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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 05/2013
Contents of Issue № 05/2013
Historical time and space
Nikulin V.V. - Justice and Politics: the Balance Between Politics and Law in the Soviet System of Punishment pp. 1-59

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.5.747

Abstract: In this article conceptual views of theorists of Marxism-Leninism of a policy and right ratio are considered. The author of the article analyzes interrelation of the political doctrine of the Bolshevism with system of punishments, concrete manifestations of class policy in the system of punishments existing in the Soviet Russia in the 1920th years are shown. It is proved that in the Soviet Russia the politized right defined also class approach to definition of the principles of system of punishments. At class approach motivational action of punishment significantly decreased that inevitably influenced crime increase among "the classes". Steady templates of legal behavior, the relation to the law, generally nigilistic character were formed. The impunity and permissiveness atmosphere that conducted to the conflict of social behavior and a class association was created. It is claimed that the criminal and legal reform which is given out as revolutionary change of all criminal orientation of the Soviet right and law-enforcement system, embodied in UK RSFSR of 1926, didn't change essence of legal policy, having kept in it lines of the repressive character which has amplified to signs of legitimate terror in the late twenties. And emergency criminal measures of punishment came true various socially – the political significant reasons for a justification of ill treatment of own citizens.It is noted that the institute of legal responsibility in the Soviet Russia had unambiguously class character. It was considered to be the basis of legal responsibility not only an offense, but also socially dangerous condition of the personality. The nature of punishment in many respects was defined not by the principle of justice, and political purposefulness. 
History and historical science
Khristinich I.V. - Execution of the Fire Safety Law Under the Prosecutor's Supervision Over 300 Years pp. 60-71

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.5.9243

Abstract: It is well known that the prosecution authorities have started to significantly influence the level of legitimacy in Russia since the very moment those authorities were created. Prosecutors deal with all legal spheres of life activities including fire safety. In the pre-revolutionary Russia fire safety was already controlled by prosecutors along with the issues of national security. The main goal was to inform the authorities about all incidents of fire and fire safety measures. In the pre-revolutionary period all fire safety agencies and organizations were under the supervision of prosecution agencies. The main regulatory and administrative documents of the Prosecutor General of the USSR describe the following directions of prosecution supervision in the sphere of fire safety: supervision of the execution of laws by administrative agencies conducting preventive maintenance and fire safety investigations, control over the execution of orders and instructions and supervision of the execution of laws on responsibility for violation of fire safety rules. Based on this insight into the history, the author of the article makes a conclusion that as an independent activity, prosecutor's supervision over the execution of fire safety rules started to form at the post-socialist period of Russian history. 
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Petrov Y.I. - The Problems of the Establishment and Development of the Institution of Assessors in Russia in the Late XIX Century pp. 72-103

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.5.9202

Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical background of Nicolay Bunge's tax reform. The author of the article describes particular activities and measures aimed at elimination of the old taxes and introduction of the new taxes that would increase the taxation efficiency, expand the scope of persons paying taxes and change the social composition of taxpayers. The author also analyzes the status of fiscal management in Russia of the late XIX century. He underlines that the tax control was quite weak in those times and this is why the institution of assessors was created. The author describes the process of formation of the institution as a local financial control body. He also analyzes the legal base of activities performed by the new institution and touches upon the changes in its structure as well as the reasons causing these changes. Special attention is paid to human resources at such institutions, education of assessors as well as their service, promotion in rank and incentives. Much emphasis is mae on the question about the process of interaction between assessors and other local executive authorities. The author underlines the peculiar role and great significance of assessors in achieving targets of tax reforms in the late XIX - early XX centuries. 
Social history
Kenya I.A. - Charity By Russian Tzars in Russian Province pp. 104-119

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.5.9136

Abstract: The article is devoted to different directions of charity activities by the Romanov dynasty both at the levels of Russia and Russian provinces based on the example of Bryansk Region in the Orlov county. The author describes the main forms of charity by the royal dynasty in Russian province such as donations to monasteries and churches, donations to citizens, support of schools and orphanages. The author provides historical facts about visits of the royal family to the Bryansk Region. The article describes visits of the Peter the First and Alexander the First to Bryansk and Nicolas the Second to Bezhitsa and how these visits were reflected in the cultural monuments. A special part of the article is devoted to Mikhail Romanov's estate and his charity activities. Much attention is paid to the relations of famous donators of the Bryansk industry I. S. Maltsev, P. I. Gubonin, S. S. Mogilevtsev and M. K. and V. N. Tenishevs with the governors of the Russian Empire. 
Beliefs, religions, churches
Koroleva L., ., . - Relationship between Government and Orthodox Church in the USSR During 'Reconstruction' (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 120-130

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.5.9348

Abstract: In article evolution of the state and confessional relations at regional level - on the example of Russian Orthodox Church in the Penza region in 1985-1991 is analyzed. The state religious policy of this period continued to adhere to the Lenin principles concerning religion: the religious outlook admitted a prejudice, tasks of strengthening of atheistic work of the authorities were staticized. The representative of Council for the Penza region continued the activity in a former format; atheistic literature was issued. In the Penza region active work on replacement of religious holidays and ceremonies from the Soviet life was still carried out. In the region activity of the commissions of assistance to control of observance of the legislation on religious cults considerably amplified.At the same time in the state and orthodox relations some moments of liberalization were traced. Procedure of registration of the religious organizations was simplified. And though in the Penza region the number of orthodox churches and houses of worship until the end of the 1980th remained a constant, but the number of the registered priests of an orthodox cult gradually increased. The number of believers increased, their educational level, as well as at local orthodox clergy increased. Some temples were returned to the Penza diocese. Certain changes in the plan of liberalization of the state and church relations were traced, but as a whole the deideologization current went to the USSR very roughly, the Soviet management had no accurate program and as a whole understanding of essence and the mechanism of democratization of the country.
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