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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 06/2018
Contents of Issue № 06/2018
Psychology and pedagogics
Khrisanova E.V. - Peculiarities of Cognitive and Socio-Psychological Development of Preschoolers with Different Statuses in Kindergarten Senior Groups pp. 1-13


Abstract: The aim of the article is to study individual features of the development of children with high, middle and low status in kindergarten senior groups. To achieve the goals of the research, the author of the article have solved the following tasks: theoretical analysis of associated literature in order to substantiate the theoretical approach to the research; development of the framework of concepts and methods that reveals peculiarities of cognitive development and anxiety level of preschoolers with different statuses within the group; and analysis and interpretation of the results. The research involved eight kindergarten senior groups of the Moscow district. The total number of respondents is 159 children aged 6-7 years. The researcher has applied different groupds of methods: theoretical analysis of social and psychological sources on the matter; experimental methods to define specific features of cognitive development and anxiety level of preschoolers with different status in kindergarten senior groups; and methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis of empirical data including mathematical statistics methods. The researcher has discovered the relationshp between the level of a child's cognitive development and their status and role position in an informal intragroup structure of the kindergarten senior group. The results of the empirical research demonstrate that over 50% of children have a high intragroup status. The level of cognitive development of low-status children is considerably lower than that of high-status and mid-status children. The majority of children who attend kindergarten senior groups have a high or increased anxiety level. The researcher also gives an interpretative analysis of the aforesaid phenomenon from the point of view of the psychosocial development theory. 
Тело и телесность
Pogontseva D.V. - The Role of Age in Evaluation of Appearance pp. 14-20


Abstract: The subject of the research is the phenomena of ageism and lookism. The researcher analyzes the role of age in evaluation of one's appearance of attractive or non-attractive. She performs a theoretical analysis of researches devoted to grading one's appearance as beautiful and as well as the role of one's age in developing his or her views on success, health and beauty. Pogontseva focuses on the 'young age-health-beauty' triad as the key moment of assessing the other. Thus, the aim of the research is to analyze peculiarities of assessing someone else's appearance and ageism manifestations demonstrated by young women. For this purpose, the author has developed a set of 15 black-and-white photos (portraits) of women of different age (from 18 to 60 years old). Respondents were to evaluate these portraits depending on a number of criteria including those that say how beautiful, happy, successful in profession or personal life a girl on a photo is, and approximately how old she is. The review involved 30 young women from 18 to 25 years old (the mean age is 22). The results of the research demonstrate that the age of a girl on a photo does not affect attribution of certain qualities to her (the phenomenon of ageism), however, there are certain tendences towards it. In conclusion, the author emphasizes the need in further research, for example, she underlines that it is necessary to involve more respondents of different ages. It is also important to include men in the research, both male respondents and male photos. 
Question at hand
Serikov G.V. - Attractive Appearance as an Instrumental Value and its Importance Among Young People pp. 21-31


Abstract: In his article Serikov underlines the growing importance of researches on the perception of human appearance, raises a question about the importance of attractive appearance as a value, analyzes a number of socio-psychological and sociological researches of values and value orientations of modern young people and emphasizes that this is the value that Russian researchers haven't analyzed yet unlike Western researchers. The article provides the results of empirical research that studies the importance of attractive appearance as an instrumental value to achieve terminal life values of a universal nature. The research involved 140 students of the Southern Federal University (psychologies and philologies) aged 18 - 22 years. The diagnostics include such tests as the Appearance Importance Inventory (modified version of Rokeach Value Service). The Inventory has all terminal values but only one instrumental value which as attractive appearance. The research results demonstrate that as it is perceived by young men and women, attractive appearance may be an important factor that allows to achieve terminal values, however, the importance of this value is different for various values which allows to create the hierarchy. Respondents perceive attractive appearance as what may allow achieve such values as self-confidence, love, interesting job, social acceptance, health, well-being, success and happy family life. Attractive appearance is least important for the achievement of such values as happiness of others, creativity, wisdom and beauty of nature and art. 
Clinical psychology
Tudupova T.T., Batueva N.G., Parfent'eva T.A. - Child-Parent Relationship and Negative Emotional States as the Factors of Suicidal Behavior of Teenagers pp. 32-40


Abstract: The subject of the research is the child-parent relationships and negative emotional states of adolescents, in particular, their effect on suicidal risks. The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as family dysfunctions and anxiety, hopelessness and depression. The research involved teenagers (average age was 15 years). Anxiety, depression, and hopelessness combined with family dysfunctions are psychological risk factors and an internal irritant to induce suicidal behavior. The growth of both suicidal attempts and completed suicides among children and adolescents requires research in the theoretical and applied aspects. The following tests were used: “Child-parent relationship of adolescents” by O.A. Karabanova and P.V. Troyanovskaya, “The Anxiety Scale” by A. Beck, “The Hopelessness Scale” by A. Beck, and “The Scale of Depression” by A. Beck as well as methods of mathematical statistics. It is shown that suicidal risk is a complex multidimensional phenomenon,which to a certain extent is associated with such psychological factors as the emotional sphere of the adolescent's personality, negative emotional states, specifics of their relationships with the parents. The relation beteen the child-parent relationship and his or her parents and negative emotional states in adolescents has been determined. The influence of family dysfunctions on suicidal risks has been revealed which is reflected in the high level of anxiety, depression and hopelessness detected in adolescents.
Тело и телесность
Berezina T.N., Chumakova E.A. - Personal Types of Retired People with Cardiovascular Diseases pp. 41-48


Abstract: The subject of the research is the distribution of psycho-types of patients with cardiovascular diseases. The object of the research are individuals of retirement age. The research involved 100 people who have been registered in the city clinic for cardiac disease. The comparison group consists of individuals with cancer. The vegetative-behavioral, temperamental and emotional personality types of pensioners were studied. The author pays special attention to the distribution of patients according to the types of the emotional sphere of unconscious and self-estimated levels. Diagnostics of personality types are carried out with the help of the following tests: Strelau, Rusalov as well as original questionnaires. To assess the reliability of differences between distributions, the statistical χ2 criterion is used. It is shown that there are differences in distribution by type for the temperamental level, and at the trend level for the vegetative behavioral. It is suggested to consider personal types as an additional variable; the belonging of a person to a certain personality type under certain conditions will increase the risk of the disease, while at others decrease. The direction for further research has been determined: identification of the risk conditions for cardiac diseases and conditions for the restoration of health for each personality type. 
Societal passions
Plavinskaya J.B. - Psychological Aspects of the Development of Anti-Corruption Personality Orientation pp. 49-61


Abstract: The subject of the research is the definition of anti-corruption personality orientation as well as problems that may arise in the process of the development of such personality under the conditions of today's Russian society. The aim of the research is to develop a theoretically based definition of anti-corruption personality orientation and to analyze associated issues. The analysis of psychological aspects of the development of anti-corruption personality orientation will allow to develop efficient technologies of corruption prevention using psychological and socio-psychological technologies and methods. The research methods included theoretical methods such as dialectical research, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and specificiation, and empirical methosd such as analysis of the literature on the matter, analysis and summary of international experience in corruption prevention. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author offers a new definition of anti-corruption personality orientation based on the use of theoretical concepts of general psychology and personality psychology. The researcher analyses the needs of a modern Russian citizen based on Maslow's classification and discovers objective obstacles that prevent the development of anti-corruption personality orientation. The main results of the research are the following: there are a lot of definitions in the academic literature that describe this psychological phenomenon. The author of the article offers her own definition of anti-corruption personality orientation. It has been established that the social environment that exists today in Russia is a psychological factor that impedes the formation of the anti-corruption orientation of the individual. The author makes the assumption that the effectiveness of the activities on the formation of the anti-corruption orientation of the personality of a citizen of the Russian Federation will increase if anti-corruption education and upbringing are combined with the process of improving legislation and state social policy aimed at improving the living standards of the population.
Question at hand
Ovrutskiy A.V. - Compulsive Consumption in Psychology and Economics: Differentiation Betweeen Approaches and Their Integration Within the Framework of Economic Psychology pp. 62-79


Abstract: In his article Ovrutsky describes and analyses two approaches to compulsive consumption: psychological and economical (marketing-based). The researcher compares these two approaches based on the following parameters: description of the phenomenon, the nature of impulse, determinants, effects, consumption actors, evaluation, consequence, correlation, specific phenomena and corrective measures. The determinants of impulsive consumption within the framework of the psychological approach are as follows: 1. the consumer's personal dispositions, 2. affective patterns and 3. cognitive conditions that promote or inhibit the manifestation of impulsive behavior. The second feature of the psychological approach is the nosological context of the perception of the phenomenon (explicit or latent). Psychological scale of impulsive consumption: impulsive purchases - compulsive purchases - oniomania. The marketing approach is based on three axioms: 1. Compulsive buying is an unplanned purchase; 2. Compulsive consumption is largely determined by external factors and acts as a product of management of the marketing communications system; 3. Compulsive consumption is a positive form of social activity. The specific phenomena of compulsive consumption in marketing concepts are: label switching, lifestyle, and creative consumption. It is shown that the psychological approach focuses on the internal determinants of behavior, while the economical approach is based on the external determinants. In psychology, compulsive consumption is regarded as irrational, in marketing it is interpreted as rational. Thus, the researcher has considered the economical and psychological approach to compulsive consumption as integrative. Such integration should follow the path of disclosing the mechanisms of interaction between psychological and economical factors in describing and explaining compulsive consumption.
Inner world
Gvozdeva D.I. - The Relationship Between Components of Romantic Affection to a Partner and Actual Needs and Personality Traits of Men and Women pp. 80-87


Abstract: The subject of the research is the components of romantic affectino to a partner and actual needs and personality traits of men and women. The object of the research is the romantic affection of men and women to a partner. The research involved 70 men and women aged 20 - 25 years who had romantic affection at the moment of the research. The article establishes the characteristic for men and women components of romantic attachment to a partner, and also reveals their relationship with actual needs and personality traits. The differences in the established relationships are analyzed. The study was conducted using test methods and statistical data processing. The author has also used Friedman's X2 criterion, Wilcoxon T-criterion and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. As a result of processing the research data, it was shown that the dominance of the same component of romantic attachment in men and women is associated with different actual needs; that women, unlike men, are prone to psychological "accretion" with a partner; that the dissatisfaction of social needs in both men and women leads to increased autonomy in romantic relationships, and their satisfaction to emotional closeness. The novelty of the research consists in establishing the conditionality of the peculiarities of the romantic affection of the partners by their actual needs; in establishing personality traits characteristic of men and women with certain features of romantic affection. The research results can be used in the work of psychological services that provide counseling support to citizens on personal and family life.
Psychology and pedagogics
Alperovich V., Kolod'ko V.A. - The Relationship Between the Level of Marriage Contentment, the Images of 'Friend' and 'Allien' and Marriage Partner at the Stage of Early Maturity pp. 88-101


Abstract: The research presented in this article is devoted to the problem of the influence of the ideas of a person about other people on satisfaction with marriage. The purpose of the pilot empirical research was to establish the relationship between the images of "friendly" and "alien-lie" communication partners, marriage partner and satisfaction with marriage. The subject of the pilot empirical research: the level of satisfaction with marriage, the image of the marriage partner, the image of "his" person, the image of "alien" person. The results of the study can be applied in family psychology, family counseling. The following methods were used: testing, scaling, methods of mathematical data processing (Kruskal-Wallis criterion, Pearson correlation analysis, Spearman correlation analysis). For the first time, relationships of satisfaction with marriage, images of "friendly" person, "alien" person and marriage partner have been established. For the first time it has been shown that the image of a marriage partner as “friendly” person endowed with positive social and psychological properties is associated with high satisfaction with marriage. The image of an “alien” person is endowed with respondents who are satisfied with marriage, negative external, personal and socio-psychological properties. It was concluded that the image of "friendly" person is idealized, and the image of the marriage partner is realistic.
Developmental psychology
Bozhenkova K.A., Bokhan T.G. - Openness of the Psychological System as the Factor of Life Quality in Terms of Gerontological Violence Problems pp. 102-116


Abstract: The aim of the research to identify the relationship of indicators of openness / closeness of the psychological system with indicators of the quality of life in the elderly with the experience of gerontological violence. Special attention is paid to identifying the indicators of openness / closeness of the psychological system as a mediator factor in the quality of life in people with experience of gerontological violence. The authors assume that the experience of various types of gerontological violence may be associated with a deterioration in the quality of life of older people, where the indicator of openness / closeness of the psychological system can act as a mediating factor. The following diagnostic tools were used: a questionnaire aimed at studying the psychological content of experiencing gerontological violence; questionnaire degree of openness / closeness of the psychological system adapted for the research task; questionnaire quality of life SF-36. Research methodology: system approach in psychology, system anthropological psychology, trans-perspective analysis. The total number of respondents was 277 people aged 55 to 85 years. Based on the obtained empirical data, three types of persons with the experience of gerontological violence can be distinguished, where the nature and degree of openness of the psychological system is connected with the possibilities of coping with the experience of gerontological violence and the quality of life of the elderly. The obtained types of closedness / openness of the psychological system can be included in the targets of differentiated psychological prevention of gerontological violence and crisis psychological assistance of the elderly people. 
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