions.
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