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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 03/2017
Contents of Issue № 03/2017
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Khegai V. - The reform of foreign colonies of 1871 from the perspective of Russian historians: historiography and problems pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.22077

Abstract: The subject of this research is the evaluation characteristics of the reform of foreign colonies of 1871 of the Russian Federation, which are provided in the Russian language research of pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and post-Soviet periods. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as reference of the lawmakers, researchers of the anti-German wave, and descendants of the colonist environment to the problem of the reform of 1871 and the reaction upon the introduced changes. Special attention is given to the discussion between the authors, as well as factors that predetermines the position of the scholars in controversial questions. Particular examination is dedicated to the episode of closing the Saratov bureau of foreign colonists in the scientific literature. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the facts that for the first time the points of view of the Russian historians of various historical periods and representatives of different social circles and scientific disciplines with regards to the reform of June 4, 1871 are subjected to comprehensive academic analysis. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that the study of the history of Russian Germans was usually a reflection of national policy of the Russian State pertaining to this group of population. Expressed by the researchers opinions also depended on the national affiliation of the author and his social origin. This topic is insignificantly studied, thus remains relevant for the further research.
Khegai V. - The reform of foreign colonies of 1871 in Russia in reflection of the foreign historiography pp. 8-14

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.22133

Abstract: The subject of this research is the main achievements and deceptions of the foreign historiography with regards to the problem of reforming of the Russian Germans colonies during the period of 1860’s – 1870’s. The author carefully examines such aspects as popularity of the topic of Russian Germans associated with the World War I in the works of German authors; period of silence of the 1930’s – 1950’s; activity of the Russian German community in the Federal Republic of Germany; German fundamentalist research of the 1980’s – 2000’s. Special attention is given to the leading woks of the American and French historiography. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the author is first to carry out a scientific research of the coverage of the reform of 1871 in works of the foreign historians, in which the reform attained controversial evaluation, and who often patterned the opinion of Russian historians or intentionally polemicized with them. Some of the authors became hostages of the specific ideology or political conjuncture, which predetermined their non-scientific character of such publications. Not having access to the Russian archive sources, German, American, and French scholars often came to the contradictory conclusions. Thus, the questions about the reform of 1871 remains its relevance for the further research.
Historical memory
Lyutov E.E. - Course and peculiarities of the military engagement in foothills of Krymsk, Abinsk, and Novorossiysk districts of Krasnodar Krai during the period of August 18, 1942 – September 20, 1943 pp. 15-24

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.22099

Abstract: The object of this research is the battle of the Caucasus that as one of the largest in scale and military-political significance battles of the Great Patriotic War. The subject of this research is the character and course of the military engagement in foothills of Krymsk, Abinsk, and Novorossiysk districts of Krasnodar Krai over the period of 1942-1943. The chronological framework of the article capture the period from August 18, 1942 until September 20, 1943, as well as include the defensive (August 18 – December 31 of 1942) and offensive (January 1 – September 20 of 1943) periods of the military engagement of Soviet troops. The scientific novelty consists in the detailed examination of the insignificantly studied direction in the context of the battle of the Caucasus as a whole, and Novorossiysk defensive operation in particular. The article presents the key episodes of military actions of the defensive and offensive periods, as well as gives description to the regions and coordinates where it took place. The author determines the main positive and negative moments of the impact of human factor and natural conditions upon the success of the military operations of Soviet troops in the claimed time frame. The materials of this work are relevant for implementation in the educational process of the universities of Krasnodar Krai for general and specialized lectures on the Russian History, Kuban studies, and other adjacent disciplines.
Social history
Iminohoev A.M. - The city of Verkhneudinsk/Ulan-Ude in 1930: demographic processes and size of population pp. 25-32

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.22285

Abstract: In the presented article, the author examined the channels and mechanisms of population formation in Verkhneudinsk / Ulan-Ude under conditions of large-scale socialist industrialization of the 1930s, when radical changes in the growth rates and the structure of the city's population took place. Based on the archive materials, special attention is paid to migration flows from other regions and rural areas of the republic, which was the main source of urban population growth during the examined the period. The author analyzes the important problems, which aggravated due to the massive influx of migrants, such as urban infrastructure, housing crisis, and growth of social diseases. The methodological basis of the research includes the fundamental principles of historical science: the principle of historicism, which requires considering historical events and processes in their development and interrelationship; the principle of scientific objectivity and systemic nature that allows carrying out an objective analysis, give assessment to the facts related to the topic in their combination. The main conclusions of the study lie in the thesis that the formation of urban population of Verkhneudinsk/Ulan-Ude during the 1930's was affected by a number of socioeconomic and demographic processes characteristic to the entire county, among which are industrialization, collectivization, and demographic transition..
History of public institutions
Savelev D.L. - Formation of the system of public education management during the first years of the Soviet power (on the example of Tyumen governorate) pp. 33-41

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.22304

Abstract: The article is devoted to examination of the processes of formation of the system of public education management and cultural-educational activity during the first years of the establishment of Soviet power in Tyumen (Tobolsk) governorate, before its entry into the Ural Region in 1923. Based on the analysis of archive materials, the author determines and analyzes the features of formation and human resources of the governorate's department of public education under the conditions of the civil war and establishment of a system of councils. The article gives assessment to the role of military revolutionary committee of Tyumen governorate alongside the governorate political and educational committee in the organization of public education. The scientific novelty is substantiated by introduction into academic discourse of the archive materials that allow expanding the perception about the content of the state building processes in the field of public education, as well as political agitation in the territory of Tyumen governorate. The author underlines that the development of organizational structures alongside the public education management system in the region were under the influence of the circumstances of civil war and repeated change of political power.
History and Economics
P'yankov S.A. - Agrarian agents of development: activity of agronomical and statistical services of Ural municipalities in the late XIX – early XX centuries pp. 42-62

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.21713

Abstract: This article, based on the example of statistical and agronomical services of the Ural municipalities, analyzes the activity of intelligentsia aimed at cultural and socioeconomic development of a village. The author examines the process of establishment and development of the county statistics and agronomy under the conditions of Russian province of the late XIX – beginning of the XX centuries, as well as demonstrates the place of Ural governorates in this process. Special attention is given to the social origin, activity, and sociopolitical views of the prominent representatives of municipality, who were the founders of the county agronomical and statistical services. The work illustrates the mechanisms of interaction between the intelligentsia and peasantry and describes the difficulties that emerged on the path of implementation of the new agrarian technologies into the practice of peasant agriculture. Using the example of the county surveys, the author provides the options of peasants’ attitude towards the representatives of the county intelligentsia. Presented in the article process of transformation of the agrarian sphere are viewed in the context of modernization theory, which allows examining the agrarian development from the perspective of continuity, including separate aspects of the village life with consideration of specific historical peculiarities of the regional development. The conclusion is made that despite the evident complications in interaction between the intelligentsia and peasantry, the new agrarian technologies were gradually implemented into the practice of agriculture. Multidivisional agronomic service was established in the Ural governorates over the period of several decades; statistical research allowed the county specialists to systematize the data about economic need of the regional agriculture. An important role in formation of the principles of the work of county agronomy was played by the public views of the leaders, who considered their activity as the way “to serve the community”.
History of law and state
Biyushkina N.I. - Customs policy of the Russian Empire of the XIX century in the context of regulation of foreign economic activity pp. 63-71

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.22017

Abstract: The object of this research is the customs policy of the Russian State in historical legal context. The subject of this research is the acts of domestic legislation and international treaties of the Russian Empire over the reviewed period aimed at regulation of the customs and foreign economic activity, as well as the unpublished scientific works on this topic. Special attention is given to examination of positions and views of the public and government figures, who directly participated in discussion and corresponding decision-making. The author carefully explores the legal regulation within the framework of customs policy on the level of the acts of national legislation alongside the international law. The article conducts a historical legal analysis of the questions of customs regulation as the basic component of foreign economic activity. Based on the research of various sources, the work gives characteristics to the general format of customs policy of this period and its specificity. The scientific novelty lies in the complex analysis of legal regulation of the customs policy in the context of general regulation of the foreign economic activity: on one hand, characteristics of the regulation of the aforementioned questions on the level of national legislation; and on the other – international-legal regulation of separate aspects, as well as main features, content, and specificity.
Lyadascheva-Il'icheva M.N. - Forms of systematization of civil legislation in Russian during the period of 1649-1825: historical-legal aspect pp. 72-85

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.18289

Abstract: The subject of this research is the formation and development of the formal utterance of civil legal policy in Russia over the period of 1649-1825, which manifested and undergone changes during the prolonged process of legislative regulation of social relations alongside the attempts of systematization of legislation in accordance with the sectoral principle. Legislative acts that regulated the order of changes in formal aspect of the civil legislation were used as the main sources of the research. The goal of the work consists in the comprehensive historical-legal examination of regularities of the establishment and development of legislator’s perception regarding the forms of civil legislation systematization. The author’s principal conclusions concern the civil legal policy in Russia during the period of 1649-1925, which has been establishing and progressing within the process of legislative regulation of the arising social relation through adoption of the new legislative acts that claim to fill the gaps and eliminate contradictions in the acting code of laws, and creation of projects of codes of acting laws and new  regulation. Thus, in the course of systematization of the Russian civil legislation, the officials along with the legal experts have formed the perception about the compilation of laws, codes of civil laws and new civil regulation. Russian legislator attempted to ensure the equal and fair trial across the entire nation, therefore, traditionally attracted the government authorities towards the resolution of the problem of systematization of legislation, who applied the acting laws and realized justice.
Krasnozhon O. - The journal “Vestnik Policii” – determinant of professional legal consciousness of police personnel of the Russian Empire in early XX century pp. 86-104

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.21980

Abstract: The subject of this research is the journal “Vestnik Policii”, which was being published in Saint Petersburg between the years of 1907-1917 under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire. “Vestnik Policii” represented monthly illustrated and multispectral periodicals, the materials of which give characteristics to the main directions of the work of Russian police in the early XX century, define the features of professional legal consciousness of police officers of this period, as well as reveal the role of journal in upbringing and professional training of police personnel of the Russian Empire. The goal of this work lies in analysis of the causes of emergence of the journal, its structure and materials for determining the role of the journal in formation of ideological and psychological components of the professional legal consciousness of police officers of the Russian Empire, as well as public opinion about the work of police. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the journal “Vestnik Policii” for the first time is being viewed as a determinant of professional legal consciousness of police personnel of the Russian Empire. Until present time, in the Russian historical or historical legal science there was no record of carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the key stages of development and activity of the journal. The conclusion is made that the journal was the important means of professional training of the police officers alongside the formation of public opinion that pertains to the police work in the Russian Empire. It also contributed in to the growth of state political, general cultural and professional development of the Russian Empire police officers, as well as establishment of ideological and psychological components of their professional legal consciousness.
Fedorova I.A. - Initiation of a criminal case - history of emergence of the degree in criminal procedure pp. 105-112

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.18202

Abstract: The subject of this research is genesis of the sources of the Russian criminal procedural law that regulate the degree of criminal case initiation and its development since the imperial times until present day. The article examines the sources of written law of the Russian Empire, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and their impact upon the formation of criminal procedure in modern Russia. The author also analyzes the influence of social changes upon the criminal procedural law as a whole, and the institute of initiation of a criminal case in particular. The main conclusions of this work consist in the following positions: firstly, the degree of criminal case initiation has consolidated within the Russian criminal procedure as an independent full-fledged stage that has its own tasks, grounds, specific circle of participants, procedural implementation, and final decisions; secondly, the examined institution of criminal procedural law requires thorough research, as well as formulation of proposals on improving the legislation and law enforcement.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - Balkans at the crossroads of the worlds: Slavic "knot of history" (late XIX – early XX centuries) pp. 113-125

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.18171

Abstract: The subject of this article is the located at the crossroads of civilizations Balkan Peninsula, which throughout centuries is a sphere of geopolitical interests of various coalitions. Aggravation of the imperialist contradictions in the late XIX – early XX centuries led to the formation of "hot spot" in the southeast of Europe, which justly acquired the name of “powder keg”. The close ties between Russia and the nations of the peninsula have century-long traditions, but have been repeatedly subjected to various challenges, both domestic and external factors. The authors lean on the documents and studies of the Russian and foreign origin, which allow restoring the historical picture of the epoch. The main method of the research is the problematic-chronological. Despite the similarity in political and economic processes, the Balkan countries were unable to establish a strong alliance that could become an independent geopolitical player on the global arena. Moreover, the incompleteness of process of the formation of national states caused a series of military conflicts that continue to spark periodically even until present day.
History of political and legal doctrines
Krasnov A.V., Skorobogatov A.V. - Legal value in Russia: theoretical-legal and retrospective analysis pp. 126-143

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.18326

Abstract: The subject of this research is the formulation of theoretical model of legal value as an intersubjective category that substantiates the relation of actors (individuals, local groups, society) to the legal reality on various levels and stages of its development, with attraction of achievements of the legal sciences alongside the social philosophy and phenomenological sociology. The subject also includes the structure of legal values of modern Russia based on the critical analysis of sustainable perceptions about the postulating values, considering the anomie of Russian society, involving the data from the official doctrine and sociological surveys of the population. The methodological foundation consists in the post-classical worldview paradigm in form of phenomenological methodology that defined the choice of specific methods of the study: comparative, anthropological, systemic, the use of which is based on the principle of historicism. The author highlights that the legal value is being viewed as an intersubjective phenomenon, which forms as a result of development of certain relation of the individual and collective actor to the components of legal reality – lawmaking, realization of law, and legal behavior. The scientific novelty lies in the author’s approach towards the notion and characteristics of the category at hand: legal values is considered the system of principles, postulates, and reasoning, which define the attitude of an individual, local community, or society as a whole towards the legal reality. The main form of its existence is the developed by legal consciousness generalized understanding of the desires and (or) necessary essence of various levels of legal reality. Multifacetedness of legal value manifests in the fact that on one hand it is reflected in the legal tradition and legal mentality, and on the other – is capable of influencing the legal consciousness through legal experience. Legal values are justified u the cultural and civilizational factors. The modern Russian system of legal values splits into contending elements – subsystem of the implemented values of “Western” type that competes with the sustainable subsystem of the traditional values. Such state is viewed as a common to the Russian society throughout various historical stages; prevalence of one or another subsystem predetermines the further legal development.
Interdisciplinary research
Sineokii O.V. - Structural-format transformation of a rock band as a relatively sustainable frame in the history of sound recording (music legal analysis of certain types of transformations) pp. 144-166

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.17982

Abstract: This article is first in the Russian scientific literature to analyze a rock band from the perspective of legal relations established in music industry. The subject of this publication in the music legal analysis of international practice of resolution of the issued that emerge in juridical platitude due to the rock bands transformations. The author carefully examines the formats of rock bands transformations, illustrating the research materials in the examples from music business, including the legal support and court consideration of disputes. The chronological boundaries capture the period of 50 years (1965-2015). The theoretical core lies in communication theory in the context of culturological knowledge with the elements of intellectual property rights. The author comes to a conclusion that a rock band holds one of the major places within the system of legal relations, being an integral communication phenomenon and representing a certain format of music collective with the inherent peculiarities in its composition, number of participants, distribution of role and functions, used instruments. Based on the communication legal theory, the author describes each of the formats of transformations, analyzing the similarities and differences, as well as the issues that often occur due to coincidence in the names (trademarks, brands). Special attention is given to the author’s proposition regarding the formulation and adoption of the Model Code in the field of sound recording as a unified regulation of behavioral rules of recommendation character.
Social history
Mezit L.E. - Establishment of the institutions of civil society in the early XX century (on the materials of Yeniseian Governorate) pp. 167-171

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.21911

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of work of the public organizations of Yeniseian Governorate in resolution of the questions of universal education. The chronological framework of the research capture the period after the adoption of law of Provisional Government of March 4, 1906 “Temporary Rules about Societies and Unions” and until the Revolution of 1917. Examination of the question at hand using the materials of Yeniseian Governorate allows forming the perception about which events took place in the regional life, as well as country as a whole. Analysis of the work of s public organizations in the studied period clarifies the level of comprehensiveness of the civil society institutions in pre-revolutionary Russia. The scientific novelty is defined by introduction into the academic discourse of the new, previously unpublished archive materials, which allowed reconstructing the activity of public organizations in the field of education using the example of Yeniseian Governorate. The article provides analysis of implementation of the system of social measures on distribution of education in the region, as well as gives assessment to the level of efficiency of local public organizations in addressing this issue.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Zhukova L.V. - Fraternal gatherings of military clergy and interdepartmental charity initiatives (late XIX – early XX centuries) pp. 172-190

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.21887

Abstract: The object of this research is the fraternal gatherings of military clergy in the late XIX – early XX centuries, while the subject is the charity initiatives suggested by arch-presbyter and regimental priests, which were discussed during such gatherings. The author examines the initiatives that have been adopted or rejected, as well as conducts their classification and traces the process of implementation, since the discussion to the beginning of work. The article reviews the new approaches towards charity, proposed by A. A. Zhelobovsky – structure of companies, which revenue can serve as the financial support of the interdepartmental charity. Analyzing the social importance of interdepartmental charity and its impact upon the consolidation of the institution of military clergy. The conclusion is made that the fraternal gatherings of military clergy during the arch-presbyterate of A. A. Zhelobovsky become a form of consolidation of the military priests, gradually capturing not only the St. Petersburg District, but also the remote suburbs. They allow taking into account the experience and difficulties in work of the priests, thus contributing into consolidation of the military clergy and improvement of the methods of work of the local priests. Fraternal gatherings also become an important form of organization of the interdepartmental work, steadily transitioning from the information about synodic and ministerial orders towards the discussion of questions namely pertaining to the military clergy. Therefore, despite the fact that decisions of the gathering did not carry a legislative power, they became a specific form of collegial administration of the department in the arch-presbyterate of A. A. Zhelobovsky. He put a lot of effort into improving the financial situation of the military priests, as well as contributed into social charity, helping the widows and orphans, which increased the prestige of military clergy alongside the number of candidates for the positions. This, in turn, allows gradually replenishing the staff of military clergy, by selecting the more educative and active applicants.
Archeology
Tikhonov R.V. - Tagora from the Dabilcurgan in Northern Bactria pp. 191-197

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.3.18151

Abstract: The subject of the research in this article is tagora, discovered during archaeological excavations of the Kushano-Sasanian cultural layer (III-IV В.С.) in the settlement of Dabilkurgan in Northern Bactria. It has a conical shape of the body with widely divergent walls and a thickened rim, with the profiled inner side of the three grooves and ledges. A characteristic feature of the tagora is the presence of floral ornament applied by the burnishing engobe on the inner surface of the vessel. In the upper part the composition made up of images of flowers, which are interconnected by a U-shaped line. At the bottom of the ornament is a slanted crossing line. During the study, emphasis was placed on careful analysis of the stratigraphy of the Kushano-Sasanian cultural layer, as well as the study of typology tagora and «iconographic» features are presented ornamental compositions. During the conducted research the author came to the following conclusions. First, form the dining area enough tagora of the Dabilkurgan typical of Bactria Kushano-Sasanian period, which indicates some standardization in the pottery craft. Secondly, the technique of ornamentation is unique to the ceramic complex of the country, as was primarily made on wet clay ornament and stamp. Thirdly, the analysis of ornamental compositions revealed that the motif, the «flowers», appeared in connection with the antique effect, which has undergone a number of changes on Bactrian soil.
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