Agriculture - rubric History of agriculture
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History of agriculture
Kuzina N.V., Kuzina L.B. - Accounting for historical cultural-economic types on the territory of the Russian Federation within the systems of upbringing and inclusion of children and teenagers into work practices pp. 1-18


Abstract: The subject of this research is the possibility of children and teenagers socialization by means of consideration of the traditional historical practices of agricultural labor in accordance with the traditional employment of the population and the economic-cultural types on the territory of the Russian Federation taking into account the agricultural and climatic conditions. The authors examine the types of agricultural activity (depending on the established on the territory of the cultural area of preferences due to the dominating type of soils, crop species, and animals), in which a child or a teenager was included in these territories in the past, as well as the methods by means of which the established systems of upbringing aimed at survival and socialization can help revitalize the Russian agriculture and raise a healthy generation. The author conduct the analysis of the works of ethnoecologists, ethnographers, and archeologists who studied the agricultural activity of the tribes and nations living on the territory of the Russian Federation in the areas depending on the type of soils and climate. As the result of the performed historical-ethnographical research focusing on the archeological and cross-cultural examinations, it is suggested to popularize the traditional forms of economies and  natural resource management from the early preschool age to the age of maturity, for the purpose of its use for the revival of agriculture and elevation of the status of employment of the young generation in agricultural production.


Abstract: The article analyzes approaches to understanding the role of the peasantry as the basis of the Russian nation and culture and a special social community. The ideas of M. M. Kovalevsky, S. N. Yuzhakov, P. A. Sorokin, A.V. Chayanov and T. Shanin are presented. The conclusion is made about the relevance and methodological value of the approaches of representatives of Russian sociology to this issue. The article states that today, among the priority areas of agricultural sociology, the most popular is the study of family farming as a subject of the informal economy sector of the production of environmentally friendly products for the population interested in the development of bio-agriculture and innovative food networks that reduce the distance between food producers and consumers. It is this urgency of the problem that makes peasant studies the most promising direction of agrarian sociology. Taking into account the practical significance of this problem, relying on methodological approaches and developments of domestic and foreign sociologists, the research group of the Ural Agrarian University, based on the network interaction of universities of the Ural region and India, developed a program of initiative cross-cultural sociological research on the topic "Culture of farm labor", the purpose of which is to analyze the value bases of economic behavior of representatives of this social group for designing an effective agricultural policy.
Sevostyanova E. - Agricultural unions of Eastern Siberia in the late 19th - the early 20th century: the main forms of out-of-school education and the channels of popularization of agricultural knowledge
pp. 14-33


Abstract: The research object is agricultural unions formed in Eastern Siberia in the late 19th - the early 20th century. The research subject is reflected in the title of the article. The purpose of the research is to define the forms of agricultural education and the channels of popularization of agricultural knowledge among the broad public. To achieve this goal, the author analyzes, based on the dynamics of agricultural unions formation, the initiation and dynamics of the change of the main directions of work and the extent to which the forms of education corresponded to the aspirations of the authorities, the demands of the progressive public, and the practical needs of rural population. Generally, the work of East-Siberian agricultural unions was definitely less active than the work of the unions of the European part of Russia. That could be explained by the lack of educated employees, the difficulty of using the new agricultural approaches in risk farming areas, and the low literacy rate of the rural population. However, in the first decade of the 20th century, the work of agricultural unions became more active, which was determined, among other things, by the change of the authorities’ attitude and the channels of popularization of agricultural knowledge: exhibitions and public lectures were organized, libraries were founded, and books and magazines were sent out. The ways of rational farm management were popularized via special newspapers and agricultural magazines. Before and during the World War I the agricultural unions of Irkutsk province and Transbaikal started actively creating the branches in rural areas. Agricultural unions created the atmosphere of public interest, broadened and clarified the ideas of society about the needs of Siberian villages.   


Abstract: The article considers the model of development of agricultural enterprises in Russia, proposed by the outstanding agricultural economist A.V. Chayanov. The authors demonstrate the relevance of A.V. Chayanov's ideas for solving modern problems of import substitution and ensuring food security facing domestic agriculture. It is argued that today the socio-economic model of agricultural enterprises in Russia, developed by A.V. Chayanov in the 1920s-1930s, is still extremely relevant and in demand. According to Chayanov, the core of such the model is a family labor-based peasant farm. The authors claim that A.V. Chayanov used a large factual material to prove that the way to increase the efficiency and innovative development of agriculture in Russia lies through the increase and strengthening of farms, their support at the government level, as well as their association into production and consumer cooperatives. A.V. Chayanov strongly opposed the nationalization of agricultural cooperatives, he warned that the state could not directly manage agricultural production. The state can and should create favorable conditions for the development of family labor-based peasant farms and agricultural cooperatives: improve the regulatory framework for agricultural activities, create social infrastructure in rural areas, regulate the taxation of peasant farms and agricultural cooperatives, regulate social and labor relations in agricultural production, implement targeted subsidies in lean years or in the event of emergency circumstances.
Bogolyubov S.A. - Studies of problems of agrarian law (based on the works of O.L. Dubovik and other professors) pp. 22-31



Abstract: The state and development of the socio-economic situation in the country depends on various factors, including scientific support, qualified preparation and implementation of legislative acts. The interdisciplinary approach to the theoretical consideration of the problems of agrarian, land, environmental, international and other branches of law, conducting comparative legal studies of Russian legislation and legislation of foreign countries, supranational entities bring success. The logic and versatility of studying trends in changes in legal life, the timeliness and adequacy of responding to them are conditioned by studies of constitutional, civil, administrative, criminal, and other rules, norms and principles that make up a complex, integrating a variety of legal institutions and categories of agrarian legislation. It has its own subject, specific methods of regulation, a coherent set of regulatory legal acts. The interaction of legal science and legal realization in the field of ensuring food security and independence of the country is achieved by discussing and trying to solve emerging issues of a tactical and strategic nature at international and All-Russian scientific and practical conferences that receive rapid application, implementation, and operational reflection in the media. In different periods of the development of the agroindustrial complex, the most pressing problems of legal regulation were put forward for consideration - the delimitation and protection of property rights, the organization and improvement of the efficiency of agricultural production, affordable forms of land management and registration of real estate, administrative and criminal legal means of ensuring freedom of economic activity not prohibited by law. For half a century, topical theoretical and legal and applied problems in the field of agrarian, land, environmental law have been considered by O.L. Dubovik, Doctor of Law, Professor of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences. She is known for numerous in-depth consistent developments of lawmaking, mechanisms of law enforcement, effectiveness of law enforcement, prevention and suppression of corruption, crimes, and other offenses.
Bogolyubov S.A. - M.I. Kozyr's Agrarian Law Ideas are Confirmed pp. 34-41



Abstract: The works and activities of M.I. Kozyr, Doctor of Law, Professor, remain in the history of agrarian, land, and environmental law. Mikhail Kozyr's initiative, energy, organizational abilities were manifested in creative scientific and practical searches, numerous articles, textbooks, comments on laws, making legislative proposals, trips with scientific landings to republics, territories and regions of the USSR, on foreign business trips, participation in Italian and European agrarian unions. He appreciated, developed, promoted and taught collective farm agricultural agrarian law; developed new approaches to the legal provision of food security in Russia, clarifying the subject and methods, improving the quality of acts of agrarian law, implementing the norms of civil, administrative, land legislation in the legal institutions of agrarian law. M.I. Kozyr sought the restoration of agrarian law as a teaching discipline in law higher educational institutions. Currently, the ideas of M.I. Kozyr are recognized in the Russian legal, agrarian community: agriculture is included in paragraph "d" of Article 72 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation on the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and it's subjects ; agriculture is included in the nomenclature of scientific specialties for the defense of dissertations; the multi-vector nature and importance of studying legal issues of agriculture, justification of ways to improve efficiency of legal regulation of economic activity in the agricultural sector of the economy. The professor's followers and students continue to provide scientific and legal support for the development of agriculture in Russia.
Pyltcina M. - Agricultural Institutions in the Countries of Western Europe in the XIX Century: Dialogue between the State and Society pp. 77-82


Abstract: The subject of the study is the formation and further development in Western European countries of central agrarian departments and amateur social organizations of the agrarian type, their interaction in resolving national agricultural problems. The author notes that the aggravated problems in the agrarian sector of the economy in the XIX century necessitated the establishment of a constructive dialogue between the authorities and civil society. Subjects of agrarian activity are considered in the example of Prussia, Austria and France, and their organizational and legal status is described.In the course of the research, historical and comparative methods were used, which allowed an analysis of the current agricultural management system in Western European countries.It is emphasized that the modernization of the agrarian sphere in the countries under consideration has contributed to strengthening the institutions of civil society. It is concluded that the Russian government has widely borrowed the agricultural experience of the countries of Western Europe in carrying out a national agrarian policy, oriented to cooperation and coherence of actions of state and public agricultural institutions.
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