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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Contents of Issue № 02/2014
History and historical science
Abdulin R.S. - The Role of Court Administration Authorities in Human Resourcing of the Judicial Service of the RSFSR (1917 - 1930) pp. 1-21

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.2.10966

Abstract: In article the role of bodies of judicial management in staffing of judicial activity of the young Soviet republic is considered. The author shows that during the period with 1917 prior to the beginning of 1930 in the country there is a strengthened search of forms and trial and error methods and placement of personnel on judicial positions. The active role in providing judicial authorities with the corresponding shots was played by judicial authorities and superior courts which the author of article carries to bodies of judicial management. During the studied period selection and placement of personnel of judicial system I was not only under control of the National commissariat of justice of RSFSR and its bodies on places, but also the party and Soviet bodies which the author of article refers to subjects of the management of judicial system. Indications of party bodies were obligatory for bodies of judicial management. Problem and chronological and comparative-historical methods allowed to track dynamics of formation of staffing of judicial activity, at the same time formations and developments of institute of judicial management, to find out features of this process. The reconstruction of an objective historical picture was promoted by the system approach, allowed to find out the intrinsic nature, the principles of functioning and evolution of one of the directions of the Soviet judicial management in the specified chronological framework. Scientific novelty of article is caused by the statement of a problem and that the purposes and the tasks defined in it, of the contents, an object of research, methods weren't solved in domestic jurisprudence in full. Therefore for the first time in a domestic historiography complex research of process of formation of staffing of judicial activity as component of judicial management in the Soviet state in a context of social history during the period from 1917 to 1930 is presented.
Factors of historical development
Shchuplenkov N.O., . - Peculiarities of the Political and Legal Orientation of the Social Democratic Movement in Russia pp. 22-77

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.2.10668

Abstract: The main aspects of social democracy taking into account modern relevance of political and legal views of movement are considered. Special value for social democracy has refusal of the Marxist economic concept of a socialism. The private property has the right for protection to means of production so far as it doesn't interfere with development of a fair social order. The market economy, free competition and free enterprise initiative admit modern social democrats as fundamental instruments of economic growth, economic efficiency and social justice. Exactly thanks to the thesis of equality, solidarity, justice of party of social democratic orientation arise practically on all continents. Thanks to a historical method we can track social democratism genesis at all stages of its development. In conditions, when in the world at the beginning of the XXI century. new collision – now not on ideological (totalitarian and democratic modes) is observed, and on a civilization basis (first of all between the western individualism and east traditsionalizm, the most otstaivayemy Islamic fundamentalism), to lot of social democracy falls a link role, first of all for the reason that its valuable installations incorporate both individualist, and the collectivist beginnings.It is necessary to emphasize that all main principles of a socialism – equality, justice, solidarity – remain and in a new socialism, providing its continuity with past sotsializm. But these principles are realized in a new way, gain new lines, providing a place to a socialism and in new, post-industrial society.
World of ideas and world of the mundane
Slezin A.A., . - Everyday Life and Leisure Time of Komsomol Members in the Sphere of Political Control in the RSFSR of 1918 - 1929 pp. 78-105

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.2.10710

Abstract: The object of research is made by the main directions, forms and methods of realization of the open political control exercised concerning everyday life of members of the Komsomol organizations in 1918-1929. In article various aspects of influence of political control on a life and leisure of communistic youth are studied.Territorial framework is limited to the territory of RSFSR. In a number of plots regional localization of research on the basis of materials of the Tambov province that promotes more detailed studying of juvenile history is used, allows to correct some conclusions drawn on the basis of the analysis of materials of the central bodies of party and Komsomol. In studying of this subject sources of a personal origin — correspondence of Komsomol heads of different level, rabselkor, letters and complaints in party and Komsomol bodies, editorial offices of newspapers (as classical ways of political communication), memoirs and memoirs were of great importance. The two-week magazine "Smena" in which letters of readers and reviews from places were of special interest became very representative source. Authors came to a conclusion that political control gained more and more total character. Everyday life of youth became one of the main objects of political control. On the one hand, politicization of control of everyday life unambiguously conducted to activization of fight against the negative phenomena. On the other hand, negativity was defined very konjyukturno, depending on tastes and addictions of those who possessed the political power (at least in local scale). As these addictions didn't differ uniformity, is very inconsistent the orientation of political control in this sphere looks also. But thus all of them were united by aspiration completely to regulate everyday life of youth, considerably to change traditions. The youth was disoriented by statements contradicting each other and estimates of communistic leaders and the propagandists who were at the same time approving actually incompatible norms of daily behavior. It still more increased thirst of youth for searches of all extravagant forms of everyday life.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Korolev A.A., ., . - Activity Performed by the Soviet Evangelican Christians and Baptists in the Second Half of the 1940 - 1960th (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 106-119

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.2.10321

Abstract: Object of research is the functioning of the religious organizations of evangelical Christians and Baptists andinteraction between the government and associations of the Evangelican Christians and Baptists Union in the second half of 1940 - 1960 in the Penza region.Territorial framework of research is defined by the Penza region, typical regional formation of the Central Russia. The main tendencies in activity of confessional associations, as a whole, evangelical Christians and Baptists, in particular, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country are rather accurately traced on the example of the Penza region, having thus the specifics. Besides, this territorial framework corresponds to borders of the modern Penza region. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles of objectivity were chosen; historicism; the systemacities, the full account social and subjective in an object of research and the greatest possible neutralization of the prejudiced relation of the scientist at interpretation and an assessment of the facts. The principles of social and psychological approach and the principle of a correctness and tactfulness in an assessment of the actual material as feature of religious practice of evangelical Christians baptists I was rather strong moral and ethical a component of its participants were as far as possible applied. Novelty is that activity of religious associations of evangelical Christians and Baptists in the Penza region in the 1945-1960th in various directions - involvement of new believers is for the first time studied, increases in commission of cult ceremonies, improvements of personnel structure of presviter, expansions of material base of communities, activization of administrative practice, etc.; the mechanism of relationship of power structures and groups of evangelical Christians and Baptists in a sotsioistorichesky foreshortening is studied.Conclusions:- activity of religious groups of evangelical Christians and Baptists of the Penza edge reflected the characteristic regularities inherent in confessional practice of the USSR in 1945-1960: strengthening of social and material positions during the post-war period, deterioration of position of evangelical Christians and Baptists in the late fifties, etc.;- regional religious communities of evangelical Christians and Baptists in all measure felt on themselves pressure of state and church policy during the studied period – a rigid regulation of activity of religious associations, large-scale scientific and atheistic work, control of observance of performance of the legislation on cults, restriction of financial activity of religious groups, etc.
Mol'kin A.N. - Some Aspects of the 'Revival' of Islam in Russia (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 120-130

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.2.10335

Abstract: Object of research - the reasons and prerequisites (internal and external), forms of manifestation of a phenomenon of Islamic "revival" in the USSR / Post-Soviet Russia (activization of confessional practice of Muslims - increase in ceremonialism, growth of number of petitions from believers in various instances, etc., restoration of mosques, training of new shots of attendants of an Islamic cult, formation of system of Islamic education and education, etc.) at regional level - in the Penza region in the late eighties - the 1990th. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles were chosen: a) objectivity; b) historicism; c) systemacities, d) the objective account social and personal in an object of research and the most possible neutralization of the subjective relation of the researcher at an assessment and interpretation of the facts. Except the methodological principles in work the special and historical principles were used: comparative-historical, updatings, problem and chronological, diakhronny; also general scientific principles: structural and system, statistical, the classifications, allowed to analyse evolution of the state and Islamic relations to consider советско / the Russian Moslem in a complex of its components, to analyze and compare various data for determination of the main features and intrinsic characteristics.New sources have been introduced in science and and that allowed to draw the following conclusions:- process of basic changes begins with the middle of the 1980th in the USSR in a context of reorganization in the relations between the state and church, limits on activity of the confessional associations, operating for many years that created conditions for active involvement of believing citizens and their religious organizations in social and economic and spiritual life of the country were gradually lifted. In the second half of the 1980th considerable surge in religiousness in the country, caused, first of all, by crisis of the Russian society - social, economic, political and moral was observed. Besides, a certain role in this phenomenon was played by discredit and withdrawal pains dominating in the society of socialist ideals and values. Change of a vector of cultural and moral reference points in mass consciousness of the population promoted revaluation of a role and a religion place in society, positioning it, first of all, as a phenomenon of world and national culture, as a moral support of society. Serious value had also crash of system of atheistic education. However deideologization process in the country went very roughly, the Soviet management had no accurate program and in general understanding of democratization of the country. Contacts of the state and confessional associations, including Muslim, often had spontaneous character, were under the influence of tactical political situations and sometimes personal interests.- from the 1990th the process of Islamic "revival" that was expressed, first of all, in growth of religious consciousness, active revival of Islamic ceremonialism, increase in quantity of mosques, folding of system of religious education, etc. began. The impulse to the Islamic Renaissance was external and was a consequence, first of all, activity of the secular authorities, on the one hand, and weakening of the central power in the years of reorganization, with another.
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