Man and Culture - rubric Arts and crafts
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Arts and crafts"
Arts and crafts
Berezina E. - The town in the snuff-box: the image of a city in the Russian and Soviet lacquer miniature pp. 1-13


Abstract: Based on the visual material of the collection “Russian lacquer miniature” of the Russian Museum of Decorative-Applied and Folk Art, the author examines the gallery of city images in the Russian and Soviet lacquer miniature, as well as suggest the original typology of images, locating them between the poles of the “real” and “utopic”. The images of the city panoramas were analyzed in the context of the replacing each other “regimes of vision” and supported by the power of technologies territories. The author describes the changed in the approaches towards representation of the urban space in the lacquer art, as well as follows the transformations the image of a city in perception of its residents. From the methodological perspective, the author bases herself upon the principles of visual research and structures the analysis of the content of images taking into account the social context of their existence. This work develops the tradition of studying the subjects with lacquer paining as a part of the Russian and Soviet material culture. Along with the introduction into the scientific discourse of the new visual historical sources, the result of the research consists in the fixation of the accompanying the change of historical eras dynamic of the visual culture, which is expressed in expansion of the “principles of vision” of the urban space, as well as the types of its imagery on the subjects with the lacquer miniature painting.
Unezheva Z., Sultanova A.M. - Womens national belt of the late XVIII the early XIX centuries pp. 27-30


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the belts to the women’s clothes of the late XVIII – the early XIX centuries. The authors conduct an analysis on designing the women’s national belt of this period from the fund of the National Historical Museum of Nalchik. Women’s clothes is directly associated with the ornamental art, particularly with jewelry accessories. Women’s belts are being studied by several different aspects: by shape, size, varieties of ornaments, designing techniques, etc. The meaning and role of belt in the life of Cherkess women is being examined. The method of this research is the study of reconstruction, designing technique and varieties of the women’s national belt, the analogue of which became the belt from the fund of the National Historical Museum of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The authors conclude that the silver belt were able to afford only the women from wealthy families; young ladies wore narrow belts, while the wide ones were more suitable for the status of older women. With the transformation of women’s clothes, takes place the design modification of the belt. It lost its functionality; the contemporary seamstresses simplified the shape of the belt. The world currently undergoes the processes of globalization, as well as experiences changes in the design of the ancient wares.  
Lavrov D.E. - P. D. Bazhenov, I. K. Balakin, V. A. Belov the artists-innovators in Russian lacquer crafts of the XX century pp. 38-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of works of the three prominent artists of various Russian manufacturing centers of lacquer miniatures of the XX century – P. D. Bazhenov (Palekh), I. K. Balakin (Mstyora), V. A. Belov (Kholuy). The goal of this article consists in the attempt to create a “comparative biography" of the artists of various lacquer crafts, as well as demonstrate fruitful work of the miniaturist-innovator in different fields of art that are not a part of the traditional folk art. Among the manifestations of such innovation, the author indicates that the listed miniature artists found themselves in other fields of fine art, such as easel paintings, stage performance, posters, caricatures. The application of biographical method of research allows focusing attention on experimentation and innovation as the key feature that unites all three masters of lacquer crafts: P. D. Bazhenov in Palekh (1930s), I. K. Balakin in Mstyora (1940s – 1950s), V. A. Belov in Kholuy (1960s – 1970s). The scientific novelty lies in studying the practices of implementation of peculiarities of the aforementioned types of art in the works of lacquer miniatures. The main conclusion consists in the fundamental provision on justification of the artistic pursuit by any artist of folk art, which was oppugned during the Soviet period of the history of Russian folk art.
Safronova E.M. - Moscow period of creativity of the ceramic artist P. K. Vaulin (1890-1903) pp. 47-57


Abstract: The subject of the study is the stylistic features and means of artistic expression of architectural majolica by Pyotr Kuzmich Vaulin. The object of the study is the actual architectural and artistic ceramics of P.K. Vaulin on the facades of buildings in Moscow at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, as an object of cultural heritage. The author examines in detail the Moscow period of the master's activity, designates the circle of artists who worked with the ceramist, analyzes the phenomenon of the Abramtsevo art circle and its influence on the formation of P.K. Vaulin. Special attention is paid to the workshop in Abramtsevo, as a real art center and a source of the formation of a national romantic trend in fine and decorative arts, as well as the most significant architectural monuments of Moscow using majolica decor performed by P.K. Vaulin.The theoretical and methodological basis of the article was scientific works on the theory and history of art, aesthetics, psychology of art and philosophy. The method of compositional-artistic analysis, the comparative-descriptive method and the method of figurative-stylistic analysis were applied to consider the means of artistic expressiveness of architectural ceramics, the compositional interaction of materials and space, the study of style-forming and form-forming features of ceramics. As a result of the research, the author concludes that the direct participation of professional artists in the practice of Russian decorative and applied art at the end of the XIX century seriously influenced the development of applied art and attracted the attention of the world community, thus contributing to the progress and high importance of this art direction in the system of fine arts. The analysis of the architectural works given in the article allows us to call P.K. Vaulin a co-author of ceramic works created by artists of the Mamontov circle. The scientific novelty of the research consists in a comprehensive study of P.K. Vaulin's creativity of the Moscow period of activity in the field of facade ceramics, as well as figurative, stylistic and artistic analysis of the master's works.
Zheleznyak O.E., Akinfeeva I.I. - Ethnonational specificities of Buryat costume as identification elements of the image souvenirs products of Buryatia. pp. 88-104


Abstract: The object of this research is the traditional Buryat costume, peculiarities of its current existence as an identity system in modern space of the global worldview and transnational cultures. The subject of this study is the specificity of using the unique features of Buryat costume as a source of autochthonous characteristics of the "place" in creating the souvenir gifts. The thoroughly examine such aspects, as color and ornament in the national Buryat costume, and their role in revealing the authenticity Buryat culture. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of regional souvenir products in the context of researching the problems of cultural identity, images of ancestral ethnic costume, which are used for creating the image souvenir products of Buryatia, reflecting the actual specifics of the "place", rather than “imaginary identities”. Methods of comparative-historical, ethnographic analysis and marketing research applied during the course of this research allow collecting the extensive ethnic material, review a diverse assortment of products presented in the souvenir market of Ulan-Ude and the republic, as well as compare the original models of traditional clothes and samples of souvenirs depicting the national costume elements and/or ethnic images. The scientific novelty consists in the highlighted ethnonational features of the costume, color systems and the specifics of ornamental decoration, most popular elements Buryat clothing, tranlated as the identifying codes, as well as their interpretation in souvenir products. An important role is also played by the tribal differences of a costume as a distinct “identifier” that allows distinguishing the ethnic images, including in souvenir products. Using the individual characteristics of Buryat costume in manufacturing souvenir products will provide opportunity to expand the assortment of souvenirs, separate Buryat motifs from the similar Mongolian, as well as achieve deeper “association” with the culture of this region, turning souvenirs into the image products of the “place”.
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