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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 04/2016
Contents of Issue № 04/2016
Issues of war and peace
Khotko S.K. - Circassia in the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578-1591 pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19792

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of Circassia’s involvement into the sphere of the military-political influence of Ottoman Empire throughout the XVI century. The highest level of integration of the Circassian political space into the Ottoman Empire was achieved during the 1570’s. In the long Ottoman–Safavid War (1578-1591), Circassia appeared as a regional ally, by providing the Ottoman Empire with its territory, manpower and material resources. The author underlines that during this timeframe there was a noticeable political convergence between the Circassian principalities with the Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate. Such phenomenon was a result of the Russia-Circassia military-political alliance (1552-157), which in turn was caused by the Crimean Khan Sahib I Giray’s military campaigns (1539, 1545, and 1551). Among the main conclusions of this research are the following: 1) a rapid decrease in intensity and political significance of the connections between the principalities of the Western Circassia and Moscow after the year 1562, and Eastern Circassia in 1570; 2) the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578-1591 became an important milestone in establishment of the Ottoman sovereignty over Circassia.
History of science and technology
Shebyrova L.G. - Life and scientific work of Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov in France pp. 12-27

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19107

Abstract: Based on the archive and published documents, this article examines the details of biography and scientific work of the Russian emigrant scholar Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov during his life in France, after 1919. This period is extremely important for the social history of science and history of biology. The goal of this work is to reproduce the new details of Metalnikov’s biography, which pertain to his scientific and social activity. The author conducts a historical-scientific analysis along with systematization of the scholar’s scientific works, archive and published documents that reveal the facts of his personal and professional path, as well as his views. The author thoroughly examines and determines the main directions of Metalnikov’s scientific work during within this timeframe, including the research on correlation between the immune system and nervous system, immunology and pathology of the insects, and biological methods of pest control. A number of new archive documents from the scholar’s epistolary heritage are being introduced into the scientific circulation. The author also reveals Metalnikov’s active participation in social life of the Russian scientific emigration, as well as his civil position, political views, and the given by Metalnikov scientific explanation.
Theory and methodology of history
Moiseeva L.A., Chugunov A.M. - To the theoretical-methodological problems of the study of history of the Russian historical cinematography: on the example of Primorsky Krai (1938 – June of 1941) pp. 28-45

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19950

Abstract: The subject of this research is the cinematographic interpretation of history and historical perception of the film: to the theoretical-methodological problems of the study of history of the Russian historical cinematography: on the example of Primorsky Krai (1938 – June of 1941). Based on the newly acquired historical knowledge, the author examines the establishment of the theory of cinematography during confrontation between Russian and foreign schools, directions, and concepts, as well as its transformation into the theory of Soviet cinematography that performed the ideological orientations of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and Soviet authorities as the means of influence upon general public, encouraging them towards the collective labor heroism under the changing domestic and external conditions. The scientific novelty lies in demonstration of the structural-functional “nature” of Soviet cinematography along with the impact of the historical reality upon the Russian cinematography in the context of “history and cinema”. This article, based on the example of Primorsky Krai, is first to study the specificity of establishment of the functions of cinematography as a social institution, form of art, means of mass communication, and the necessity of using the historical experience in the modern circumstances.
History of law and state
Mamontov V. - The impact of the foreign policy factors upon the development of customs legislation in Moscow State of the XVI-XVII centuries pp. 46-50

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19069

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal regulation of the customs of Moscow centralized state of the XVI-XVII centuries. The object is the combination of the socioeconomic and foreign policy relations established in the Moscow centralized state in the XVI-XVII centuries, which affected the development of the Russian customs law during the examined period. The goal of this work is to analyze the influence of the foreign policy factors on the customs policy of Moscow State, as well as its reflection in the normative legal acts of the aforementioned period. Special attention is given to the study of the Russian experience of syncretizing the elements of foreign policy and the customs legal regulation based on the example of formation of the customs legislation in the Moscow State of the XVI-XVII centuries. The examination of the experience of establishment of the Moscow State customs legislation allows claiming that the development of the customs law is performed taking into account the influence of the foreign policy factors that are in turn substantiated by the possibility of implementation of the instruments of customs policy for the purpose of solution of the foreign policy tasks, as well as by the necessity of consideration of the foreign policy conjuncture during the introduction of certain legal norms regulating the relations in the customs sphere.
Akishin M.O. - State reforms and legal language of the Russian Empire of the XVIII century pp. 51-72

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.20072

Abstract: This article examines the impact of state-legal reformations upon the development of the legal language of the Russian Empire of the XVIII century. The author performs an analysis of the Romano-Germanic doctrines of the Renaissance era with regards to the development of the state and law of Russia through the prism of the language borrowings. The article reviews the state-legal policy in the area of language relations, changes in the language of legislation, establishment of the conceptual apparatus of law, language of the official clerical correspondence and judicial procedures, as well as the influence of legal science upon the development of the theory of legal language in the Russian Empire. It is determined that the establishment of the enlightened absolutism and the state of the early New Times had impact upon the development of Russian language. The law in the modern essence becomes the essential source of law. Certain requirements to the language are being formulated in the lawmaking process. The author highlights the establishment of terminology and terminological system of legal language; the legal notions attain the legal definitions. The formation of legal science led to the development of the theory of legal language; the dictionaries of the XVIII century were comprised by the renowned Russian scholars and public figures. It is noted that Russia has formed the tradition of the doctrinal definitions of legal concepts, which were endowed with substantial authority.
Melyukhanova E.E. - The development of the criminal justice system during the Soviet period pp. 73-88

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.17203

Abstract: This article examines the historical aspect of the evolutionary development of the criminal justice system during the Soviet period, which was characterized by the rejection of the established idea about the criminal justice system. During the first years of Soviet authorities, the government attempted to create something new instead of the rejected bourgeois. The thorough development of the criminal justice system took place during the first codification of the Soviet criminal law based on the Guiding Principles of Criminal Law of 1919; however, the list of punishments was rather approximate, which testified about the lack of the principle of certainty in legislative codification of the penal system. Only in the RSFSR Criminal Code of 1922 the penal system contained an exhaustive list of separate types of punishments. The further development of the criminal justice system was based on the scientific research of the legal experts. The author underlines the establishment of the single terminology within the framework of the doctrine on punishment. The term “penal system” has strongly established in the legal research substituting the previously term “ladder of punishments”. The conducted analysis demonstrates the dialectical unity of the two contrary processes: the criminal justice system, preserving essential properties, was in the constant development through the changes in the inner content. The attempts were made to distinguish the punishment from other measures of state compulsion by means of determination of the essential signs of criminal justice.
History of regions of Russia
Mezit L.E., Valyunova A.V. - The results of implementation of the program of comprehensive sociocultural development of Krasnoyarsk Krai pp. 89-95

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.20216

Abstract: The goal of this work is to assess the efficiency of the program-targeted method of administration based on the experience of implementation of the complex program of sociocultural development of Krasnoyarsk Krai during the period of 1980’s. The specificity of the region is substantiated by the fact that the large-scale tasks on its industrial assimilation were performed in the conditions of complete absence of infrastructure, deficit of labor resources, as well as its geographical remoteness from the central authorities. The scientific novelty consists in the following: based on the archive data, the authors attempted to determine the decision-making mechanism along with realization of complex goals pertaining to changes in the working conditions and meeting the cultural demands of the population of the region. The article also analyzes the public initiatives that emerged in the region during the examined period.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - "Europe - the common home": current challenges and problems. pp. 96-106

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19654

Abstract: The subject of study is the fate of the European Union, in a global sense, the whole of Europe. The current policy of the bureaucracy of the Old World has been criticized as a left and a right-wing position. Increasingly, states about the decline of Europe and the West in general. Changes ethnoconfessional view of a number of European countries continues to decrease its role in world politics. Special attention is paid to the evolution of views on European unity, showing the fundamental role of Germany in the process. Showing the main problems (crisis of identity, security, migration complexity), the solution of which depends on the existence of the European Union.The methodological base of the research is a comparative analysis and monitoring, as well as methods of deduction and induction.Attracting foreign and domestic sources and the study, the authors show that the crisis in Europe is caused by the Brussel's ongoing Atlanticist policy, close but unequal partnership with the United States. Strategy of development of the Old World should be the formation of a truly independent domestic and foreign policy, cooperation with Russia, as well othee countries which defend their sovereignty.
History and Ideology
Ovanesyan I.G. - Upbringing of the youth based on the revolutionary traditions in the practice of Komsomol of the late 1950’s pp. 107-121

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19694

Abstract: This article makes an attempt to determine from the current perspective the reason why particularly in the late 1950’s we can observe a growing interest of the Komsomol leadership towards the upbringing of the youth based on revolutionary traditions, as well as define its specificities and in which way such experience can be didactic. Special attention is given to the establishment of military-patriotic upbringing as one of the priority directions in the activity of Komsomol, and propaganda of the advanced practices in unity with respect to the revolutionary past. The work of the Komsomol is assessed primarily from the government and general human positions. Komsomol is being views as the original Soviet “department of youth affairs”, interlink between the government and the youth. It is demonstrated that in the 1950’s Komsomol has established a new approach: to revive the memory of the past of fathers, mothers, and brothers was the foremost responsibility of each initial Komsomol organization, as well as each district or municipal committee of Komsomol. The author believes that the principle of unity of educating the youth based on the traditions of the past, heroic spirit of the present, and ideals of the future in many aspects remains relevant even today. At the same time, it is highlighted that turning to the past, we should focus not on the destructive, but constructive traditions.
History and Politics
Matsievskii G.O. - The state and Kozakdom in the XVI – the beginning of the XIX centuries (the evolution of political relations) pp. 122-136

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19279

Abstract: The subject of this research is the evolution of political relations between the state and Kozakdom in the XVI – the beginning of the XIX centuries, when Russia was turning into a major Eurasian state, as well as the foundations of its Imperial policy were establishing. The goal of this work consists in determination of the characteristic features and specificities of the main stages of the history of these relations, when throughout the three centuries there was a complex process of integration of Kazakdom into the state sociopolitical structure as the “service social class”. The main method of this research lies in the historical approach which suggests the study of the sociopolitical phenomena and events through their origin and evolution. The author makes a conclusion that the history of political relations between the state and Kozakdom going through number of stages, evolved from “free union” to “class service”. As the result, by the beginning of the XIX century, Kazakdom was definitively assigned as the military-service class of the Russian Empire, the inner life and service of which was fully regulated by the authorities.
History and Economics
P'yankov S.A. - The Ural agricultural societies in the late XIX – early XX centuries: the process of establishment, functions and social structure pp. 137-148

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.20218

Abstract: This article based on the data of the administrative statistics, country documentation management, and periodical materials, analyzes the mechanisms of organization of the agricultural societies in the Ural region. The author presents the dynamics of formation of the agricultural societies in Russia, as well as demonstrates the place of Ural governorates in this process. The social structure of the founders and rankers of the public associations are being examined. Based on the example of separate societies, the work analyzes the vectors of the work, number of the participants and areas of their activity, ways and nature of interaction with the representatives of authorities and local self-governance. Special attention is focused on the role of county agricultural personnel, which is one of the main actors in the process of establishment of the agricultural societies in the Ural region. The author makes a conclusion that the agricultural societies were in the sphere of influence of the agricultural services of the government and county council. The growth in the number of agricultural societies was not directly linked to the high social activity of the peasant population, and in many ways acted as the result of the reformation process in agricultural sphere from the outside. The established as the result of the external influence agricultural societies performed the interlink function between the agriculturists and peasantry, playing the role of re-translators of the new production technologies.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Popova S.M., Yanik A.A. - E-archive of the “Interfax” news as the source on the history of USSR and Russia of late XX – early XXI centuries pp. 149-175

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.20013

Abstract: The article is dedicated to the analysis of the archival database of news agency "Interfax" as the source of the reliable facts which describe the key events of the political and economic history of the USSR and Russia of the late XX – early XXI centuries. The authors give and external and internal criticism of the source, as well as examine the circumstances of its emergence and existence, authorship, peculiarities of the structure and content, quality of the presented information, as well as the prospects of its implementation in researches of the history of modern Russia. Special attention is given to the information standards of “Interfax”, which influenced the formation of the source and its distinctive characteristics. This work is first to demonstrate and examine the digital archive of the “Interfax” news as the historical source. It is noted that just over the period of 1989-1999, the database contains more than 1.6 million messages on the key events of the sociopolitical and economic history of USSR and Russia. Thanks to the information standards of the agency, all news messages are notable for its trustworthiness, practical accuracy, and preserve the live reaction of the contemporaries upon the changes that take place in the country. The authors make a conclusion on the value of the “Interfax” archive as the source of the adequate and precise information on the history of USSR and modern Russia.
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Pererva E.V. - Pathological analysis of remains of impuberal individuals dating to late Bronze Age from the near Kurgan burials of Lower Volga Region and Republic of Kalmykia pp. 176-185

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.17422

Abstract: This research is dedicated to the analysis of the pathological deviations that have been discovered on the remains of children from the burials dating to the late Bronze Age. The anthropological materials originate from Kurgan burials located in the Volgograd region and Republic of Kalmykia. In the course of this research, 62 individuals were examined under the age of 16. The bones were poorly preserved, and only various parts of scull fragments were discovered belonging to 52 children. Analysis was conducted on the pathological processes in form of hemorrhages, discovered on the inner surface of the bones at the top of the scull. Sides of anomalous structure on the bones of the scull and postcranial skeleton were also discovered. The age of the impuberal individuals was determined through dental examination, program developed by D. Ubelaker (1978), as well as the sizes of the diaphyses of the large bones of the skeleton and collar bones. It was determined that for the children of the late Bronze Age the characteristic pathologies were those that emerge as the result of lack of microelements in the organism, systematic malnutrition, and spread of infectious diseases.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Bredikhin V.E. - Regulation of the composition of Komsomol in the late 1930’s – the early 1940’s pp. 186-208

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.20229

Abstract: The subject of this research is the policy of regulation of the composition of Komsomol during the prewar years as a way of strengthening of social and human resource base of Stalin’s dictatorship. The author examines the peculiarities of the enrollment into the union, as well as the institution of exclusion from Komsomol as the means of increasing of the quality of its composition. In the context of regulation of the composition of Komsomol, the author analyzes the purges of the “Great Terror” period of 1937-1938.  For the first time in the new historiography of the strengthening of the regime of Stalin’s dictatorship, the author analyzes the practice of regulation of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the union in the late 1930’s through the mechanism of inclusion/exclusion of its members. The practice of inclusion of the late 1930’s significantly differed from the preceding period: the majority of the enrolled was comprised not by the labor people, but the students, which contributed into the growth of educational potential of the union. The mass inclusion of the youth produced a well-known negative effect: in form of increase of the portion of passive members, which decreased the organizational-executive quality of the Komsomol as the assistant of the party. The sanction policy in the union primarily supported the government interests, which substantiated the high percentage of exclusion of the Komsomol members based on political grounds.
Gotsulenko A.V. - The role of the national security authorities in the pre-election campaign and elections of the 1937-1938 (based on the Ural region) pp. 209-219

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.20187

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the activity of the national security authorities of USSR aimed at information awareness of the leadership of the country during the pre-election campaign and elections of the 1937-1938. The author analyzes the normative legal acts of the described period, as well as the archive materials (including the introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time) for the purpose of determination of the main legal moments in the activity of the employees of the law enforcement agencies on implementation of the aforementioned direction of activity. The article raises questions with regards to the correspondence of the certain methods of criminal repressions to the realities of the described period, as well as the increase of the efficiency of law enforcement activity of the government authorities in the 1930’s. The scientific novelty is defined by the introduction into the scientific circulation of the new archive materials, as well as the conducted comparative legal analysis of the normative legal acts, which regulated one of the directions of the national security branches of USSR on protection of the constitutional structure in the 1930’s, and the achieved results.  The author attempted to comprehensively examine large volume of historical and legal sources, be as ideologically unbiased in analyzing these phenomena and processes as possible, and based on that substantiate the conclusions.
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