Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 12/2022
Contents of Issue 12/2022
History of law and state
Se F. - To the Question of the Scientific Cooperation of North-Eastern China with the Far East of Russia in the Second Half of the 20th-early XXI Centuries. pp. 1-10



Abstract: Today, all over the world, and above all in Russia, there is a significant interest in the history of Chinese studies in the scientific and humanitarian centers of the Russian Federation and the PRC. Academic and applied significance for historians of the two countries acquire an analysis and summary of the experience of the research centers of Chinese in the Far East. Currently, there is an increase in the attention of Russian and Chinese researchers to the scientific cooperation of North-East China with the Far East of Russia. Orientalist V. L. Larin dedicated a considerable part of his works to this problem [3]. Chinese academic studies of scientific exchanges between China and Russia in related fields are mainly reflected in the articles of Tao Lee Lee Lee Jinzin. The object of this statue is Soviet/Russian Chinese. The subject of study is the process of distribution of Chinese studies with the help of research institutions in the Far East. The goal is the disclosure of the main results of analytical centers, showed their role in the distribution of Chinese in the Russian Federation. The author used the methods of scientific knowledge, observed the principles of logical, systematicity and sequence of presentation of the material. For the first time in Russian historiography, an attempt was made in this article to study humanitarian cooperation and summarize the historical experience of the scientific interaction of North-Eastern China with the Far East of Russia. Thus, the active distribution of Chinese studies in the Russian Far East is carried out through the system of scientific institutions in the direction of academic exchanges in the cities of Vladivostok, Blagoveshchensk, Ussuriysk, Khabarovsk, Harbin, Heihe, Jiamus, Chanchun, etc. their cooperation brought significant results and ensured Intellectual support for comprehensive cooperation in many areas. The Far East began to clearly show interest in China as a whole, in its history, culture, economics and science, in the Chinese language.
History of science and technology
Bocharov A.A., Mikhailov A.A., Fisheva A.A. - Popularization of Scientific and Technical Knowledge, Aviation, Military and Political Issues Conceptualized in the Literary Works of Nikolai Nikolaevich Shpanov (1896-1961) pp. 11-28



Abstract: The paper discusses popular science and fiction (primarily science fiction) works of N.N. Shpanov, the Soviet writer and pilot, one of the founders of military fiction genre in Soviet literature. In his works a certain mood in society, its aspirations and expectations, supported by the countrys political leaders, are mirrored. The article analyzes as well N.N. Shpanovs activity in the field of promotion of knowledge about aviation, writer's prediction on the course of the upcoming clash with a powerful western power (Germany), made by him on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, and the role of military aviation in this confrontation. The main conclusion of the study is that in the 1920-1930s N.N. Shpanov, having gained technical knowledge and broad experience in the period of his studying at the Polytechnic University, then at aeronautical courses and later on while serving in aviation, in his literary work popularizes new ideas coherent with geographical research, science, and technology, especially aviation. Since the late 1930s in writings of N.N. Shpanov the disposition towards spreading the ideas and policies of the Stalin periods Soviet propaganda showed itself. The imprint of large-scale historical events, military, and technical concepts reflected in books of N.N. Shpanov makes the analysis of his works substantial as it is firmly bound with the history of science, aviation, and social consciousness in the USSR.
Historical sources and artifacts
Zagvazdina Y.G., Zagvazdin E.P. - Tombstone of the Beginning of the XX Century from the Territory of the Modern Cemetery pp. 29-40



Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of a tombstone from the territory of the Sumkinsky cemetery located near Tobolsk. The extraordinary nature of the find is due to the fact that the tombstone of the beginning of the XX century was accidentally discovered in a later rural cemetery founded in the middle of the XX century, that is, fragments of the monument were brought there specifically. This is also indicated by the unsystematic nature of the location its parts lay scattered, on the path between the rows of later burials, piled against a metal fence. The tombstone was a three-part stone obelisk, of which the base and the middle part remained. The biographical inscription of the monument was badly damaged. In the process of studying the destroyed text of the epitaph with the involvement of a number of sources, it was found out that the burial belonged to the son of the priest Fyodor Filippovich Afanasyev Simeon, who died at a young age and was buried in the village of Shishkinsky. More biographical information was found out about his father, who was born in the Voronezh province and graduated from the Theological Men's College. He served as a psalmist in Tobolsk, and then was promoted to deacon. His son was born there. F.F. Afanasyev later became a priest and served in the village of Shishkinsky, Tobolsk district, and then in the village of Ust-Ishim, Tarsky district.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Lugavtsova A.P. - Ōbaku monk Baisaō and the Development of the Sencha Tradition in Edo Period Japan (1603-1868) pp. 41-50



Abstract: The Ōbaku school, which represents the third major trend of Zen Buddhism along with Rinzai and Sōtō, appeared in Japan during the Edo period (1603-1868) due to the arrival of Buddhist emigrant monks from China. The article discusses the life of Ōbaku monk named Baisaō who played a decisive role in the development and popularization of the tradition of sencha (brewing leaf tea in hot water) in Japan during the Edo period. This method of brewing tea, popular among Ōbaku monks, which at the initial stage of the development of the teaching was represented by ethnic Chinese, was a reference to the traditions of tea drinking by Chinese intellectuals of antiquity and was actually opposed to Baisaō the existing Japanese tea ceremony. The author concludes that it was familiarity with the teaching of Ōbaku, which personified a corner of Ming China in Japan, that determined the life path of Baisaō associated with the Chinese tea tradition and significantly influenced the formation of the cultural image of the entire epoch - the movement for the popularization of sencha after Baisaō's death took on a truly large scale. It can be said that his active activity in spreading tea culture in Japan, in which Baisaō himself reflected his spiritual ideals, led to the creation of a full-fledged alternative to the Japanese tea ceremony, thanks to which many of his contemporaries and their descendants fell in love with tea drinking again in the spirit of the Chinese sages of antiquity.
Ethnography and ethnology
Tychinskikh Z.A., Zinnatullina G.I. - Elements of Shamanism in the Folk Medicine of the Siberian Tatars pp. 51-61



Abstract: The purpose of the article is to examine, on the basis of field ethnographic materials collected by the authors in the Tyumen, Omsk and Novosibirsk regions during a number of field seasons, the relics of shamanism preserved in the folk medicine of the Siberian Tatars. The relevance of the study is related to the poor knowledge of this issue. The object of the study is the relics of the preIslamic beliefs of the Siberian Tatars, including the categories of shamans (imce, kuremce, sihyrce, kotsle mullah, etc.). The subject is their role in the traditional healing and magical rituals. The authors believe that with the spread of Islam in Western Siberia, there is a loss or significant transformation of the early common Turkic ideas about the universe, nature and essence of man. But, despite this, some elements of the common Turkic cultural and religious practice have been preserved in the culture of the Siberian Tatars. The main conclusions of the authors are the following. Magical rituals occupied a significant place in the traditional folk medicine of the Siberian Tatars. The authors show the preservation of some relics of shamanism among the Siberian Tatars, as well as categories of shamanists, which include imce, kuremce, sihyrce. The similarities and differences in their capabilities in traditional medical practice are shown: clairvoyance (kuremce, imce, sihyrce), diagnosis of diseases, treatment (imce, kuremce, sihyrce), kamlaniya (imce, sihyrce), prediction of the future, communication with spirits (kuremce, sihyrce). In connection with the important role of Sufism in Siberian Islam, it is shown that the practices inherent in shamanism were used in the treatment of Islamic clerics - mullahs.
History and historical science
Deveykis M. - Analysis of Domestic Historiographical Works on the History of Museum Business and the State of Russian Museum Historiography pp. 62-71



Abstract: The purpose of the work is to identify, classify and analyze existing historiographical publications on the history of museum business. The study used general historical principles: objectivity, scientific and historicism, as well as methods of systematization and chronological. One of the significant features marking the latest trends in the Russian museum business can be characterized by the appearance of a significant number of publications devoted to the activities of museums, the history of their funds, collections, individual exhibits. At the same time, Russian museum literature has not received a broad historiographical assessment. Russian museologists drew attention to the incompleteness of the Russian historiography of museum business. This study was carried out for the first time, the result of it is the grouping of the entire set of submitted works according to the problem-thematic principle and conclusions on historical periods are given. According to the pre-revolutionary period, it should be noted that at that time the museum business was a fairly new type of professional activity, not fully formed and institutionalized. The Soviet period is characterized by increased research interest and attention to the problem of museums and the historiography of museum business. But the scientific and theoretical groundwork was still being formed at a slow pace. The democratization of society as a whole and the social sphere, education and culture has led to more extensive research of museum business. It is in the modern period that publishing and research activity is significantly increasing. In conclusion, promising directions for further research within the framework of the topic under consideration are presented.
Interdisciplinary research
Agaeva E.V., Sergeev T.S., Mikhailova R.V., Tikhonov A.S. - Creation of Literary Associations of Writers of Chuvashia in the 1920s-1930s. pp. 72-81



Abstract: The article examines the process of the origin and development of literary associations of writers of Chuvashia in the period of the 1920s-1930s. The object of research is the literary associations of writers of Chuvashia in the period under consideration. The subject of the study is the formation of creative literary associations of Chuvash writers in the 1920s-1930s. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was made up of comparative historical, logical methods, as well as a chronological approach. Their application made it possible to reveal the literary and unifying processes in the development and in the context of phenomena occurring both in the whole country and in individual regions. The purpose of the article is to identify the features of the origin and development of literary associations of Chuvash writers as an emerging whole, including some structural elements. In modern Russia, in conditions of spiritual crisis, when interest in the literary works of national writers is declining, it is necessary to use the experience accumulated in the 1920s and 1930s. Over two decades, a galaxy of professional writers has formed in Chuvashia, largely due to the cultural and educational activities of literary associations. The scientific novelty lies in the identification of the specifics and conditions for the creation of literary associations in Chuvashia. Thus, we come to the conclusion that the peculiarities of the origin and development of literary associations of Chuvash writers acted as a becoming whole, which includes moments and stages of formation: 1) groups of Chuvash writers, 2) Chuvash journalism, 3) Chuvash literature with a variety of literary genres.
Personality in history
Mikheev D.V. - The Formation of the Image of Ivan the Terrible in English Sources of the Second Half of the XVI Century pp. 82-95



Abstract: After the establishment of permanent Russian-English diplomatic and trade relations in the middle of the XVI century, the problem of the formation and evolution of the image of the Moscow tsar became one of the central ones in the descriptions compiled by English merchants, travelers and diplomats who visited the possessions of Ivan IV. Along with the real features of the Moscow ruler, we find in his descriptions a huge number of myths and exaggerations, emphasized both from other tendentious foreign writings of the era and from earlier treatises describing states with a despotic regime allegedly characteristic of all Eastern states. Images rooted in the specified historical epoch will continue to accompany the descriptions of most Russian rulers for centuries. Russian state and the first Russian tsar's image formation in the English writings of the second half of the XVI century opens up the prospect of revealing the characteristic features and stereotypes that have become established in English and in Western society in general in relation to the Russian state in the following centuries. In the course of the study, the peculiarities of the presentation of the image of Ivan the Terrible in English sources were revealed. The reasons for his despotic rule, which began with glorious deeds, English authors see the need to preserve the unity of the state by concentrating all wealth and power in the hands of the ruler, which invariably leads to his corruption and arbitrariness. The Russian tsar is not called a madman, but is considered a tyrant, similar to the eastern despots described by ancient authors.
History and Ideology
Khomyakov S.V. - Attributes of the Ideology of Communism in the Old Believer Village of the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR in 1920s-1930s pp. 96-108



Abstract: The subject of the research in the article is the problem of the real functioning of the elements of communist ideology (after 10 years of Bolshevik power) in rural areas, significantly remote from the capital's proletarian center both in territorial and ideological terms. In this case in the Old Believer villages of the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR (BMASSR). The object of the study is the main and auxiliary institutions of Soviet power in the Tarbagatai, Mukhorshibir, Bichur aimags of the BMASSR (the turn of the 1920s-1930s). The following aspects of the topic are considered: the ideological viability of party and Komsomol organizations in rural councils, as well as the impact on the life of Old Believers of Soviet holidays, patronage of workers in Verkhneudinsk, the work of friendly courts in collective farms, acting as binding practices of a new in content, but traditional in the form of everyday life. The historical-genetic method necessary for studying the evolutionary changes of the phenomenon was used to characterize the work of the party and Komsomol cells of the Semey in 1925-1935. The historical-comparative method, highlighting the common and special features of various subjects, was necessary when analyzing the activities of rural party members and Komsomol members, as well as to describe the differences in the effects of new household practices. As the main conclusion of the study, it should be highlighted that the functioning of various institutions of Soviet power in the Old Believers' environment of the BMASSR was focused on the external, material side of life (the creation of cultural and educational space, the foundations for a new, collective economic reality). The internal, ideological side of the ongoing changes, for the most part, has not yet found its manifestation in the work of the local ("Old Believers" in terms of personnel) Soviet power. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that archival information is introduced into scientific circulation, showing that the transformation of the Old Believer community of Buryatia is an internal process that does not directly relate (but indirectly related) to the active actions of the Soviet government.
Traditions, innovations, adoption of ideas
Turova N. - To the Question of the Purpose of Some Types of Bone Products from Medieval Sites of the Gis-Urals and Trans-Urals: to the Formulation of the Problem pp. 109-117



Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of one category of bone products discovered during archaeological research at settlement complexes of the XIIXIV centuries of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers Basin (Western Siberia, Trans-Urals). The artifacts are small bone cases with a hole for hanging, inside of them there was one bone tool with a sharpened working edge, analogies of which are found on medieval sites of the Permian Gis-Urals, attributed by researchers as needles / punctures located in needle cases. However, the morphological and structural characteristics of these artifacts, in our opinion, do not correspond to the functions attributed to them. The purpose of the study is to introduce into scientific circulation and attribution of the actual purpose of paired bone products found on medieval sites of the ToboloIrtysh region. Based on the purpose of the study, the following tasks were put forward: morphological description of products; search for analogies to objects on archaeological sites of adjacent territories; acquaintance with the history of the study of similar artifacts. To solve the tasks set in the work, traditional research methods are used for historical science: comparative-historical, comparative-typological, formal-stylistic, the method of analogies. The morphological analysis of the finds both from the Tobol-Irtysh region and from the sites of the Gis-Urals, coupled with the analysis of a complex of items for the care of appearance originating from the territory of Eurasia, made it possible to revise the point of view widespread in scientific circles on the functional purpose of the so-called bone "needle cases" from tubular bones of small animals and "needles / punctures" that were inside. In the course of the study, the items found in the cultural layer of the settlement sites of the Tobol-Irtysh region were classified as items for caring for the appearance - toothpicks placed in a case.
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Filippova V.V. - Materials of Land Management Expeditions as a Source for Studying the Population of Local Territories (on the Example of the Anabar District of Yakutia) pp. 118-130



Abstract: The review of the materials of the Anabar-Olenek land management expedition of 1934 that have survived to the present time is given, which may be of interest as sources for studying the population of local territories in comparison with the censuses of 1926-1927 and 1939. An attempt is made to show the value of the source in the study of the population of local territories for the reconstruction of the settlement of indigenous people of the North before collectivization and transfer to a sedentary lifestyle. The study of the materials of the land management expedition was carried out using statistical, comparative-historical, retrospective and cartographic methods, methods of analysis and description. The author examines in detail the characteristics of the population and settlement of the Anabar district, describes in detail how the traditional settlement system was organized and the traditional land use associated with it. The author pays special attention to the form of economic organization of the population belekh. It is established that the grouping of households in belek was a forced step of survival and joint management dictated by natural and economic conditions. The main conclusions of the study are the reconstruction of the settlement of the population of the area in 1934. A special contribution of the author in the study of the topic is the comparison of the data of the report of 1934 with the materials of the population censuses of 1926-1927 and 1939. The information contained in the reports of the Anabar-Olenek land management expedition fills in the gaps in the characteristics of the population of the Anabar district and is introduced into scientific circulation as a valuable source for studying the history of the population of the North.
Ataev G.D., Malashev V.Y., Saipudinov M.S. - Burials of the Late Middle and Early Late Bronze Age Burial Mound No. 1 of the Gudermess Burial Mounds No. 1 pp. 131-148



Abstract: The article is devoted to the burials of the late Middle and early Late Bronze Age burial mound No. 1 of the Gudermes Burial Mounds No. 1, excavated in 2017. Burials in the mound belong to three cultural and chronological groups. The earliest is burial No. 18 of the late stage of the Maikop culture. The main group is the entrance burials of the early stage of the Middle Bronze Age. The burials of the late Middle and early Late Bronze Age considered in the article are let into the eastern and southern sectors of the mound, sometimes with the disassembly of the shell stones. They are committed in a strongly crouched position. In the inventory of late burials, as well as in the funeral rite, there are features characteristic of burials of the early stage of the Middle Bronze Age belonging to the North Caucasian culture, and for the inventory of monuments of the Kayakent-Khorochoy culture of Eastern Chechnya and Dagestan. Sporadically, they also penetrate into the territory of Eastern Chechnya and Northern Dagestan. The newcomer North Caucasian population played a significant role in the ethno-cultural processes on the territory of the North-Eastern Caucasus, but later in the second quarter of the II millennium BC. differences between individual population groups disappear as a result of assimilation of alien tribes by local ones. gradually, signs of a new Kayakent-Khorochoy culture are beginning to mature, as evidenced by the funeral rite and inventory of the monument under consideration.
History of regions of Russia
Tesaev Z.A. - Current Results of the Survey of Medieval Architectural Objects of the Village of Keshta pp. 149-158



Abstract: The object of research in the article is a historical and architectural monument located near the tower village of Keshta in the Zumsoy region (Itum-Kalinsky district of the Chechen Republic), on the edge of the Bavn-Duk ridge, washed on both sides by the Zumsoy-erk and Keshta-erk rivers. According to oral data and the Kitab narrative, the investigated object (the wall) is a remnant of the former barracks complex, destroyed by the Asian conqueror Amir Timur during the campaign against the Simsim ulus (Chechnya) in 13951396. We carried out reconnaissance work to identify the existing traces of the foundation and the wall of the desired complex of stone structures using a geodetic device and plotting coordinates on a satellite map; the obtained data was plotted. The towers of the village of Keshta were also investigated, as a result of which it was revealed that some stones used in construction (in particular, fragments of arched window-sill stones) have signs of secondary, moreover, non-targeted use in construction.
Social history
Semenov M.A. - Medical Activity of Health Care in Rural Areas of the Rear Areas of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. pp. 159-171



Abstract: The subject of the article is the study of the main characteristics of the medical activity of medical institutions in rural areas of the rear areas of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The research is based on consolidated statistical materials of health authorities stored in the Russian State Archive of Economics (RGAE). Based on archival materials, the article analyzes the dynamics of quantitative indicators of the provision of medical care to rural residents by medical inpatient and outpatient polyclinic institutions. Based on the comparison of a number of indicators, the author examines in detail the changes in the effectiveness of therapeutic activities. Much attention is paid to the disclosure of the territorial features of medical care in individual Union republics. For the first time, the article presents summary indicators characterizing medical activity in rural areas for the entire war period on the scale of the Soviet Union and the rear Union republics. Based on the analysis, conclusions are made about the reduction in the number of patients admitted by healthcare institutions. At the same time, taking into account the reduction of the rural population, an increase in the relative indicators of providing the population with medical care has been proven. Based on the comparison of the duration of the patient's stay in a medical inpatient facility and mortality, the conclusion is made about the increase in the effectiveness of treatment of patients. The significant influence of evacuation and re-evacuation processes on rural medicine of the Central Asian republics has been established. The priority orientation of the Turkmen SSR and the republics of Transcaucasia to the service of the rural population by urban medical institutions is shown.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Yunina E.A. - Functioning of Cinemas in the Cities of the Tobolsk Province at the Beginning of the XX Century . pp. 172-203



Abstract: The purpose of the article is to conduct an overview of the functioning of prerevolutionary cinemas in one of the most remote provinces of Russia based on the analysis of archival materials, chronicle newspaper publications and the advertising component of regional periodicals. The object of the study is stationary cinematographic institutions of the cities of the Tobolsk province, the subject is the peculiarities of their functioning at the beginning of the XX century. In methodological terms, the work is based on descriptive-narrative, comparative-historical, logical and retrospective methods of scientific cognition, the method of historical reconstruction. It describes the formation of urban cinematographies of the province, their technical characteristics and infrastructure elements in accordance with official Russian standards, the conditions of acceptance of buildings, fire safety issues and problematic aspects of the existence of cinemas. Attention is paid to the repertoire content of film screenings, pricing policy, the phenomena of competition among film entrepreneurs, their work with the audience. The scientific novelty of the study is due to the lack of comprehensive regional works considering the specifics of the activities of pre-revolutionary cinematographic institutions in the territorial framework of the Tobolsk province. It is determined that cinema, having arisen at the end of the XIX century as a sporadic form of entertainment for citizens, during the first decades of the XX century it evolved into an important social phenomenon of everyday life and became one of the key factors of transformations that took place in the system of value attitudes and behavioral stereotypes of the population of the region. Stationary cinemas were not only a fundamentally new type of communication for representatives of the urban community, but over time they turned into significant objects of socio-cultural infrastructure and leisure centers for citizens of the Tobolsk province. A key trend in the progressive development of the cinema services industry in the studied region was constructive competition for the audience, during which the owners of institutions improved the infrastructure and regularly updated the repertoire of cinemas, resorted to intensification and forcing the advertising component in the development of their own business.
Interdisciplinary research
Semenova E.N., Semenov M.A. - Medical and Sanitary Service of the Civil Air Fleet of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. pp. 204-214



Abstract: The subject of the research of the article is the development during the Great Patriotic War of the medical and sanitary service of the main directorate of the Civil Air Fleet, as well as the versatile activities carried out by it to preserve the health of passengers and civil aviation workers. The article is based on statistical reports of the Medical and sanitary Administration of the Civil Air Fleet, stored in the Russian State Archive of Economics (RGAE). The study allows us to form a comprehensive picture of the dynamics of various types of medical institutions of the medical and sanitary service of civil aviation, the state of their staffing, the contribution of departmental public health of civil aviation to the preservation of life and health of citizens of the Soviet Union in difficult wartime. The main conclusion of the study is that during the war there was a serious development of the medical system of the Civil Air Fleet before the war, which was essentially in its infancy. The design of its structure was accompanied by the struggle of various ideas, sometimes the medical network began to copy the development of the civil health network, creating an extensive network of hospitals, sometimes it went to risky experiments, such as the transformation of all outpatient clinics into polyclinics. Nevertheless, by the end of the war, the concept of providing basic medical care in urgent cases was established through medical inpatient facilities, health centers and medical units of airports, and the concentration of assistance, primarily to the personnel of the GVF, in a system of sufficiently powerful outpatient clinics.
Factors of historical development
Krichevtsev M.V. - Reforms of the Military Judicial System of Switzerland in 1799-1800: on the Question of French Influence pp. 215-226



Abstract: The proposed article is devoted to the history of two reforms of military justice in Switzerland 1799 and 1800. It describes a chronologically small but very important stage of the transition to a new military-judicial organization associated with foreign interference in the affairs of the country. The purpose of the study is to present the main changes in the military justice of Switzerland and the degree of influence on them of the French institutions of the late XVIII century. The object of study here is the military-judicial law of the Helvetic Republic, reflected in the laws of July 27, 1799 and November 24, 1800. The subject of the study is the process of reforming military justice in Switzerland at the reception of the norms of French law. When working on the materials of the topic, the comparative historical research method, contextual analysis of legal documents and structural and functional analysis of judicial and legal institutions of the two countries were applied. As a result, the study showed that the reforms created a new system of military justice, which was connected only with the military organization and did not depend on the cantonal affiliation of military personnel. The reform of 1799 differed from the reorganization of 1800 by the greater radicalism and democracy of the institutions created, which corresponded to the political aspirations of various ruling groups that succeeded each other in the Helvetic Republic leadership. Nevertheless, both reforms were oriented towards the assimilation of the French experience of the military judicial system of the era of the Great Revolution. The borrowing of foreign military-judicial law in Helvetia was not limited to the complete copying of foreign norms, Swiss legislators were able to show a certain originality in their adoption. The main difference of the Swiss military judicial organization was the introduction of a three-tier system of military courts and the preservation of the institution of disciplinary councils, which in the French Republic by the end of the XVIII century already ceased to exist.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Semenov A.S., Gavrilov A.P., Kulakov V.I. - The Origin of the Ryazan-Oka Cruciform Fibulae and the Genesis of the Local Military Elite pp. 227-243



Abstract: The study of the Ryazan-Oka culture has been going on for more than 100 years. Its main area is the Middle Pooch, with a significant tendency to dominate in the Volga-Oka interfluve from the first centuries of our era until the 60s of the VII century AD. With some degree of hypotheticism, the Ryazan-Oka center, along with the Old Ladoga, can be considered as one of the points of laying the foundations of the Old Russian statehood. The author's team sets itself the task of clarifying certain issues of the formation of the Ryazan-Oka elite on the basis of the latest DNA data and studying the most important cultural artifacts - the cross-shaped fibulae of elite warriors.The scientific novelty of the research is the combination of the study of objects of material culture with the latest DNA data. The study showed that the genesis of the most important attribute of the Ryazan-Oka elite - cross-shaped fibulae - can be associated with the shores of the Western Baltic and the North Sea (including Scandinavia). DNA data indicate the possible origin of a part of the military elite from the shores of the Baltic and the Northwestern part of the Eastern European Plain. Thus, it is quite legitimate to raise the question of migrations (of population and material culture) to the Ryazan-Oka area from the northwest. The latter could have an East Germanic, Baltic, Early Slavic, Baltic-Finnish linguistic affiliation.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Cherkasov A.V., Kozlov M.N. - Characteristics of the Stone Age of Crimea in the Creative Heritage of A.S. Moiseev. pp. 244-252



Abstract: The purpose of the article is to characterize the contribution of the Russian scientist Alexander Silovich Moiseev to the archaeological study of the Stone Age of the Mountainous Crimea. To achieve the goal, the following tasks were envisaged: the selection of articles on the primitive archeology of the Crimea from the entire array of scientific publications of the scientist, their subsequent historiographical analysis and generalization. The research methodology was based on the complex application of scientific principles: historicism, objectivity, comparative historical approach, retrospection. The problem field of the research included the following components: establishing continuity in the history of the study of the Stone Age of the Crimean peninsula, formulating priority problems of the primitive archeology of the region in the works of the scientist. The source base for the study was the published articles by A.S. Moiseev on the history of the Stone Age of the Mountainous Crimea. In the course of the conducted research, it was found that during the short-lived but important expeditions of A.S. Moiseev as director of the Natural History Museum in Yalta, the source base was gradually formed in the articles of the scientist and the program of future studies of the ancient history of the peninsula was concretized. A.S. Moiseev put the study of the Stone Age of the Crimea to a qualitatively new level. In particular, he actualized the need to search and excavate primitive monuments with careful fixation of all finds in plan and section, justified the expediency of joint stationary excavations of several well-known archaeological sites with systematic searches in new, not yet explored areas. In addition, the author's innovations are the transition from the simple collection of flints and tools to their systematization and typology, the formation of ordered collections; the creation of a complete archaeological map of primitive sites and locations of the peninsula with their detailed stratigraphy, as well as the strengthening of scientific ties between representatives of regional and academic science in the study of Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic monuments of the Crimea.
History of law and state
Sosenkov F.S. - The Main Trends in the Formation of the Soviet Federal Socio-Territorial Space (1917 1922) pp. 253-277



Abstract: The subject of the study is the process of formation of the Soviet federal socio-territorial space in the period 1917 1922, which includes the design of the state borders of Soviet Russia, the definition of the principles of the Soviet Federation (internationalism, the right of nations to self-determination), the regions composition of the RSFSR, the order of distribution of rigions and powers between the center and the regions, the scope of such powers and subjects of reference. The purpose of this study was to study the trends in the formation of the Soviet Federation in the diversity of its regions, the influence of these trends on outsiders of the next historical level of the Soviet Federation the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. To achieve this goal, a set of universal (dialectics), general scientific (analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, structural-system method), private scientific methods (historical method), special methods (formal legal, comparative legal) were used. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author highlights the following trends in the first experiments of building a Soviet federal state: 1) the experimental nature of the construction of the Soviet federation in the absence of appropriate political and legal experience; 2) the ideocratic nature of the Soviet federal state, based on internationalism and the right of nations to self-determination; 3) the national-territorial nature with obvious asymmetry in favor of national subjects; 4) the initial non-determination of the borders of the Soviet federation; 5) the indefinite subject composition of the federation, constantly changing, both qualitatively and quantitatively; 6) the situational and individual nature of the distribution of subjects of competence and powers between the center and the regions. A special contribution of the author to the research of the topic is the introduction into scientific circulation of archival documents from the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the State Archive of Socio-Political History.
Kodan S.V. - The Code of Laws of the USSR and the Codes of Laws of the Union Republics in Ensuring the Legislative Unity of the USSR (mid-1970s - 1980s) pp. 278-294



Abstract: The creation of the Code of Laws of the USSR was a new stage in ensuring the unity of the legislative space in the USSR. In accordance with the decisions of the XXV Congress of the CPSU and the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1976), theoretical study was carried out and work was carried out in the period up to 1985 on the publication of the Code of Laws of the USSR. Accordingly, the preparation and publication of codes of laws in the Union Republics began. The scientific novelty of the article consists in generalizing the available materials and determining the place and role of the Code of Laws of the USSR and the codes of laws of the Union Republics in ensuring one of the main elements in ensuring the unity of the Secular Union State. It is concluded that the Code of Laws of the USSR and the codes of laws of the Union republics in ensuring the unity of the legislative space of the USSR became the final stage in the centralization and coordination of the system of legislation at the level of the Union state and its constituent republics. The codes of laws were not only an important means of maintaining the unity of the legislative space of the country, but also contributed to the development of the legislative system as a whole and its branches identifying gaps, coordinating the content of union and republican normative legal acts. At the same time, they are the most important source of studying the development of the USSR and Soviet law as a whole.
World history: Eras and seasons
Iarygin V.V. - The Anti-chinese Riots at Washington Territory in 1885-1886 pp. 295-304



Abstract: US-Chinese relations often become the object of researchers' consideration. Russian historians often raise the issue of Chinese immigration to the New World, but, as a rule, these are review and retrospective works covering the entire period of this problem, starting from the middle of the XIX century. And the vicissitudes of the development of sinophobia, which flourished in American society in the era of the Gilded Age" and united all segments of the population, are shown in general terms. Meanwhile, racism towards Asians manifested itself not only in the adoption of the law on the restriction of Chinese immigration in 1882, but also in acts of violence against newcomers: murders, lynchings, sometimes taking the most massive form the form of anti-Chinese riots. For this reason, the author turned to the poorly developed question in Russian historical science about anti-Chinese pogroms in the northwestern United States in the mid-1880s. The article examines the events that took place in Tacoma and Seattle, examines the causes, course and consequences of the racially motivated riots that occurred on the Territory of Washington in the autumn-winter of 1885-1886, and also reveals the reaction of local and federal authorities to what happened. The events in the north-west of the United States reflected the chauvinistic sentiments prevailing in society at that time and the unwillingness to assimilate the Chinese within the framework of the American "melting pot".
History and Economics
Sapuntsov A.L. - Trading Companies and Distribution of Speculative Bubbles within European Commodity and Stock Markets, 17-18 century pp. 305-317



Abstract: The paper examines the first financial crises based on speculative exchange transactions with overseas goods and securities of trading companies. Based on the study of Tulip mania, as well as the bubble of the South Seas and Mississippi, the features of concluding transactions "for the future" with the supply of assets that do not exist at the moment, the possibility of production or procurement of which was based on skillfully spreading rumors, are described in detail. Attention is paid to the "behavior of the crowd" when, with insufficient regulation on the stock market, the broad masses of the population became participants in exchange trading, investing there not only their own, but sometimes also borrowed assets. The assessment of measures to prevent stock speculation in the context of the abolition of monopoly rights of trading companies and the liberalization of public relations is given. The main conclusion of the author is the dialectical interpretation of speculative crises of the XVII-XVIII centuries as, on the one hand, objectively previously unknown phenomena, for the prevention of which the government did not have enough knowledge and tools. On the other hand, crises became effective tools in carrying out structural transformations in societies of that time, breaking the established foundations, redistributing wealth, stimulating institutional changes, since the adoption of prohibitive measures in relation to speculation on the stock exchange would make it impossible overseas trade and expansion of trading companies abroad, which in fact was accompanied by a profitable robbery of colonies with the corresponding the flow of resources to Europe. Financial crises based on speculation and "air" trading persist to the present and often become global, which, in the author's opinion, is due to the impossibility of introducing total control over new financial instruments for investing abroad and an ambiguous assessment of the profitability of such activities in the future.
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