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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 02/2018
Contents of Issue № 02/2018
Теория и философия права
Chufarova E.N. - Language of Law in 'Language-Speech' Dichotomy pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.2.25322

Abstract: The subject of the research is the language of law and particularities of the legal speech from the point of view of Ferdinand de Saussure's linguistic dichotomy. The aim of the research is the phenomena that we deal with when we speak of the languge of law, legal speech and law in general. Based on the author, adequate understanding of law texts depends on communicators' overall level of speech competence, their knowledge and concept of the world. Law communication cannot be based on this rule because therei is no particular addressee in law communication and law texts are usually oriented not only at professionals (lawyers) but also general public. The author of the article carries out a comparative analysis of the terms 'language' and 'speech', their definitions in academic researches and analysis of the term 'speech activity' applied to creation of new texts. The results of the analysis demonstrate that law can be expressed through both verbal and writing speech acts. Noteworthy that in this case language functions as a code or universum  (standard rules) to be observed when creating all kinds of law texts. As a consequence, law speech acts, especially those in writing, do not only tend to rigid regulations and clearness but also maximum specification of described features, circumstances and conditions. 
Human and state
Gerusova S. - Exercising the Private Right to Appeal to the Arbitration Court to Be Declared Bankrupt pp. 8-16

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.2.25286

Abstract: The article is devoted to a new institution in the Russian law - private bankruptcy, i.e. bankruptcy of an individual who is not an entrepreneur. In her research Gerusova describes situations when the arbitration court has the right to initiate judicial proceedings to declare an individial as bankrupt as well as situations when an individual ought to appeal to the arbitration court himself or herself to be declared bankrupt. The author of the article carries out a brief analysis of the status of financial manager and particularities of his or her appointment. The author also describes court fees incurred by an individual in such a case. In the course of writing the article the author has used the systems approach, comprative law and legalistic method and modelling. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the federal law that sets forth provisions about private bankruptcy that came into force on October 1, 2015. As we can see, private bankruptcy is a new institution, thus arbitration courts face new tasks now. This institution is understudied in Russian law studies, thus there is a need to study and improve it. As a result of the research, the author of the article describes the main reasons why the arbitration court may deny a private bankruptcy application. These include: application does not answer the requirements of procedural law, financial manager cannot be appointed, no money or assets to pay expenses for bankruptcy procedures. As a solution of aforesaid problems, the author of the article offers to develop a simplified private bankruptcy procedure that does not require a financial manager, and to involve prosecutors if necessary as well as to make courts responsible for discovery of evidence. 
State institutions and legal systems
Zolotareva A.B. - Risks of Transition to a Market Placement of the State Order for Social Services pp. 17-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.2.21562

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the development of the laws on funding the state order for social services over the last 10 years as well as planned reforms in this sphere. The author of the article demonstrates the current transfer from estimate financing of state and municipal organizations to paying for their services based on normative funding serves the purpose of transfer to the market placement of the state (municipal) order for social services. In her article Zolotareva applies traditional law methods such as comparative law analysis as well as logical analysis. Based on the results of her research, the author concludes that curent and planned changes in funding social services provoke certain risks including risks of uncontrolled reduction of the budget, property of state organizations and reduction of the quality of social services. To reduce these risks, the author believes it is necessary to completely review the concept of the reform and to refuse from a number of measures. 
Transformation of legal systems
Anisimov A.I. - Forms of Exercising the National Right to Self-Determination Under Russian Federative Structure pp. 27-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.2.25357

Abstract: The article is devoted to analysing the form of exercising the national right to self-determination within the Russian Federation. The author bases his article on the analysis of existing classifications of rights to self-determination and federal and regional laws and offers his own classification of rights to self-determination. In particular, he describes three basic forms of exercising the right to self-determination: creation of a federative constituent with a dominant ethnic group, creation of natioinal territorial and administrative divisions, and creation of national cultural autonomic units (non-commercial organisations) by ethnic groups that live in Russia. In order to carry out an in-depth analysis of execution of the right to self-determination, the author analyzes constitutions  of the republics that constitute the Russian Federation, as well as charters of national districts. The results of the analysis demonstrate such problems as irregularities of execution of the right to self-determination. At the international level self-determination is viewed as the right granted to all nations disregarding their status. However, in Russia national rights to self-determination vary a lot. Some ethnic groups have the right to execute their cultural and political rights to self-determination within the territory of a particular constituent of the Russian Federation while others have the right to preserve their culture and national identity only within independently established non-comnmercial organisations. At the end of the article the author makes a conclusion that there is a need to reform the national right to self-determination. 
Law and order
Damm I.A. - Anticorruption Standards of Educators' Behavior As Part of Corruption Prevention at Higher Education Establishments pp. 34-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.2.25488

Abstract: The subject of the research is the provisions of the anti-corruption law of the Russian Federation, sublegislative and institutional legal acts as well as local regulations and provisions of the code of ethics that fix anti-corruption standards of educators' behavior at higher education establishments. Damm examines current tendencies in developing anti-corruption standards of behavior in the field of education that have been established for educators of higher education establishments. The author applies the dialectical research method as well as system structured analysis, formal logic, etc. The results of the research demonstrate that there are no single anti-corruption standards of behavior for educators of higher education establishments. Anti-corruption standards of behavior are set forth by sublegislative legal acts and departmental regulations set forth by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation only for educators who manage educational establishments. Anti-corruption standards, restrictions, guidelines for other educators are set forth by an educational establishment itself through the codes of ethics and local regulations. According to the author of the article, in oder to prevent corruption at higher education establishments, it is necessary to fix single anti-corruption standards of behavior at the federal level, develop local legal acts that would guarantee observation of anti-corruption standards of behavior; to carry out relevant training for educators aimed at explaining these standards, procedure and responsibilities. 
History of state and law
Abazaliev I.M. - Procedural Status of the Suspect and Accused in Russian Criminal Proceedings: Historical and Legal Analysis pp. 46-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7136.2018.2.25636

Abstract: The subject of the research is the process of establishing and developing the procedural status of the convict and suspect in Russian criminal proceedings. For this purpose, the author of the article focuses on key sources of criminal procedure law. The author describes four historical stages in the process of developing the procedural status of the aforesaid actors, the key stage being the period when The Statute of Criminal Procedure of 1864 and The Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of 1960 were issued which created the grounds for modern procedural position of the suspect and accused. In the course of his research Abazaliev mostly used the method of historical law analysis as well as general and special research methods. The main conclusion of the research is the author's statement that new priorities of the criminal procedure policy and development of the humanities that created the ground for adopting The Russian Federation Code of Criminal Procedure of 2001 extended the list and content of personal rights and responsibilities of the suspect and accused. 
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