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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 01/2014
Contents of Issue № 01/2014
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Butenko Y.N. - The Main Aspects of the Relation Between Vatican and Russia During Pontificate of John Paul II pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.1.10230

Abstract: The second half of the XX century is characterized with the global political transformations and the crisis of ideologies that had been dominating throughout the century. Ideologies were replaced with religion and religion started to play a significant role as never before. One of the main global actors was the Catholic Church represented by Vatican. Vatican gained its status of the global 'moral' leader during the pontificate of John Paul II who took an active part in the life of the global community. During his pontificate that lasted since 1978 till 2005, the Eastern Europe became one of the main targets of the foreign policy followed by the Holy See. Political and religious interest of Vatican in the dialogue with the states of the region was mostly caused by the deepening of the integration processes in Europe and associated ecumenism-related policy of the Pope.  Vatican's political relations with Russia after the breakup of the Soviet Union were in the sidelines while the inter-confessional relations prevailed. Vatican had rather unstable and unsuccessful relations wit the Orthodox Church. The author of the article analyzes the obstacles interfering with the dialogue between the leading Christian churches in Europe. The long-term pontificate of John Paul II made a number of serious changes in the relation between Vatican and Russia. However, a number of issues related to their relation was still left unsolved. 
Historical time and space
Koroleva L., . - Religious Beliefs of the Soviet Population in 1960 - 1980 (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 17-23

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.1.10344

Abstract: The object of the author of the article is to arrange for the research of religiousness of the population in the USSR for the purpose of scientific justification of process of an ateization of the Soviet people; level of religiousness of the population of the USSR in the 1960-1980th (commission of various ceremonies, social and demographic characteristics of believers, a national identity, etc.) on the basis of sociological researches of inhabitants of the Penza region. The Penza region was typical regional formation of the Central Russia. The main tendencies of religiousness of the population, activity of believers, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country are rather accurately traced on the example of the Penza region, having thus the specifics. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles of objectivity were chosen; historicism; the systemacities, the full account social and subjective in an object of research and the greatest possible neutralization of the prejudiced relation of the scientist at interpretation and an assessment of the facts. The principles of social and psychological approach and the principle of a correctness and tactfulness in an assessment of the actual material were as far as possible applied. Novelty of research is that religiousness of the population in the USSR in the 1960-1980th is for the first time studied. on the example of inhabitants of the Penza region; - in a scientific turn the layer of specific archival sources which wasn't demanded earlier owing to various reasons is introduced for the first time.Conclusions:- from the point of view of religiousness of the population the Penza edge represented obviously unsuccessful region: the area surpassed all in level of religious ceremonialism the others of Central Volga Area;- religiousness of the population of the Penza region continued to remain stable and rather high for the 1960-1980th.
Social history
Nikulin V.V. - Social and Legal Aspects of Anti-Corruption Enforcement in the Soviet Russia (the 1920th) pp. 24-61

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.1.749

Abstract: The author of the article investigates the experience of fight against corruption in the Soviet Russia in the 1920th years against the developed new economic relations (New Economic Policy) and the analysis of legislative and law-enforcement actions of the power counteracting. The main attention is paid to counteraction to bribery, as to the most characteristic manifestation of corruption. Various aspects of manifestations of bribery and specific actions of the authorities on its minimization are considered. It is claimed that experience of fight against corruption in the 1920th years testifies that, despite drastic legislative measures, corruption in the form of bribery appeared the unbeaten phenomenon of the Soviet-Russian reality, remaining the most essential component of nomenclature crime. Is shown that corruption changed and continued to exist. The bribe during strengthening of fight against it becomes latent, sophisticated, with attraction of the whole chain of intermediaries and use of the hidden methods of receiving. The conclusion that corruption was in many respects generated by the system is drawn and "military and bureaucratic dictatorship" generated them. Dictatorship promoted development of psychology of impunity of the nomenclature, aggravated with system of its withdrawal from punishment, destruction morally - moral principles of society that led to elimination of constraining motives of behavior. The situation was aggravated with low cultural level in the mass of the Soviet officials, the mutual responsibility reigning in the nomenclature environment, negative attitude to the law and confidence that received material benefits from a held post – deserved remuneration of the winner. Without having before revolution in what Russia - or especially recognized high situation, Bolsheviks, having come to the power, reached the highest position in the Russian society. Is shown as the consciousness of own exclusiveness easily turned into permissiveness. Situation was aggravated with lack of independent judicial system that generated low efficiency of national vessels, corruption of judges didn't allow to use the most important principle of punishment – its inevitability, to use all legal potential of the prevention and bribery eradication. The author comes to a conclusion about need for fight against corruption of application of a package of measures of legal, economic, moral character is constant and precautionary influencing potential corrupt officials.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Korolev A.A., ., . - Islamic Religious Leaders of the Middle Volga Region in 1940 - 1980 pp. 62-77

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.1.10346

Abstract: The subject matter of the research is the structure of Muslim clergy (age criterion, an education level, etc.), activity of attendants of an Islamic cult (the organizational device, religious practice, elements of modernization of a cult, etc.), the main directions of the Soviet state and religious policy concerning Islam in the 1940-1980th at regional level - on the average the Volga region. Multinational and polyconfessional Central Volga Area was typical regional formation of Russia. The main tendencies in activity of confessional associations, as a whole, Muslim, in particular, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country were rather accurately traced on the example of multinational Central Volga Area, having thus the specifics. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles were chosen: a) objectivity; b) historicism; c) systemacities, d) the objective account social and personal in an object of research and the most possible neutralization of the subjective relation of the researcher at an assessment and interpretation of the facts. Novelty of research is that for the first time the special massif of archival sources which earlier wasn't demanded owing to the various reasons is introduced into scientific circulation; the main directions and forms of activity of Muslim clergy in the USSR in the 1940-1980th on the example of Central Volga Area are revealed. Conclusions.The Muslim clergy of Central Volga Area was characterized by the high age qualification and a low education level, as the general, and spiritual. In some villages in connection with small number of priests of Islam of their duty foreign persons or old men-babai carried out. The mullah, especially in rural areas, enjoyed indisputable authority that was expressed and in a material form. The Muslim clergy developed vigorous activity, applying the most various methods of work among the population. The most important element of religious practice of an Islamic cult was the sermon. The Muslim clergy of the Middle Volga region was guided by the maximum adaptation of ideology of Islam and activity of religiousness of associations to conditions of socialist society, modernization of religious doctrines of the Koran, rapprochement of the social and moral principles of Islam and communism, religion and culture. Mullahs, being in the main weight tolerant concerning the Soviet power, nevertheless sometimes entered open opposition, as on fundamental questions of belief (mainly, in Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Kuibyshev area), so sometimes and from mercenary motives.
Discussion and debate
Shamparov A.I. - About Numbers, Literally pp. 78-103

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.1.8117

Abstract: The article presents the results of the research of a problem of the invention of the Cyrillic alphabet – contains the short historical background, analyzes a graphic component of a phenomenon of formation of alphabetic and tsifirny writing in Russia and offers and illustrates the version differing from existing by completeness and visual unambiguity.The version gives the exact answer to a question: why our letters on the tracing the such. It reveals that circumstance that graphemes of letters and figures are related, and so, there is a right to believe one phenomenon generation and development of another. Making a start from the fact of minimization of a set of elements of any digital sign and the general completeness of a digital row as closed system, the version determines tsifirny graphemes by legislative base (style) in logic of construction new, alphabetic. Using a priority, most extended, duodecimal digital order as shows research, inventors of the alphabet designed a sign for a necessary sound and their necessary quantity by means of the minimum transformations of graphemes to the affiliated. I fell work of creation of three new, truly Russian signs to lot of authors of Cyrillics; value of the last in many respects key, and in article about it is told separately. Authors knew or opened for itself a code of the European alphabets, - a question insignificant and not large-scale in the light of globality of consequences carried out by them. It is important to us who in many respects have lost communication with meanwhile, to be sure that the creation of the minds which have created so perfect system, - and Cyrillics certainly such is, - isn't inexplicable spontaneous, but on the contrary: in each detail it is reasonable, logical, strong.The method, in a popular statement of research a little polemic, occurs from that circumstance that interest to so important problem didn't lead while to clear idea of it though to permission her experts of the different directions there is many approach attempts. The offered material by definition and also because touches on issues of history of creation of the Latin directly connected with the Russian Cyrillic alphabet, can't have any accurately outlined and, especially, limited address or quantitative audience. Reference of this subject to sections of Historical researches or Pedagogics and educations will be also pertinent, as well as to the section Culture and art.
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