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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Sociodynamics" > Rubric "Anthropology and ethnogenesis"
Anthropology and ethnogenesis
Kirillova A.I. - Cultural Interaction: Integration, Assimilation and the Educational Role of Society pp. 53-152


Abstract: In this article the authors differentiate inclusion of migrants into the social structure (integration) and culture (assimilation) of the host society. The authors described social characteristics of migrants with different levels of integration and assimilation and showed the contradictory nature of the process of integration of migrants from Central Asia in Russia. The article also discusses the role of religion and education in solving the problem of inter-ethnic interaction.  
Kistova A.V. - Formation of a Communicative (Interpretative) Ethnographic Method in Modern Social Knowledge pp. 62-72


Abstract: The subject under research is the value of an ethnographic method in modern social knowledge. The ethnographic method undergoes big changes in social knowledge of the second half of the XX century - the first third of the XXI century under the influence of a hermeneutics, linguistic researches, philosophy of a postmodern, cultural anthropology. Article has survey character and considers formation of a communicative ethnographic method which conceptual basis was interpretive Clifford Geertz' cultural science. Distinction in determination of ethnocultural and national identity that is obviously important for modern Russian intellectual discussions was an important object of research. The main method - the critical analysis of scientific sources on a research subject. Elements of philosophical logic for formation of definitions of ethnocultural identity and national identity were used. Ethnocultural identity can be defined as understanding of the belonging to a certain ethnic group. It is based on acceptance of a community of an origin, ethnic values and symbols, traditions and customs, continuity of generations. Formation of ethnocultural identity happens in the course of life experience of the individual as this life experience is carried out in the context of ethnocultural symbols and traditions. Thus, according to modern researchers, ethnic identity can be a basis for feeling of participation to compatriots and provides communication of different social groups in one country. National identity can be defined as awareness of participation in the multinational multiethnic state. Here identification happens in more difficult way on the basis of several various cultural identichnost: ethnic, confessional, social, political, individual, etc. However modern researchers mark out ethnic identity as the most significant base for formation of national identity in which various ethnic identity are built in hierarchical system in relation to the so-called core and the periphery.
Libakova N.M., . - Methodology of Applied Ethnological Researches Carried Out in the Nothern Territories of Russia: Advantages of Expert's Interview pp. 67-86


Abstract: Object of the present research article is to study the modern methodology of applied ethnological researches of northern territories of the Russian Federation. In northern and Arctic territories of the Russian Federation live the indigenous small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East. The processes connected about formation of positive Russian identity in modern conditions belong to questions of regional security, including globalization and modernization processes also. Authors of article carried out a number of field researches in the Evenki municipal area, the Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets municipal area. Here live the indigenous small people of Krasnoyarsk Krai - Evenks, Nenets, Evens, Nganasans, Chulyms, Selkups, Kets. Research method is the data processing of the field researches which have been carried out by authors of article in northern territories of Krasnoyarsk Krai. The special attention is paid to a method of expert interview which is the most actual if field researches have rather small terms of carrying out. Scientific novelty of research is connected with approbation of a method of expert interviews in northern and Arctic territories of the Russian Federation where compactly live the indigenous small people of Krasnoyarsk Krai. Authors to become approved a technique of expert interviews for the representatives of indigenous people belonging by the nature of professional activity to managers, teachers, the creative intellectuals, to reindeer breeders, fishers, hunters. Participation of students and graduate students in applied ethnological researches allows to solve a problem of preparation of highly qualified personnel for the Siberian regions.
Krivonogov V.P. - On the Question about Ethnic Identity of Dolgans pp. 73-107


Abstract: Object of research is the language processes and ethnic consciousness of Dolgans. Informal ethnonyms, official ethnonyms depending on age, official ethnonyms depending on knowledge of the Dolgan language, extent of acquaintance to subethnic division, a language choice as native in different age groups, the main spoken language in various age groups, extent of knowledge of various languages of the region at Dolgans and other processes opening dynamics of ethnic consciousness are investigated. The ethnic consciousness of Dolgans is characterized by the withdrawal from closely related Yakuts and definition of as special independent ethnic unit. However along with the main ethnonym of "dolgan" in the senior generation also other ethnonyms – "Sakha", "tya", "haka" are used. As a part of the Dolgan ethnos remains some ethnoterritorial groups having features in language and culture. The main method - field researches in places of compact accommodation of Dolgans, polls, processing of statistical data, drawing up tables, comparison of the obtained data, interpretation of results. Scientific novelty of research is connected with identification of the factors influencing language processes of Dolgans specifics of these processes are opened, the main tendencies of preservation and use of the Dolgan language are revealed.For language processes the beginning of the language assimilation especially noticeable in children's age group is characteristic. In the territorial plan language assimilation is more strongly shown in the western part of Taimyr, in the east of the peninsula a situation safe. Now a little more than a half of Dolgans are fluent in the Dolgan language.
Reznikova K.V. - On the Question about Clarifying the Terms 'Ethnos' and 'Ethnicity' pp. 90-102


Abstract: The subject of the research is the discussion of the terms 'ethnos' and 'ethnicity' that was typical for social sciences in the XXth - XXIst centuries. Today the significance of ethnic affiliation is growing. For the Russian ethnology transformation from concepts of a primordializm to theories of social designing of ethnicity is characteristic a certain sort. Besides, now there are theories synthesizing both a primordializm, and social constructivism. The author analyzes the most interesting points of view and comes to a conclusion about a demand of social designing of modern Russian positive ethnicity. The methodology of research is connected with the critical analysis of classical and modern theories of ethnos and ethnicity. The categorial analysis of these concepts is carried out, historical forms of theories of ethnos reveal. The main conclusions of the conducted research are provisions that the existing invariants of understanding of ethnos can be divided into two main groups. 1) The ethnos is understood as the community separating itself from others on the basis of certain real-life signs. 2) The ethnos is understood as "an intellectual design". The first of two points of view is earlier on the origin and gradually losing the positions under the influence of the constructivism paradigm prevailing now. The second point of view looks more productive, it assigns its constructive nature to ethnos, allows to understand ethnos as mobile structure at which definition important are not any signs, but ideas of these signs.
Reznikova K.V. - Ethnicity as Category of social knowledge pp. 101-111


Abstract: Object of research - modern theories of ethnicity. The category of "ethnicity" is used in some social sciences: philosophy, sociology, social (cultural) anthropology. The author examines in more detail the concept primordialism and social constructivism, as these two concepts lie at the base of the vast majority of theoretical studies of ethnic issues. The article considers the variety primordialism and social constructivism, given the author's assessment of the prospects of social konstruktivizima in ethnic studies, as most modern scholars consider ethnicity as a construct. The main method of research - a critical analysis of modern research and socio-philosophical literature. Applicable categorical analysis "ethnicity". Scientific novelty of research is related to the classification of existing theories of ethnicity, with an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the two main approaches to the construction of a theory of ethnicity - primordialism and social constructivism. The author supports the trend in contemporary social research ethnos that are associated with the use of theoretical and methodological approaches in the context of social constructivism.
Bobkov A.I., Karmadonov O.A. - Religious experience as the funding beginning of ethnic subjectivity pp. 101-117


Abstract: The object of this research is the modern philosophical discourse around the problem of objectivity and subjectivity of the ethnos. The subject of this research is the category of "ethnos" as an actor of social being. Relevance of the research is determined by ambiguity of assessment of scenarios of self-actualization of ethnic subjectivity in the conditions of globalization. On one hand, the revival of ethnicity takes place in accordance with the scenario of ethno-archaic objectification; and on the other – the specified back in the Russian religious philosophy religious-philosophical discourse as an actor of subject being, is understood much clearer. The first discourse points at just the assumption of ethnos as an exotic object of the homogeneous society; the second one insists on heterological interpretation of social existence or poly-subject sociality. Based on the phenomenological specification of ethnic subjectivity, the author determines the connection of the latter with the religious experience. The article demonstrates the mechanism of development of quasi-religious ethno-archaic, which in its foundation contains the exception of ethnic subjectivity and poly-subject sociality by the virtue of ideologization and its connection with the religious experience. As a result of their analysis, the author reveals the strive for disallowing the question of ethnic subjectivity being the consequence of inappropriate intrusion of philosophical discourse into the demarcated spheres of the cognition of ethnos. The conclusion is made that the lack of ethnic subjectivity as a necessary category for comprehending the poly-subject sociality cannot lead to the need for its establishment as a fundamental paradigm of the analysis of social development.
Safonov A.L., Orlov A.D. - Mechanisms of Ethnic Fragmentation of Nations in the Era of Globalization: Cultural Aspects pp. 106-122


Abstract: The subject of the research is the creation of the integral paradigm of sociogenesis that allows to explain and predict the development of such socio-cultural phenomena of globalization as ethnic fragmentation of the society, actualization of ethnic communities, ethnicity and ethnic identity and systemic crisis of nations, national identity and national idea. The researcher also touches upon the problem of limits to applicability of well-known approaches to sociogenesis. In addition, the authors put forward the problem of defining the essential grounds and attributive features of globalization generating actualization of ethnicity and ethnic identity which contradicts the view on globalization as the establishment of the single global social community unifying ethnocultural differences. The famous phenomenon of co-existence of the 'folklife' and 'high' cultures is being viewed by the authors from the point of view on co-existence of ethnos and nation which culture has a number of similar features. The methodological basis for the approach to sociogenesis offered by the researchers involves the definition of nation and ethnos as a long-existing nonidentical and ontologically different social communities an invidual simultaneously participates in. Globalization is viewed as a global systemic crisis that generates processes of social divergence, differentiation and social fragmentation including ethnocultural fragmentation. The hypothesis of a historically long existence of nation and ethnos is being analyzed from the point of view of cultural studies that differentiate between ethnic culture and national culture based on a number of povisions. In the era of globalization the phenomenon of ethnic fragmentation of the society and actualization of ethnicity is explained by  the fact that an individual simultaneously participates in both nation and ethnos. His simultaneous participation in ethnos and nation relates to different and community-specific spheres of social existence, the sphere of political existence for a nation and the sphere of everyday existence for an ethnos. The hypothesis of co-existence of nation and ethnos as different social communities is explained within the framework of cultural studies that state the historically long co-existence of the two different, although related cultures, the culture of an ethnic community and the culture of a nation. These two cultures have different time of occurence, mechanisms of reproduction and development and particular content. 
Pimenova N.N. - Indigenous peoples in the current situation: the scope and content of the concept pp. 112-134


Abstract: The subject of this study is the concept of "indigenous peoples". The author analyzes the different approaches to this concept, presented in a modern foreign and domestic research literature. The concept of "indigenous peoples" has a certain academic interpretations depending on how researchers understand the phenomenon of ethnicity. It is hypothesized that the concept of "indigenous peoples" changes its content and scope depending on the historical and cultural epoch, in relation to which it is viewed. Possible to identify the specific content of this concept in relation to the premodern, modern and postmodern. The author used the information obtained in the course of fieldwork in Tyukhtetsky District and Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District (Krasnoyarsk Territory) in 2010-2014. For the analysis of the scope and content of the concept applied the methods of analytical review of research literature and conceptual analysis. Indigenous people is a sociological, cultural, ethnographic and ethnological term to refer to a local social community, which has geographic parameters and consolidated on the basis of ethnicity in the context of relations with the dominant ethnic group, nation; such a community has, as a rule, the historic colonial (neocolonial) experience and its reflection. The defining feature of this community is the property of indigenous recognized by the dominant ethnic group and the state, as the status of the ethnic groups, the first populated the territory of compact residence of its members, also in the legal field plays a leading role identity of its representatives. As the basis of ethnicity such social community act simultaneously two groups of features: a) objective evidence mainly detected within the ethnic group, the inherent limitations of its representatives and therefore perceived as his markers (race, language, territorial tightness); b) objectified through cultural signs signs ethnicity is constructed ethnicity of its representatives as subjective constructions mainly externally ("outside"), with detectable within the ethnic group, but embedded in this situation originating outside it. In modern conditions of such social communities internally heterogeneous, include a number of groups of indigenous people can be differentiated by the degree of replacement of the traditional way of life in their social and cultural practices, or as part of the social institutions of modern society.
Kirko V.I. - The post-Soviet practice of conservation ethnic and cultural identity of the indigenous peoples of the North and Siberia in Krasnoyarsk Krai of the Russian Federation pp. 113-133


Abstract: The article presents the results of long-term field studies of Indigenous Peoples of the North and Siberia living in the Krasnoyarsk region (Russia). Currently, indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk Territory (Evenk, Enets, Chulyms, Nganasan, Nenets, Selkup, chum, Dolgan) experiencing serious impact of modernization and global transformations. Processes of ethnogenesis and cultural genesis occur for these ethnocultural groups differently. Some post-Soviet cultural practices contribute to the formation of positive ethnic and cultural identity of indigenous peoples of the North and Siberia. Muzeizatsiya culture naganasan (Indigenous Peoples, living only in the Krasnoyarsk Territory) podvetzhdaet conclusion that neoshamanizm Taimyr is significantly different from shamanism archaic and traditional cultures. Muzeizatsiya Heritage Nganasans indicates that cultural heritage Nganasans feeling the effects of market mechanisms. Original shamanism for ethno-cultural identity Nganasans is not typical.
Kicheeva K.A., Starko E.A., Reznikova K.V. - Political and Legal Framework of Cultural Interactions Between Northern Peoples of the Russian Federation: Past and Present pp. 114-122


Abstract: The subject of the research is the sphere of social communication of the northern indigenous peoples living in the regions of the Russian Federation. Particular attention is paid to the state guarantees of the rights of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East to have their own unique cultural heritage. The authors of the article focus on the basic contradiction of social and cultural dynamics of indigenous peoples: on the one hand, these ethno-cultural groups have to adapt to the social environment of the post-industrial era, on the other hand, their cultural identity is based on the practices typical for the traditional economy and traditional society. The main research methods used by the authors of the article include the critical analysis of the scientific research literature, processing of results of the field researches carried out in the territories of compact settlement of indigenous communities in the Krasnoyarsk Region and analysis of legal documents regulating preservation of the cultural heritage of the indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation. In the present legislative situation the purpose to 'preserve the traditional lifestyle' loses its meaning as an inherent value at the first attempt of verification because requirements set by modern living conditions for man are in conflict with the traditional style of life. This makes the northern ethnic groups to choose between common law oriented at traditional government institutions and public law under the pressure of the Russian Federation. Thus, at the present time we have the conflict between traditional culture and contemporary or Russian national or global culture. According to the authors, this conflict should be solved by the means of cultural technology rather than economic mechanisms. 
Yarlykapov A.A. - Modern Dagestan: Topical Ethno-Political and Ethno-Confessional Problems pp. 130-153
Abstract: Ethnic identity plays a very important role in Dagestan. Today we are witnessing the formation of the general identity of Dagestan people but for an ordinary Dagestan citizen his own  ethnic identity is still more important. Land problems and inter-islamic communication issues play an important role, too. The migration of hill people to the lowland brought land issues into the sphere of inter-ethnic relations. In addition, postponed solution of the legal status of the Dagestan lowland engages the local authorities in land conflicts. The conflict between two Islamic movements in modern Dagestan – Sufism and Salafism – makes the current situation even more difficult. We are witnessing the big level of radicalization of Islamic youth, too. Young Muslims in Dagestan express their protest in religious terms. A lot of modern problems of the republic find expression in inter-ethnic tensions.
Gulyaikhin V.N. - Archetypes of Russian Citizens' Political Culture pp. 153-170


Abstract: The article describes the role and place of archetypes in political culture of Russian citizens. The author goes on a premise that archetypes (psycho-social behavioral codes) are coded in matrices of all ethno-political processes. Unlike their content, their forms are almost unchangeable and make a significant influence on formation of an individual's political conciousness. At the end of the article the author concludes that archetypes form the system of values in political culture and outline the patterns of social and political interactions between Russian citizens. 
Koren' R.V. - Civilization in Terms of Ethnogenesis as a Cultural Source pp. 159-192


Abstract: The author of the article views different approaches to the term 'civilization'. The author shows that civilizational researches that have been conducted by the French Annales school of historians over 80 years did not achieve muh in understanding the nature of civilization. Philosophical and cultural discussions and concepts establish that there is a certain connection between civilization and culture. However, incorrect social interpretation of the cultural source and misunderstanding of ethnogenesis as the cultural source have resulted in misbeliefs. Only interpretation of civilization in terms of ethnogenesis as the cultural source allows to understand the energetic grounds of civilization and culture. Civilization is created at the stage of ethnogenesis intertion ('golden autumn') when the passionary energy of the ethnos (hyper ethnos) is mostly wasted and the hyper ethnos is coming to the inevitable destruction (obscuration). Based on all what is being said above, the term 'civilization' should be used only when we talk about pre-historical hyper ethnoses (civilizations) while 'historical civilizations' should be identifiable to a specific stage of ethnogenesis. 
Popov E.A. - The sociocultural context of Russian regions and municipalities today: the socioeconomic, ethnocultural, spiritual-consolidating and ethnosocial pp. 269-321


Abstract: This article considers the sociocultural codes which influence the cultural environment in regional and municipal development. These codes include socioeconomic, ethnocultural, spiritual-consolidating, and ethnosocial codes. Special attention needs to be paid to the introduction of the category "municipal culture", which deals with different aspects of a city's cultural environment, the institutional characteristics of which are associated not only with the realities of everyday life but which are also a vector of cultural policy. The emphasis of this article is on the symbolism of the cultural environment of a given regional municipality in the Altai region. It explores the causality of the formation of symbols through the technologies of modern life, the archetypes of cultural traditionalism as well as cultural innovation. The aim of this article is to discover specific features of the formation of the cultural environment in the development of modern Russian regions and their municipalities. The use of modern sociological methodology, in particular, sociocultural and structural-functional approaches, provides for a significant expansion of epistemological research into cultural and environmental phenomena and events.
Bezgin V.B. - Alcohol in the everyday life of the Russian village (late 19 to early 20th centuries) pp. 421-453


Abstract: This article provides an analysis of the drinking traditions in the daily life of the Russian village in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries using a wide range of archival and ethnographic sources. It clarifies the attitudes of the peasant population to alcohol consumption and establishes the causes and the extent of alcoholism in rural areas. The article also considers the role and the importance of wine in the public life of the village, in family life, and in the legal customs of the village. The conclusion is that urbanization and modernization helped the spread of drunkenness in villages as well as the growth of deviant peasant behavior. Alcoholism in the village was a problem of marginalized individuals, people who had lost touch with agricultural work. A communal way of life, the economic interests of the peasant household, and the devout nature of the majority of rural residents were all factors which prevented alcoholism in the Russian countryside. Moreover, the temperance movement of the early 20th century was the natural reaction of the peasants towards the hard drinking behaviour of Russian villagers.
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