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Economy of agriculture
Antonova D., Kozlov D. - Government support for the agricultural sector in terms of Russias WTO membership
pp. 1-6


Abstract: The research subject is Russia’s fulfilment of international obligations aimed at the restriction of government support for the agricultural sector in terms of WTO membership. According to the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, government support is divided into four types: the “amber” , the “green”, the “blue” and the “red” boxes. The main WTO’s principle in respect of these boxes holds that support measures should least of all distort trade and production. The research methodology is based on the statutory documents of Russia and the WTO and the general theory of micro- and macroeconomics. The scientific novelty of the study consists in legal and economical analysis of Russia’s fulfilment of obligations aimed at the reduction of government support for the agricultural sector. The results of the research help define the current problems and develop appropriate solutions. Particularly, the conclusions of the research help guarantee national food security, develop agricultural territories and raise profitability of the sector in whole.
Rozanova L.I. - Agricultural credit cooperation in the northern region near the state border: from formation to liquidation pp. 1-10


Abstract: The research subject is the process of formation and liquidation of the agricultural credit cooperation institution in the northern region near the state border. The topicality of this problem is determined by the difference between goal-setting and the goal achievement function in the formation of the institutional environment for effective functioning of cooperative crediting system in rural settlements of the distant northern region. The author considers the problems of development of agricultural credit cooperation, analyzes the mechanisms of government regulation and the reasons of institutional failures. Special attention is given to the issues of cooperatives’ relations with public structures coordinating their activities. The research methodology is based on the dialectical and materialistic approach, which explains the dialectical transformation of the process under study in its real development and improvement in time, and termination under the negative impact of the elements of the close environment of the institution of self-organization. The author explains the necessity to develop agricultural credit consumer cooperation as an institution, meeting the real socio-economic, territorial and geographical, and demographical conditions of the region, and the national interests. The author formulates the proposals about the transformation of the institutional environment for the development of rural cooperatives on the legislative level. 
Nikolaichuk O.A. - Agricultural sector of Russias economy: to be or not to be? pp. 1-10


Abstract: The research subject is the agricultural policy of the Soviet Union, Russia and foreign countries. The purpose of the research is to develop recommendations for the resolution of the crisis of the agricultural sphere of the economy. The research object is the types, methods and directions of agricultural policy in different periods of Soviet and contemporary Russia. The author elaborates on the peculiarities, drawbacks and mistakes of the agricultural policy of the state. Special attention is given to reindustrialization of the agricultural sphere. The author uses the method of moving from abstract to concrete and the system approach to analyze the types of agricultural policy of Russian for several years, reveals its shortcomings and mistakes and their impact on the agricultural sector of the economy. It helps formulate the solution to the current system crisis of the sector. The author reveals the reasons of distinguishing the agrarian sector as an independent direction, proves the impropriety of the chosen agricultural policy and offers the ways to improve the situation in the sector by means of reindustrialization. The results of the research can be used for the development of the directions of practical improvement of the agricultural policy of contemporary Russia and for teaching. A scientific novel as the analysis of the experience of the so-called mobilization policy and the policy of gentle regulation in the past of Russia and foreign countries. A practical novel is the analysis of the negative role of import of cheap and low-quality products and the urgent need for reindustrialization of the agricultural sphere. 
Solomennikov A.E., Sigaev S.I. - The influence of the external environment uncertainty factors and the technological characteristics of sausage manufacture on the sustainable development of the meat-processing industry in Russia pp. 1-14


Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze the influence of the external and internal factors on the sustainable development of the meat-processing industry in Russia, to establish their role, importance and the consequences of impact.  The authors describe such external environment uncertainty factors affecting the sustainable development of the meat-processing industry as the macroeconomic development - the crops cultivation as a food reserve for animal breeding, price fluctuation, including those for raw materials and food reserves for meat processing, meat market competition. Using the methods of logical, comparative and economic and statistical analysis, the authors study such an internal environment factor as the characteristics of sausage manufacture. The authors consider the formulation of the cooked sausage “Doktorskaya”, and analyze the food additives according to the state standards.  The authors conclude that the sustainable development of the meat-processing industry in Russia is based, on the one hand, on risk and uncertainty levelling which is possible under the condition of the appropriate taking account of the external environment factors and the effective evaluation criteria, and on the other hand - on the technological characteristics of sausage manufacture involving the improvement of the formulation and wide use of food additives.  
Popova O.V., Serebryakova A.A., Tsaregradskaya Y.K. - About State Support of Traditional Forms of Farming in Rural Areas pp. 1-8



Abstract: The authors ask questions: is it necessary to maintain traditional values in modern conditions? In particular, is it necessary to maintain family values, in conditions when the emancipation of women, modern technologies allow a man and a woman to be independent of each other not only economically, but even in such a process as the birth of children. Is it necessary to support traditional forms of management, including family work, peasant (farmer) farms, whereas it is obvious that currently agricultural industrial complexes have a significant competitive advantage over small businesses, labor productivity at large enterprises is higher than in small family business structures. Lawyers are removed from these problems or are removed themselves, reserving only the right to formalize the decisions made by politicians and economists, whereas human rights, both economic and social, national security and the life of future generations directly depend on the solution of these issues. In addition, the law has a set of legal means to ensure the implementation of the policy chosen by the state, including various ways of state support for priority social institutions and necessary types of economic activities for the sustainable development of the state and society, for those purposes that are recognized as socially useful. The authors come to the conclusion that state support of traditional values, traditional family, traditional forms of management should be carried out, offer options for presenting state support, its addressees and goals. However, the state's interference in the way of a particular family, household, family business should be strictly limited.
Ignat'eva I.A. - The Concept of "Green Economy" in Strategic Planning Documents pp. 1-13



Abstract: The article analyzes and systematizes the cases of using the concept of "green economy" in strategic planning documents at the federal and regional levels. The basis for understanding the "green" economy in Russian regulatory legal acts, which include strategic planning documents, are international-level agreements. Thematic reports of official international organizations are also of some importance. The main characteristics of the "green" economy made at the international level are emphasized: environmental taxation, energy efficiency improvement, reduction of consumption of natural resources, reduction of waste, use of renewable energy sources, development of a low-carbon economy, etc. The general context of understanding the "green" economy at the international level is also important. It is connected both with the concept of sustainable development and with the realization of the task of poverty eradication. In other words, the "green" economy should have a wide range of applications and involves a number of its manifestations. According to the Final Document of the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), the participating countries of the Conference only identified some contexts for understanding the "green" economy, and also formulated the main results to be obtained when implementing the tools of the "green" economy. It is established that the mention of the "green" economy in strategic planning documents occurs in two main aspects: firstly, as a modern attribute of regulation of environmental and natural resource activities, and exclusively in a positive sense; secondly, as a challenge and even a threat to the implementation of certain types of activities. When stating such opposite assessments of the importance of the development of the "green" economy for the Russian Federation, it is necessary to endow the concept of "green economy" with legally significant characteristics, signs and criteria. The general framework of such a definition is laid down at the level of international legal regulation, while specific directions should depend on the needs and conditions of the economy, social sphere and the state of the environment in the Russian Federation.
Samygin D.Y., Keleinikova S.V., Bulycheva Y.V. - Strategic horizons of regional agricultural economics development pp. 11-21


Abstract: The research subject is the strategy of agriculture development, which, on the one hand, has shown the new stage of development of regional agricultural economics, and on the other hand, hasn’t been methodologically substantiated in the fundamental aspects of planning. The problems of strategical goal-setting and formation of the documents for the development of the agricultural sector, their harmonization with resource base and mutual harmonization, haven’t been solved yet. The research is based on the elements of strategic analysis of effectiveness of state development programs for the sectors of economics, the methods of monographic examination and structural analysis of strategic development documents, comparative analysis of methodological and instrumental bases of prognostication support. The authors generalize and define the strategic horizons of agricultural sector, analyze the target values of regional agriculture development, reveal the problems of their methodological substantiation. The research results prove the necessity to modernize the instruments of agricultural economics strategic planning with account for its priority importance. The acquired results can help highlight the key points in the formation and implementation of the regional agriculture development at the present stage. 
Shed'ko Y.N. - Sustainable use of land in the interests of counternarcotics pp. 11-17


Abstract: The research subject is sustainable use of land in the Russian Federation. The author enumerates the components of sustainable use of land and analyzes use of land in the Russian Federation in the interests of counternarcotics. The author finds out that the narco-situation is affected by the availability of plant materials for drugs production, particularly, wild hemp. The author notes that the increase of wild cannabis distribution area is caused by the mistakes of use of land, primarily, non-exploitation of farmland. The author shows that most registered offences are caused by the breach of the established requirements and compulsory measures for land improvement and protection. The research methods include the monographic method, descriptive analysis, analysis and synthesis, moving from abstract to concrete, the logical method and statistical analysis. The author concludes that defining the essence of sustainable use of land can help solve the problems of environmental degradation, the improvement of the ecological condition of land. Sustainable use of land is an important factor affecting drug addiction as a socially and criminally dangerous phenomenon, which has become a global threat. The narco-situation is affected by the availability of raw materials for drug production, therefore, in order to reduce drug supply, it is necessary to increase the area of the used land. 
Baryshnikov N.G., Samygin D.Y., Divnenko Z.A. - Search for a new model of strategic development of the agroindustrial sector pp. 19-26


Abstract: A crucially new socioeconomic situation which does not fit the framework of the current national agrarian policy has establishes in Russia’s agricultural sphere. Under the conditions of the external economic challenges and restrictions, the questions of the food independence of the country became more critical, and the problems of its provision remained unresolved. This causes the need for drastic reforms in the approaches towards the establishment and implementation of the agroinsdustrial policy, as well as requires radical renovations of the instrumental base of planning and forecasting of the strategic development of agricultural economics and the search for a new model of functioning of the agroindustrial sector. The subject of this research became the modern agroindustrial policy of the region. Generalizing the modern norms of legislative field, it is demonstrated that the efficient vector of reformations in agricultural policy within the framework of strategic planning becomes the project management, which can bring the quality changes into the agroindustrial sphere. At the same time, the authors substantiate that it is necessary to set course for the formation and realization of the projects in each region based on the climate specificities, agricultural potential, and competitive advantages of the manufacturers.
Lebedeva T.S. - Improving the Efficiency of State Support for Agricultural Producers: Legal Issues pp. 21-29



Abstract: The article discusses the measures of state support for agricultural producers, among which a special place is occupied by subsidies provided in various areas. Based on the analysis of judicial practice, the difficulties of a legal nature that farmers, agricultural organizations, agricultural consumer cooperatives face when receiving such support are revealed. Firstly, regional legislation provides for the return of a subsidy not only because of its misuse, but also in case of violation of related obligations that have an indirect impact on the creation and functioning of agricultural producers (violation of the terms of spending, provision of false information when receiving a grant, etc.). It is proposed in the regional regulatory legal acts for non-compliance with the obligations associated with the intended use that arise in connection with the receipt of a subsidy by an agricultural producer, to replace such a measure of responsibility as the return of grant funds for penalties. Secondly, in the event of an unlawful refusal of the regional Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation to issue a subsidy. It is proposed to recognize such a subsidy as a loss in the form of lost profits in order to recover it in a civil law order and to make appropriate changes to Art. 78 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation. The solution of the identified problems will contribute to the development of sectors and sub-sectors of agriculture, will positively affect the food security of the Russian Federation.
El'nikova E.V. - Legal Problems of Fulfillment of Conditions for Granting Subsidies (Grants) to Agricultural Producers pp. 30-38



Abstract: The article notes that some conditions for granting grants to agricultural producers initially contain significant risks of their non-fulfillment and, as a consequence, the onset of liability in the form of the obligation to return the funds received in full. In other cases, regional regulatory legal acts expand the list of conditions for granting grants in the form of subsidies without proper justification, which creates additional problems in the process of their use by grantees. In order to ensure the most effective legal regulation of relations in connection with the provision of budgetary funds to agricultural producers, the author proposes to qualify agreements on the provision of subsidies (grants) as a civil contract, which will make it possible to apply civil liability measures, general provisions on contracts and obligations, including the grounds for termination of obligations, ways to ensure and fulfill them, as well as the norms of hereditary legislation. Qualification of the agreement on the provision of subsidies (grants) as a civil contract, it would allow for a more relevant legal regulation of relations in connection with the provision of budgetary funds to agricultural producers due to the possibility of changing the agreement in question by concluding additional agreements, applying civil liability measures, general provisions on contracts and obligations, including the grounds for termination of obligations, ways to ensure and fulfill them, and also the norms of hereditary legislation.
Kolesnikova T., Naumova T., Smolennikova L. - Labor productivity as a factor of sustainable development of agricultural enterprises pp. 36-49


Abstract: In modern conditions of industrial and economic activity, the problem of labor productivity research and identification of reserves for its growth is acute. Labor productivity analysis allows you to assess the degree of labor organization, detect problems and develop methods to eliminate them. The purpose of the work is to study the indicators of labor productivity assessment and develop measures to improve the labor efficiency of employees of an agricultural organization. Recently, for the successful conduct of the production and economic activities of the enterprise, the issue of the working time spent on performing a certain type of work and the possible loss of profit from its irrational use is acute. It is proposed to eliminate the identified problems by introducing into the production cycle an automatic solution unit of the RIA NWR for the preparation of ready-made working solutions of mineral fertilizers and plant protection products. The introduction of this mortar unit will reduce the costs of production processes that cause the loss of part of the profit due to the irrational use of working time. The practical significance of the study is due to the fact that theoretical and practical recommendations can be used by specialists of agricultural organizations in order to increase the efficiency of the use of labor resources.
Chupina I.P., Simachkova N.N. - Digital agriculture as a basis of agriculture-based economy in the modern world pp. 43-48


Abstract: Agriculture solves the general tasks of its functioning, which are more focused on the implementation of three areas of activity, which include guaranteed food security in terms of the production of high-quality agricultural products, raw materials and food produced by domestic agricultural producers in volumes corresponding to medical indicators. It is also a decrease in the volume of import substitution of seeds in crop production and breeding material in animal husbandry and poultry farming, as well as imported equipment for the organization of food and processing products, veterinary drugs and other important needs for the agro-industrial complex. And the third direction includes the sustainable development of exports of agricultural and agro-industrial products to the global agri-food market. These tasks cannot be successfully solved in the conditions of using the existing outdated agricultural technologies, machinery and equipment. In order to improve these functions of agriculture, the digital platform "Digital Agriculture" was developed, which is an information database of a fairly large size about the resources of the agro-industrial complex. Digitalization, creating conditions for the development of "smart agriculture", affects the progress in agricultural relations. With the help of new technologies, the work of farmers will gradually move from manual, which requires great physical effort, to automated. With the help of drones and other drones, it will be possible to determine the structure of soils for planting certain crops.
Koptelova T.I. - The Organic Methodology of Sustainable Development of Rural Territories (Based on the Example of the Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy) pp. 83-94


Abstract: This research article is devoted to sustainable development of rural territories based on the example of the Nizhny Novgorod state agricultural academy with application of organic methodology. The possibilities of agrarian higher education institutions which are capable to offer the integrated approach which is harmoniously combining the theory and practice, synthesis of natural-science and humanitarian knowledge in the solution of problems of sustainable development of rural territories are considered. Experience of the Nizhny Novgorod state agricultural academy in implementation of the latest projects directed to preservation of the population of rural territories and involvement of youth in agrarian and industrial complex of Russia is analyzed. The question of preservation and development of complex knowledge of the organization of agricultural activity in the local territory is considered. In this connection formation of "traditional and innovative" model of agriculture of future Russia combining the latest technologies with centuries-old traditions of the organization of economic life of rural territories is offered. To analyze the sustainable development of rural territories, the author uses the methods from organic philosophy as well as typlogical and comparative analysis, synthesis and historico-philosophical reconstruction. The method of historico-philosophical reconstruction allows to view sustainable development from the point of view of the background of problem and various interpretations of it. The comparative analysis allows to compare different intellectual traditions and philosophical paradigms used in the analysis of sustainable development of rural territories (transnational and ethnic economic models). The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author applies the organic philosophy methodology to ensuring sustainble development of Russia's rurl territories (based on the example of the Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy). The organic philosophy paradigm brings forth the need in creative adaptation for robust econmic activity. Creativity brings spontaneity and plasticity into economy that contributes to sustainble development of all spheres of social life. Sustainable development of rural territories is an integral phenomenon which interpretation requires a complex approach that would take into account the singularity of ethnic economic models. 
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