Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 11/2023
Contents of Issue 11/2023
Social history
Osipov E.A. - French Decree on Family Reunification of 1976 in the context of the migration issue pp. 1-9



Abstract: The article analyzes the French migration policy in the 1960s and 1970s, when a large number of migrant workers from the Maghreb countries arrived in the country, with an emphasis on the significance of the decree on family reunification that came into force in 1976. In modern historiography, both French and Russian, there is an idea that this decree became one of the main mistakes of the presidency of Valery Giscard d'Estaing, symbolized the beginning of the policy of opening borders, attracting a large number of migrants from North Africa to the Fifth Republic and ultimately served as a starting point for the spread of Islam in France, the growth of religious radicalism and, in general, to the modern crisis of national and religious identity. The article is based on the latest achievements of French and Russian historiography. In particular, for the first time in Russian historiography, the results of the research of the French historian Muriel Cohen are introduced into scientific circulation, largely due to which the interpretation of the 1976 decree has changed in France. The article shows that in fact, the procedure for family reunification has not changed significantly since the end of World War II. However, depending on economic conditions and the degree of need for new migrants, law enforcement practice has changed. The French authorities liberally interpreted the issue of housing compliance with established standards in the 1960s during a period of shortage of workers, and vice versa, seriously approached the issuance of certificates of compliance with housing conditions in the 1970s. During the growth of unemployment and discontent of the French population with a large number of migrants from the Maghreb countries. Thus, the decree adopted in 1976 did not make significant adjustments to the migration policy of France and did not lead to an increase in the number of migrants in the country.
Personality in history
Khandarkhaeva V.V. - Principles of Stratagem and Hard Power in Mao Zedong's Economic Reforms pp. 10-17



Abstract: The object of the study is the principles of stratagem and hard power in China. The subject of the study is the principles of stratagem and hard power in Mao Zedong's economic reforms. The author of the article examines the principles of stratagem and hard power used by Mao Zedong during the rule of the CPC of the People's Republic of China. Particular attention is paid to the fact that Mao Zedong actively applied these principles in the framework of economic reforms in the country. This article analyzes his approaches aimed at forming effective management systems, stimulating economic growth and strengthening the state structure of China. The author in the article analyzes the tactical techniques of Mao Zedong, which he used in military operations with Chiang Kai-shek, and in the future, in strengthening his power in the country. Special attention is paid to his methods of exhausting the enemy, stratagem techniques and tough approaches to winning the war. Also in the article, the author examines the rigidity of his approach as a political and military leader, expressed in the use of harsh methods in military tactics and in the economic development of China.The fundamentals of the methodology of this research are based on the principles of objectivity, scientific truth and historicity. Objectivity requires considering China's historical past without preconceived beliefs and analyzing the current situation of the country, taking into account its complex characteristics. Scientific nature ensures that conclusions are based only on documented facts. The main conclusions of the study are the principles of stratagem and hard power, which Mao Zedong applied while modernizing China during his reign. As a result of his efforts, China has overcome the status of an underdeveloped semi-colonial country, becoming a powerful nuclear power in the world. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is the application of the principles of stratagem thinking and hard power, which allowed the article to describe the policies and initiatives of Mao Zedong. The novelty of the study is to identify economic reforms, the main directions in the policy of the modernization department of the People's Republic of China Mao Zedong, which had a huge impact not only in world foreign policy, but also within the country, affecting the social sphere, culture, economy and political system of China.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Mikheev D.V. - Testimonies of Spanish captives about the course of Francis Drake's circumnavigation pp. 18-30



Abstract: The publication is devoted to the events related to the second circumnavigation organised by the English privateer, naval commander and discoverer Francis Drake. The author pays special attention to sources of Spanish origin, represented by the materials of interrogations of Spanish prisoners who had been on board the English ship and personally communicated with English corsairs. The Spanish testimonies contain detailed descriptions of the actions of Drake and his companions on the Pacific coast of the New World, reports on the armament and composition of the English crew, and considerations about the goals of the expedition. A special place in the testimonies is occupied by reports on the damage caused and the booty captured by the English. The comparative-historical method allows, as a result of comparing Spanish and other sources, to identify new details about the course of the expedition, omitted for various reasons by the authors of English testimonies about Drake's voyage. Spanish sources are actively introduced into the scientific turnover during the XX century, changing the idea of the course of the first English circumnavigation expeditions. Despite the repeated information in the testimonies about the actions of English corsairs off the Pacific coast of the New World we can trace the dynamics of Drake's actions, understand how his plans changed as he moved along the coast. Witness testimony allows us to imagine the scale of the booty captured by the British during their plundering raid, to trace the peculiarities of corsairs in Spanish waters on the eve of the open Anglo-Spanish conflict. Numerous testimonies of the captives of the English corsair help to recreate the image of Drake and his companions, to determine the peculiarities of their perception by the subjects of the King of Spain.
History and Politics
Yartsev S.V., Bobin R.M. - The problem of Armenia's integration into the Roman world in the post-Armenian period pp. 31-44



Abstract: The object of the study is the buffer zone of the Roman Empire, located between the ancient civilization and the barbarian world. The subject of the study is the history of Armenia during the reign of the Roman emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius (117161), as well as during the Roman-Parthian war of 161166. Based on the comparative-historical method of research, the authors examine in detail such aspects of the topic as Hadrian's refusal of further conquests and the transition to a defensive strategy of the state. At the same time, special attention is paid to Hadrian's pan-Hellenic project of creating a Hellenic commonwealth uniting all Greeks of the ancient world. The article also focuses on the consistency and calculation of the emperors' actions towards Armenia, which does not fit well with the view of the transition of the empire under Hadrian to the strategic defense of the perimeter of the Roman borders. The main conclusions of this study are that, starting with Hadrian, Roman expansion was not actually stopped, but took other forms (economic and cultural), which actually had to prepare the peaceful entry of this or that buffer territory into the empire. It is possible that in the Caucasus, and in particular in Armenia, the Romans planned to carry out this process in the form of Hellenization, based on the previous experience of adapting Greek culture to local traditions. This, in the end, inevitably led to the perception of already Roman gods by the alien population, familiarity with which was ensured by this Hellenization. The novelty of the study is that the authors considered Hadrian's Panhellenic project in the context of the above-mentioned processes and as an essential component of both internal and external policy towards the buffer dependent states.
History of law and state
Krichevtsev M.V. - The Special Tribunal in Martinique: from the history of French colonial justice in the early 19th century pp. 45-58



Abstract: The focus of this article is on the special tribunal, a special judicial body established in the French colony of Martinique in 1803. It was created to carry out criminal repression against black slaves accused of poisoning, arson, stealing boats and pirogues to escape. The main purpose of the study is to determine the legal basis for the organization of a special tribunal in Martinique and to identify its features in relation to the special tribunals that existed in the metropolis from 1801 and 1802. The question of the correlation of these tribunals in the colony and in the metropolis seems to be little studied in historiography. The subject of research in the work is the evolution of the special tribunal during the period of French rule on the island from the establishment of the court to the loss of control over Martinique by the French in 1809. To work on the topic, documentary materials from the National Archives of overseas France, published legislative acts and acts of ministers of the Napoleonic era, acts of the island administration from the "Code of Martinique" were involved. The study used the method of concrete historical analysis, comparative legal analysis of legal documents and structural and functional analysis of judicial bodies. As a result of the study, it can be concluded that the competence of the Martinique Special Tribunal has changed towards its expansion over three stages in 1803-1809. From an organ of repression exclusively for slaves, it gradually turned into an extraordinary court for slaves and for free people of color, and then for any vagabonds without a place of residence and recognition. Dangerous crimes of a state nature began to belong to his jurisdiction. The comparison of the tribunal with the special tribunals established in the metropolis in 1801 and 1802 does not confirm the full borrowing of judicial law from the metropolis in the organization of the colonial court and testifies in favor of the originality of colonial justice. However, similar features in the composition of these bodies and in the order of judicial procedure allow us to speak about general trends in the development of judicial systems throughout the French Empire, in the metropolis and in the colonies, expressed in the creation of bodies of emergency justice, alternative to courts of general jurisdiction.
Theory and methodology of history
Kyrchanoff M.W. - Classic Theories of Nationalism in the Context of Minority Nationalism in Great Britain:
regional nationalist movements as a marginal subject of modern historiography of nationalism
pp. 59-75



Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the possibility of classical theories of nationalism use in analysis of the minority nationalisms histories in the British historiographical situation. The author analyses the complexities of integration and assimilation of the ideal models of Ruritania and Megalomania as imagining nationalising and modernising societies proposed by Ernest Gellner, as well as Miroslav Hrochs periodisation of nationalism as ideal interpretive models in the contexts of British historiography. The subject of the article is classical modernist theories of nationalism, the object is the possibility of their application in British historical research. It is assumed that the processes of nationalist modernisation and the development of regional nationalisms, on the one hand, are perceived through the prism of a constructivist approach. On the other hand, the author believes that the British historical material is characterised by a significant degree of resistance and therefore the use of classical theories of nationalism in the context of the conservatism of the historiographical imagination in Great Britain is debatable. The article analyses the difficulties of integrating the history of regional minority nationalisms and English nationalism into the contexts of sociocultural modernism of classical theories of nationalism. The results of the study suggest that the modern British historiographical situation is simultaneously characterised by an interest in the problems of the social history of regional nationalisms and significant conservatism, which expresses itself in ignoring classical theories of nationalism, despite the effectiveness of their interpretive models.
History of law and state
Belyaev M.P., Elyazyan A.S. - Inheritance law in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania pp. 76-91



Abstract: The subject of the study is the development of legislation on inheritance of property in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The object of the study is the hereditary legal relations of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the XV-XVI centuries. The purpose of the work is to reveal the evolution of hereditary legal relations, to identify their essence and patterns of development. From the standpoint of the achievements of modern historical and legal science, the aim is to analyze the main provisions of the inheritance law of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, to note the characteristic features of the codification process of the XVI century, to analyze the causes and identify trends in the evolution of the institutions of inheritance law. To achieve the goal, general scientific and special research methods were used, including dialectical, historical-legal, comparative-legal and systemic. The result of the work was the first in modern Russian historical and legal science study of the problem of inheritance of property under the legislation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The peculiarities of inheritance by law are revealed. A number of controversial issues in historical and legal science (veno, extortionate property, etc.) are touched upon. Provisions describing trends in the development of hereditary legal relations in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania are introduced into scientific discussion. A comparative analysis of inheritance of property in the male and female line in the Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania is made. In the course of the study, the main features and patterns of the development of the inheritance law of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania are revealed, thereby filling a gap in the national historical and legal science.
History of regions of Russia
Grishin A.V. - Centralization of the library network in the Penza region (second half of the 1970s - early 1980s) pp. 92-99



Abstract: The subject of the study is the process of centralization of the network of state mass libraries in the Penza region. The research was carried out on the basis of analysis and generalization of documents of the State Archive of the Penza region (the Penza Regional Executive Committee Cultural Management Fund) using the principles of historicism and scientific objectivity and consistency. The author gives a brief overview of domestic (Soviet and post-Soviet) and foreign historiography on the problem of research. Special attention is paid to the preparatory work for the centralization of the library system in the region, in particular, familiarization with this practice in other regions; interaction and support of local Soviet-party bodies; the results obtained from the reorganization of the network. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the first time a study of the formation of centralized library systems in the Penza region has been undertaken. In the second half of the 1970s, state mass libraries in the region began to unite into a single library structure - a centralized library system that functioned on the basis of a single administrative and methodological manual, a common staff, centralization of the processes of formation and circulation of funds, their profiling and the possibility of mutual use. By centralizing libraries, the authorities hoped to strengthen political propaganda through the book's reading, expand the functions of library institutions in the information and reference field of serving citizens and providing them with more diverse services, eliminate parallelism in their activities, improve the management model and use of allocated funds, promote better implementation and optimization of library processes. The effectiveness of the centralization of libraries decreased from the prevailing attitude at that time that it should be carried out without additional financial investments.
Fedotova D.Y. - The composition and structure of the population of the Tyumen District
based on the materials of the 1926 census
pp. 100-111



Abstract: This paper analyzes the socio-demographic processes that occurred in Tyumen Okrug in the first decade of Soviet power, recorded by the materials of the All-Union Population Census of 1926. The object of the study was the population of the Tyumen Okrug. The subject of the study is the composition and structure of the population of the specified district. Census materials provide a representation of the composition of the population, characteristics of the population by age and gender, urbanization processes, and contain data on literacy and the main occupations of citizens. The census results showed that the previous period of revolutionary upheavals and the Civil War led to changes in the population size and socio-professional composition of the population of the Tyumen Okrug. The methodological basis of the study is the principles of historicism, integrity, objectivity, and comprehensiveness. Both general scientific and traditional historical research methods are used: systematic, historical-comparative, problem-historical. In addition to traditional historical methods, the work used the method of statistical analysis, which makes it possible to assess quantitative indicators to identify the level of urbanization of the population and the dynamics of changes in gender, age, social, and professional composition. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that demographic statistics of individual territories make it possible to study the characteristics in the size and social composition of the population, as well as to study their impact on the nature of socio-economic development of both a separate territory and the region as a whole.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Lokhova I.V. - Special features of the Portuguese colonial expansion of the XVXVI centuries pp. 112-123



Abstract: The overview of the causes of the early colonial conquests of Portugal was carried out by using the basic scientific methods of historical research and analyzing sources and literature. The Portuguese expansion was not caused by immediate needs of its economic development unlike the colonial expansion of England and Holland. The article attempts to understand the specifics of Portuguese colonialism and the historical conditions in which it developed. Colonial expansion was carried out in the interests and under the leadership of the fidalgu (nobles). Consequently, the enormous funds coming from the colonies were not spent on the development of production, but on the strengthening of the feudal organization of society. Special attention is paid to the discovery of the sea route to India in 1498, because after that Portugal became a leading world power, controlling the most important trade routes linking Europe and Asia. The novelty of the study can be seen in the fact that the considered topic was a prologue to globalization and the creation of a single world market, and Portugal was at the origins of this process, providing a basis of Western European expansion to the East. Portugal was able to build an empire, controlling vast territories located in the Indian Ocean basin, but could not retain the palm, finding limited material and human resources. The study of Portuguese expansion leads to the conclusion that there were several reasons that influenced the phenomenon of Portuguese colonialism: subjective internal and objective external. Some of these reasons are highlighted in this article.
History of public institutions
Kolpakov P.A. - Provision of sanitary standards by the gendarmerie railway police of the Russian Empire in the late XIX-early XX centuries. pp. 124-134



Abstract: The article is devoted to the reconstruction of the historical experience of the participation of gendarmerie police officers in ensuring sanitary order on the railways of the Russian Empire. The purpose of this article is to study measures to prevent the spread of dangerous infectious diseases taken by the railway gendarmerie, both in cooperation with medical and sanitary services, and independently. The object of the study is the historical experience of the official activities of the gendarmerie railway police of the Russian Empire. The subject is the role of gendarmes in ensuring sanitary standards on railways. Along with general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction and concretization, the author used historical-systemic and historical-genetic research methods. The theoretical basis of the study, along with the published materials, were the office documents of the gendarmerie railway police, which are stored in the State Archives of the Russian Federation. It is concluded that the ranks of the gendarmerie railway police performed a significant role in ensuring sanitary standards by bypassing the entrusted sites, assisting doctors in veterinary examinations, inspections of premises for the detention of prisoners of war, preventing outbreaks of epidemics on the railways that would pose a threat to the health and life of the population on a global scale.
Cultural heritage
Filimonova K.N. - Historical and Memorial Activities of Rossotrudnichestvo Abroad: Results, Problems, and Prospects pp. 135-142



Abstract: The subject of the research is the historical and memorial activities abroad of the Federal Agency Rossotrudnichestvo as one of the instruments of diplomacy of the heritage of the Russian Federation. The author examines the work of the Agency for the period 2010-2022 in the field of preservation and maintenance of civilian burials and memorial sites, which are associated with the names of our compatriots - Russian and Soviet military and statesmen, cultural and scientific figures. One of the goals of memorial policy is to consolidate Russian compatriots abroad and help preserve their national identity and ties with their homeland. The study uses a systematic approach, which allows to analyze the problem from different points of view: historical, cultural and legal, as well as methods of analysis and synthesis. It is important to note that in the conditions of a difficult geopolitical situation the Rossotrudnichestvo has carried out a considerable amount of work to locate, maintain an inventory of burial sites of historical and memorial importance to Russia and to promote the historical memory of prominent Russian compatriots abroad. However, this area of activity requires additional funds and efforts, in particular: searching for new sources of financing major restoration work, improving mechanisms for the maintenance of graves, more thorough elaboration of measures to promote the memory of the "Russian abroad" and active interaction with the Russian and international expert community, non-profit organizations and associations of compatriots abroad.
Social history
Khazov V.K. - Factors of socialization of children in the occupied territory of the Leningrad region in 19411944 pp. 143-156



Abstract: the article analyzes the factors of socialization of children in the occupied territories of the Leningrad region in the period from 1941 to 1944. The author relies on the principles of objectivity and historicism. The author uses a systematic approach, general logical and special historical methods (synchronous method, contextual analysis method, historical and textual analysis method). The article notes that socialization is a complex and multifaceted process. This phenomenon can be investigated either through its results (for example, through the description of survival practices, learned specific behavioral tactics) and through the analysis of stories about subjective experiences associated with the process of socialization. The author concludes that socialization carried out in the occupied territories has a number of specific characteristics: instability, fragmentation, inconsistency. The reason for these characteristics is twofold. The first reason: the impact on the personality of the conflict between the desire for survival and the desire to preserve freedom and dignity. The second is the destruction of traditional social ties for this community. At the same time, the main factor in preserving pre-war socialization attitudes was the family.
Razinkov S.L. - Behavioral practices as a marker of the socio-cultural portrait of students of the USSR State Labor Reserves (1940s-50s) pp. 157-173



Abstract: The creation of the USSR state labor reserves in 1940 was accompanied by the formation of a specific socio-cultural environment, which remains practically unexplored to this day.The purpose of the article is to determine the structure and composition of behavioral practices as an element of the official and informal portrait of students of the state labor reserves. The methodological basis of the research was the system of social actions by T. Parsons, the concepts of variability of everyday practices by A. Ludtke and the dichotomy "norm/anomaly" in Soviet everyday life by N.B. Lebina. The work used a synthesis of macro- and micro-approaches of historical research aimed at identifying behavioral practices of an individual, based on the analysis of various sources: legal acts, administrative and other official documents, personal documents. The results of the study are: 1) identification and classification of students' behavioral practices based on the structure of social action (on individual acts, procedures and strategies of behavior), on the content of activity, frequency of application and attitude to public institutions; 2) development and description of a structural and functional model of behavioral practice containing control and correction functions (on the example of the practice of non-attendance of classes by students); 3) identification and substantiation of the features of behavioral practices from the point of view of markers of the socio-cultural portrait of students of labor reserves (interconnectedness, dynamism, dependence on the type of educational institution). The results of the research can be used in the study of everyday life and socio-cultural portrait of students in the Soviet period.
Ethnography and ethnology
Pylypak M. - Historical and cultural heritage of Ukrainians of the Republic of Bashkortostan: according to the funds of the Yumatov Ethnographic Museum pp. 174-184



Abstract: The subject of this study is the exhibits of the main fund of the museum collection of the Yumatov Ethnographic Museum of the Ufa district of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia) related to the traditional culture of Ukrainians. The object of the study is the traditional material culture of Ukrainians in a multiethnic environment. The purpose of the study is to study the historical and cultural heritage of Ukrainians of the Republic of Bashkortostan, their interaction with representatives of Turkic, Finnovolgian, as well as other Slavic peoples. The proposed publication presents an analysis of traditional subjects that are an important component of the identity and characteristics of an ethnic group. Tools and devices for performing certain types of work are considered; interior and household items, kitchen utensils; samples of decorative and applied art and materials for their production; clothing and shoes. The time frame for their use in everyday life is indicated by the end of the XIX the middle of the XX century. The area of distribution of exhibits is shown.Based on the subject and object of the study, general scientific and special methods were used as a methodological basis. The research was based on the comparative historical method and the method of typologization. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time an attempt was made to analyze the museum collection in order to study the historical and cultural heritage of Ukrainians, one of the Slavic peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The main conclusion of the study is that even in a multinational environment, Ukrainians continue to preserve their culture. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the introduction into scientific circulation of new information on the traditional material culture of Ukrainians in the region. In the course of the study, data on the number of Ukrainian exhibits and the area of their origin were clarified. Classification of savings units has been made. The regularity in the periodization of the existence of museum objects is revealed. The results obtained by the author can be used in various types and forms of research and cultural and educational activities, in particular: in the preparation of candidate and doctoral dissertations, generalizing works on the history, ethnography and culture of the peoples inhabiting the Republic of Bashkortostan; design of thematic exhibitions in rural, district and republican museums.
Personality in history
Velikotskaya (Mozgunova) N.G. - The attitude of the Ecumenical Patriarchs to the deposition of Patriarch Nikon pp. 185-192



Abstract: As a result of Russia's foreign policy in the second half of the XVII century, which was reduced to recognizing her mission as the liberator of Christian peoples and the idea of creating an ecumenical Orthodox Church, Patriarch Nikon of the Russian Orthodox Church found himself in the position of one of the leaders of the Eastern Christian world. The object of this study is one of the issues of Russia's relations with the Orthodox East the attitude of the Greek hierarchs to the conflict between Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and Patriarch Nikon. The subject of this article is the position of the Greek clergy on the issue of the accusations made by Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich against Patriarch Nikon, the participation of the Greeks both during the attempt to reconcile the parties, and then in the deposition of Nikon, and in his subsequent rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to study the question of the role of the Greek clergy in the fate of the patriarch, about the reasons for the repeated change of their position on the fate of Nikon. The author of the article uses the historical and systematic method of scientific research - the study and critical analysis of the totality of the complex of published and unpublished documents of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA). The main attention is paid to the analysis of a complex of archival materials related specifically to the "Nikon case". The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that the use of these methods allowed the author to clarify a number of issues related to the "case" of Nikon and concerning the activities of representatives of the Orthodox East, their role in the political and spiritual life of Russia. The research make it possible to draw a conclusion about the regularity of the contradictory position of the Greek clergy in the "case" of Patriarch Nikon, which is explained, first of all, by their political and economic dependence on Russia.
Issues of war and peace
Orlova D.I. - The attitude of the USSR to the policy of repatriation at the final stage of the WWII and in the first post-war years pp. 193-201



Abstract: This article highlights the participation of the USSR in solving the international problem of refugees and displaced persons in the post-war period; shows the attitude of the Soviet government to the policy of repatriation of Soviet citizens to their homeland, reveals the participation of the USSR in international organizations on the issue of refugees and displaced persons (UNRRA, IRO, UN) at the final stage of the Second World War and after its end, the ways of interaction of the allied countries on these world platforms are fixed. To study the activities of the USSR in the development of the principles of repatriation policy, as well as to resolve the problems of refugees and displaced persons, such methods as historicism, objectivity, as well as the method of comparative analysis together with a comprehensive analysis of documents were used. Based on the present research, we can conclude that the Soviet Union conducted active foreign policy activities to achieve the main goals of the repatriation policy, establishing international cooperation and protecting the interests of its citizens. The bulk of Soviet people who found themselves in difficult conditions of the post-war period were forced to lead their lives in camps for displaced persons, awaiting the decision of the authorities regarding their fate. Despite the active assistance to the return of refugees and social protection from the Soviet Union, the generous amount of the repatriates were tested in filtration camps, especially military ones, in order to identify traitors. In addition, the solution of the problem was complicated by the ardent anti-Soviet propaganda in camps for refugees and displaced persons by representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States, which was gaining momentum in connection with the beginning of the implementation of the means of conducting the cold War.
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